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Full text of "Introduction to the study of Latin inscriptions"

'[_3 1924 075 494 371 _ 







^ Cornell University 
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BT 



JAMES C. EGBERT, Jr., 

IFESSOR OF KOMAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND 
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



COPTEISHT, 1896, BY 

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY. 



EGBERT'S LAT. INS. 
W. P. 6 



PREFACE 



It has been generally recognized by classical scholars of the present 
day that a knowledge of epigraphy forms an essential part of the 
equipment of a teacher of the classics, and that the subject itself has 
become so important as to justify its introduction, in elementary 
form at least, into the curriculum of undergraduate studies. Not- 
withstanding this general recognition, however, no w;ork in the 
English language which would serve as an introduction to the stvidy 
of Latin inscriptions has up to the present time been published. It 
is to supply this want that the following pages have been written. 

The purpose determining the plan of the work has been to com- 
bine abundant introductory and explanatory matter with numerous 
examples for illustration and for practice in reading. The inscrip- 
tions, with the> single exception of those from movable articles, 
have been printed in the type ordinarily used for Latin texts, since 
this form has been considered more satisfactory than any attempt 
at a typographical imitation of the original letters. Numerous 
photographic reproductions have been made from the fac-similes of 
Eitschl's Priscae Latinitatis Monumenta EpigrapMca and from the 
exempla in Hilbner's Exempla Scripturae EpigrapMcae, in order to 
impress in some degree upon the student the original form and 
appearance of the inscription. 

The debt of the author to the works of other writers is of necessity 
very great. Whenever another's writings have been directly used. 



iv PREFACE 

acknowledgment has been made in the footnotes ; but for assistance 
obtained from many other sources not noted, the author wishes here 
to express himself as deeply grateful. 

The Cours d'Epigraphie Latine of Professor Eene Cagnat has been 
of the utmost service and has, in fact, formed the basis of this work in 
many particulars. The author has also relied for much of his infor- 
mation upon the Prolegomena of Professor Emil Hiibner's Exempla 
Scripturae JEpigrapMcae and upon the same scholar's article, Bomische 
EpigrapMk in Iwan Miiller's Handbuch der Klassischen Altertums- 
wissenschaft, vol. i., 1892. To Professor Hermann Dessau the 
author is indebted for material obtained from his Inscriptiones 
Latinae Selectae, vol i., and also for his kind words in regard to 
the preparation of this volume. 

In passing this book through the press the author has been greatly 
aided by his friends and associates. 

Professor Harry Thurston Peck has read much of the proof and 
has made possible the author's task by his encouragement and by 
his advice, so valuable because of wide experience. 

Dr. Nelson Glenn McCrea has read the entire proof and has 
in many instances, in connection with this kindly service, given 
renewed proof of his scholarship. Mr. George Olcott, a Fellow of 
this College, has been of most valuable service, inasmuch as he has 
prepared and verified the Chronological List of the Eoman Emperors. 
The index is also the work of Mr. Olcott. 

The author earnestly hopes that this volume will prove to many 
the open door to a subject so remarkable in its influence upon classi- 
cal and archaeological study and at the same time so interesting 

and attractive in its pursuit. 

JAMES C. EGBERT, Jr. 
Columbia College, December, 1895. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION 

PAax 
Bibliography ; Periodical Literature ; Corpus Insoriptlonum Latmarum . 1 



Part I 

CHAPTER I 

The Latin Alphabet (Historicai,) 

Phoenician and Greelt Alphabets ; Etruscan, Umbrian, Oscan, and Latin 
Alphabets ; Modifications in the Latin Alphabet ; Double Consonants ; 
Double "Vowels 17 

CHAPTER n 

The Latin Alphabet (Morphological) 

Archaic Alphabet ; Monumental Alphabet of the Republic ; Monumental 
Alphabet Perfected ; Documentary Forms ; Cursive Letters ; Uncial 
Letters ; Methods of Making Inscriptions ; Individual Letters ; Liga- 
tures ; Sicilicus, Apex, Marks of Punctuation 31 

CHAPTER m 

Numerals 

Numerals ; Fractions 72 

V 



vi CONTENTS 



Paet II 

CHAPTER IV 

The Roman Name 

PAGE 

Praenomen ; Nomen ; Cognomen ; Names of Women ; Beduplication of 
Names ; Signa ; Additional Elements ; Names of Slaves ; Names of 
Freedmen ; Naturalized Citizens ; Inscriptions for Practice . . 82 

CHAPTER V 

Names and Titles oi' the Empbeoes 

Elements of the Imperial Name ; Title of the Emperors ; Titles of Mem- 
bers of the Imperial Family ; Chronological List of the Koman Em- 
perors ; Inscriptions of Emperors and their Families .... 114 

CHAPTER VI 

> Oppicial Titles 

Cursus Honorum — Senatorial, Equestrian, after Constantine; Official Po- 
sitions of the Third Class ; Inscriptions of the Senatorial Order, of 
the Equestrian Order, of Officials of the Third Class .... 164 

Paet III 

CHAPTER Vn 

TlTULI 

Dedicatory, Sepulchral, Honorary Inscriptions ; Inscriptions on Public 

Works ; Inscriptions on Movable Objects ; Inscriptions for Practice . 225 

CHAPTER Vin 

Documents 

Laws and Plebiscites ; Decrees of the Senate ; Imperial Documents ; De- 
crees of Magistrates ; Public and Sacred Documents ; Military Docu- 
ments ; Documents of the Municipalities ; Documents of the Collegia ; 
Private Documents ; Wall Inscriptions ; Inscriptions for Practice . 348 



CONTENTS vii 

CHAPTER IX 
Eestoeation and Dating of Inscriptions. Abbreviations 

PAGE 

Eestoration ; Dating ; Table of Archaisms ; Table of Legions ; Table of 

Imperial Relationships ; Abbreviations 399 

Table of Abbreviations 417 

Index 461 

Table or Inscriptions 465 

Supplement .... 469 



INTRODUCTION 



To a beginner in the study of Epigraphy, the most important 
matters for consideration are the works which provide material for 
research, and the metliod which should be followed in approaching 
fthis material. 

The great storehouse of Latin inscriptions is the Corpus Inscrip- 
tionum Latinarum,^ which is indispensable for advanced study in- this 
subject; but notwithstanding the importance of this great work, 
certain minor collections of inscriptions are more useful to the 
elementary student and for class-room use. 

The first of these is the valuable Collectio of Orelli and Henzen : 

Inscriptionum Latinarmn AmpUs'sima Collectio. lo. C. Orellius. 

2 vols. Zurich, 1828. VoL III. is by W. Henzen : - 
Volumen Tertium Collectionis Orellianae supplementa emenda- 

tionesque exhibens. Ed. Guil. Henzen. Zurich, 1856. 
The last volume contains indices to the entire work. 

The most serviceable collection of inscriptions for general use is : 

Exempla Inscriptionum Latinarum in ustim praecipue academi- 
cum. Gustavus Wilmanns. 2 vols. Berlin, 1873. 

This work contains inscriptions conveniently classified, with 
Latin notes ; also excellent indices. 

1 C. I. L. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum Consilio et Auctoritate Academiae 
Litterarum Eegiae Borussicae, Editum. See page 6. 

LATIN INSCKIP. — 1 1 



2 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

For those -who are unable to consult the Corpus Inscriptionum, a 
more recent work will provide well-selected inscriptions in greater 
number than the collection just mentioned. This collection is based 
upon material gathered by William Henzen. 

Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae. Ed. Hermannus Dessau. Vol. I. 
Berlin, 1892. 

For the study of early Latin, the following will be found to be 
serviceable : 

t)ialectorum Italicarum Aevi Vetustioris Exempla Selecta in usum 
scholarum. Vol. I. Dialecti Latinae Priscae et Faliscae 
Exempla Selecta. Pars 1. Engelbertus Schneider. Leip- 
zig, 1886. 
Fragments and Specimens of Early Latin. J. Wordsworth. 

Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1874. 
Bemnants of Early Latin. F.D.Allen. Boston, 1880. 

For a presentation of the inscriptions themselves the student is 
referred to two great works, one of which gives inscriptions in fac- 
simile, the other by "exempla." 

The first of these is the large folio of F. Kitschl, containing 
inscriptions from the earliest period down to the beginning of the 
Empire. It is regularly denoted by the letters P. L. M. E. 

Priscae Latinitatis Monumenta EpigrapJiicd ad archetyporum 

fidem exemplis lithographis repraesentata. Ed. Fr. Eitsche- 

lius. Berlin, 1862. 
There are five supplements, which were originally published at 

Bonn in 1862. They are also found in Eitschl's Opuscula 

PMlologica, vol. IV. 1878. 

The second of these is : 

Exempla Scripturae Epigraphicae Latinae a Gaesaris dictatoris 

morteadaetatemjustiniani. Ed. Aem. Hiibner. Berlin, 1885. 
In this book there is a complete introduction in Latin, and over 

twelve hundred inscriptions with commentary. As the 

title indicates, this Exempla is a complement to the work 

of Kitschl, just mentioned. 



INTRODUCTION S 

As introductory to the study of Inscriptions, the student is re- 
ferred to two short works of Emil Hiibner : (1) The article entitled 
" Roman Inscriptions " in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. XIII. 
9th ed. This wUl form excellent preliminary reading. A resume 
of the subject is presented in a form easily understood. (2) The 
article "Eomische Epigraphik" in the Handbuch der Klassischen 
AltertumswissenscJiaft, Iwan Miiller, vol. I. 1886, 2d ed. 1892. This 
provides a bibliography of the collection of inscriptions and an 
Lutroduction to the subject more complete than the article in the 
Britannica. 

This last work is also published separately. 

The only complete introduction to Latin Epigraphy is : 

Cours d'Epigraphie Latine. Kend Cagnat. 1st ed., Paris, 1886. 

2d ed., Paris, 1890. 
This is an exceedingly useful book. 

A little book abounding in. excellent suggestions, containing in- 
scriptions in illustration, is : 



Anleitung zum Lesen, Erganzen und Datiren Romischer Inschrif- 

ten. Karl Bone. Treves, 1881. 
This work refers in the m8,in to Khenish inscriptions. 

For the study of Christian Inscriptions : 

Manuel d'Epigraphie Chritienne d'apr&s les Marbres de la Gaule. 
Edmond Le Blant. Paris, 1869. 

Also, by the same author : 
L'EpigrapMe Chritienne en Gaule el dans I'Afrique. Paris, 1890. 

For historical inscriptions, illustrating the history of the early 
empire : 

Latin Historical Inscriptions. G. McN. Eushforth. Oxford, 
1893. 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



Peeiodical Literature 



To study inscriptions properly, one must keep pace with the growth 
of the subject, as new material is constantly being added. To accom- 
plish this purpose, familiarity with periodical literature must be 
maintained. The following are the principal periodicals bearing' 
upon this subject : 

1) A running supplement to the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum is 
t-'- published at intervals. 

Ephemeris Epigrapliica (Ephem. Ep.). Vols. I.-IX. Berlin, 
1892. 

2) Mitteilungen des Kaiserlichen Deutschem, Archaeologischen Insti- 

tuts, Romische Abteilung. Loescher & Co. Eome, 1886. 
This is known also as : 
Bullettino dell' Imperiale Istituto Archeologico Oermanico. 

3) Hermes, Zeitschrift fur Klassische PMlologie. Kaibel and Kobert. 

Berlin, 1866. 

4) Rheinisclies Museum fur PMlologie. Eibbeck and Biicheler. 

Erank'furt, 1833. Neue Folge, 1842. 

5) Jalirhiicher des Vereins von AUertumsfreunden im Rheinlande. 

Bonn, 1842. 

6) Die Westdeutsche Zeitschrift fur Geschichte und Kunst. Treves, 

1882. 

7) ArchdologiscJirepigraphische Mitteilungen aus Oesterreich-Ungam. 

Vienna, 1877. 

8) Revue Epigraphique du Midi de la France. A. Allmer. 7 vols. 

Vienna, 1878-92. 

9) Revue ArcMologique} Paris, 1884. 

10) Milanges d'ArcMologie et d'Histoire Publiispar VEcole Frangaise 
de Rome. Paris, 1881. 

1 For recent discoveries see Hevue des publications epigraphiques relatives & 
Vantiquite romaine. R. Cagnat. This forms an appendix to the Bevue 
Archeologique ; also appears annually as V Annie Epigraphique, dating from 
the year 1888. 



INTRODUCTION 5 

11) Bulletin de Gorrespondance Hellenique. 1877. 
This is the organ of the French School at Athens. 

_ 12) Notizie degli Scavi di Anticliitd, Comunicate alia Becde Accademia 
dei Lincei} Rome, 1890. 

13) Museo Italiano d' Antichitd, Classica. By Domenico Comparetti. 

Eome, 1885-90. Vols. I.-III. 
This publication was discontinued with vol. III., and was suc- 
ceeded by the Monumenti Anticlii. 

14) American Journal of Archaeology, and of the History of the Fine 

Arts. Baltimore, 1885. 

15) Por Christian Inscriptions : 

Bullettino d' Archeologia Cristiana. G. B. de Rossi. Rome, 1863. 

16) Dizionario Epigrafico di Autichitll Romane. Hector De Ruggiero. 

Rome, 1886. Thirty-two fasciculi have appeared. 

Bibliography of the Collections of Latin Inscbiptions 

To obtain a knowledge of the history of Latin Epigraphy, the 
student is referred to the following ; 

J. C. Oeelli : Index Praecipuonim Lihrorum Epigraphicorum 
aliorumque inscriptiones Latinas continentium. 

This is found in the first volume of the Inscriptiones Latinae of 
Orelli, page 21, and in the third volume by Henzen, page xv. 

R. DE LA Blanohbke : Histoire de VEpigraphie Romaine, redigee 
sur les notes de Leon Renter in the Revue Archeologique, 
nouv. ser. VIII. 1886, page 46. Also in a separate volume, 
Paris, 1887. 

Corpus Inscriptioiium Latinarwm. Prefaces to vols. II.-XIV. 

G. B. DE Rossi : Inscriptiones Christianae Urhis Romae Septimo 
Saeculo Antiquiores. Prefaces to vols. I. -II. 

1 Inscriptions of the city of Rome also appear in the Bullettino della Com- 
missione Archeologica Comunnle di Boma from 1872. (Bull. Com.) 



6 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Emil HiJBNEK: 1. Bihliograpliie der Klassischen Altertumswis- 
senschafi. Berlin, 1889. Part II., page 354. 

2. Article " Eomische Epigraphik " in the Handbuch der Klass- 
iscJien Altertumswissenschaft. Iwan Miiller. Vol. I. 1886. 
2d ed. 1892. 

J. P. Waltzing: Becueil GSniral des Inscriptions Latines, et 
I'JEpigraphie Latine depuis 50 ans. Louvain, 1892. 

This work gives an account of the Goipus Inscriptionum, and a 
bibliography of Latin inscriptions. 



CORPUS INSCEIPTIONUM LATINARUM 

This great collection of Latin inscriptions, published under the 
supervision of the Eoyal Prussian Academy at Berlin, is arranged on 
a geographical basis in fifteen volumes. Each of these volumes with 
the exception of the first, in which are published the inscriptions 
dating before the death of Caesar, is assigned to the inscriptions 
derived from a certain portion of the Roman world. The general 
plan may be seen from the following : 

VoLUMBN I. Inscriptions dating before the death of Caesar. Editio 
prima, 1863 (out of print). Editio altera. Pars prior, 1893. 
Tabulae Lithographae. Priscae Latinitatis Monumenta Epi- 
graphica, 1862. 

VoLUMBN II. Inscriptions of Spain, 1869. 

SUPPLBMENTUM, 1892. 

VoLUMBN III. inscriptions of Asia (Egypt), of the Greek Provinces 
of Europe, of Illyrieum. 

Pars Prior : Inscriptions of Egypt and Asia, of the Greek Prov- 
inces of Europe, of Illyrieum. Parts I.-V. 1873. 

Pars Posterior: Inscriptions of Illyrieum, also Monumeiitum 
Ancyranum, Edict of Diocletian de Pretiis Eerum, Diplo- 
mata Militaria, Wax Tablets of Dacia. Parts VI.-VII. 
1873. 



INTRODUCTION . 7 

SuppLEMBNTi Fasciculus Primus: Inscriptions of the Greek 

Provinces of Europe. 1892. 
SupPLEMENTi Fasciculus Secundus: Inscriptions of Illyricum. 

Parts I.-III. 1892. 
SuppLEMENTi Fasciculus Tertius: Inscriptions of Illyricum. 

Edict of Diocletian. Constitutions of the Emperors (Diplo- 

mata militaria). Parts IV.-VII. 1893. 

VoLTJMEN IV. Inscriptiones Parietariae of Pompeii, Herculaneum, 
and Stabiae. 1871. 

SUPPLEMENTUM. 

VoLUMBN V. Inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul. 

Pars Prior: The tenth regio of Italy, Venetia and Istria. 

1872. 
Pars Posterior: The eleventh (Liguria) and ninth (Gallia 

Transpadana, Alpes Cottiae et Maritimae) regiones of Italy. 

1887. 

VoLUMBsr VI. Inscriptions of the City of Eome. 

Pars Prima 1876, Pars Secunda 1882, Pars Tertia 1886, Pars 
Quarta (1896), Pars Quinta, containing inscriptiones falsae, 
1885, Pars Sexta, Indices (in preparation). 

VoLTTMEN VII. Inscriptions of Britain. 1873. 

VoLUMBN VIII. Inscriptions of Africa. 

Pars Prior : Proconsular Africa, Numidia. 1881. 
Pars Posterior : Mauretania. 1881. 
SuppLEMENTi Fasciculus Prior. 1891. 
SuppLEMENTi Fasciculus Alter. 1894. 

VoLUMEN IX. Inscriptions of Calabria, Apulia, Samnium, Sabini, 
Picenum. 1883. 

VoLUMEN X. Inscriptions of Bruttium, Lucania, Campania, Sicilia, 
Sardinia. 
Pars Prior : Bruttium, Lucania, Campania. 1883. 
Pars Posterior : Sicilia. Sardinia. 1883. 



8 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

VoLUMEN XI. Inscriptions of Aemilia, Etruria, Umbria. 
Pars Prior : Aemilia, Etruria. 1888. 
Pars Posterior: Umbria (in press). 

The Accademia dei Lincei publishes supplemental volumes of 
inscriptions of Italy under the title Corporis I. L. Supplementa 
Italica, consilio et auctoritate Academiae regiae Lynceoram eclita : 

Ease. I., Additamenta ad vol. V. Galliae Cisalpinae. Ed. Hector 
Pais, Eome. 1888. 

YoLUMEN XII. Inscriptions of Gallia Narbonensis. 1888. 

VoLUMEN XIII. Inscriptions of the Three Gauls and Two Ger- 
manics. 
VoLUMEN XIV. Inscriptions of Ancient Latium. 1887. 

VoLUMEN XV. Inscriptions of the City of Eome, Instrumentum 
Domesticum. 
Pars Prior : Lateres. 1891. 
Pars Posterior (in press). 

The contents of the several volumes may be considered under 
three divisions. 

I., Introductory Matter; II., Inscriptions; III., Indices and 
Tabulae. 

I. iNTKODUCTOilY MatTEE 

At the beginning of each volume there is an Index Auctorum, 
which is an alphabetical list of the authors referred to throughout 
that volume, with more or less extensive biographical and biblio- 
graphical comment. 

II. Inscriptions 

A. False Inscriptions (indicated by an asterisk) are placed at the 
beginning of this division, and are arranged topographically, accord- 
ing to cities and towns, with a paging and numbering of their own. 
The falsae of vol. VI. are collected in Pars Quinta, and are arranged 
according to the names of the authors. 



INTRODUCTION & 

B. Valid Inscriptions are classified in three divisions. 

1. Inscriptions in general. 

2. Those connected with Viae Publicae. 

3. Instrmnentum Domesticum. 

The main body of inscriptions is arranged on geographical and 
topographical principles, by provinces as in vol. II., or by regiones 
as in vols. V., IX., X., with subdivisions according to the cities and 
towns. The several more important sections capita, e.g. those 
assigned to provinces, are introduced by historical notes, and by a 
chronological list of manuscripts and other works containing the 
inscriptions of the district, together with biographical comment and 
estimates of the epigraphic authority of the.- various editors. The 
character of the inscriptions under the title Instriomentum Domesticum, 
can be seen from the following subdivisions from vol. XII. : 

' Tegulae, Lucernae, Amphorae, Dolia, Pelvps, Vascula, Aequipondia, Statun- 
culornm formae cretaceae, Slgnacula ex aere, Sigilla meOicorum oculariorum, 
Anuli, Gemmae, Pondera, l^esserae, Vasa vitrea, Supellex aurea argentea, etc., 
Massae plumbeae, Fistulae plumbeae. 

III. Indices and Tabulae 

The Indices contain a classification of the contents of the texts 
of the inscriptions, the scope of which may be appreciated by the 
following specimen index from vol. XII. : 



Nomina virorum et muUentm. 

Cognomina virorum et mulierum. 

Imperatores. 

Beges. 

Consul.es aliaeque anni determina- 

tiones. 
Honores alii publici popuU Bomani. 
Bes militaris. 
Dei Deaeque et res sacra. 
Populus Bomanus, Tribus Bomanae. 



Provinciae, ctvitatts, pagi, vici, fluvii, 
monies, praedia, rivi, similia. 

Bes muntcipalis. 

Collegia. 

Artes St officio privata. 

Carmlna. 

Litterae singulares notahiliores. 

Crrammatica quaedam. 

Notabilia varia. 

Becensus locorum recentiorum, by 
Kiepert. 

Indices are at this time provided with vols. I., II., III., IV., V., 
VII., VIII., IX., X., XII., XIV. 



10 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Tabulae. 

Maps prepared by H. Kiepert, giving the localities from whieh 
the inscriptions are derived, with names both ancient and modern, 
are placed at the end of vols. II., III., IV., V., VII., VIII., IX., 
X., XII., XIV. 

General Economt 
Inscriptions Admitted. 

All Latin inscriptions engraved upon durable materials, such as 
stone and bronze, and also those cut or impressed upon small movable 
articles instrumentum, no matter of what character or purpose, 
are included in this work. Coins, however, are given a place in 
the first volume, but are elsewhere excluded. 

The work, as indicated by its title, is limited in its scope to 
Latin inscriptions, those of other languages, however closely related 
to Latin antiquities, being as a rule excluded. 

Bilingual inscriptions in Greek and Latin, however, are given in 
their complete form, and certain Greek inscriptions appear among 
those of Pompeii (vol. IV.), and of England (vol. VII.). The limit 
of time as set by Mommsen in his letter to Borghesi (vol. X., p. vii), 
is the end of the sixth century, inasmuch' as the Fasti Consulares 
reach almost to that period (541). In all cases of uncertainty as to 
date the inscriptions are accepted. 

Christian inscriptions ' are admitted, and are marked in the indices 
with a cross. 

Criticism of Inscriptions. 

The great object in the criticism of inscriptions has been to 
determine their authenticity, for it early became known that false 
inscriptions had been composed, so closely resembling those of an- 
tiquity that even the most skillful critics were deceived. 

1 Christianas titulos appello inscriptiones eas quae a Christianis religionis 
causa positae sunt. De Rossi, Inscriptiones Christianas Urbis Bomae. Vol. I. 
p. xxxvii. See bibliography for special works on Christian Inscriptions. 



INTRODUCTION 11 

The first consideration in determining the validity of an inscrip- 
tion which exists only in a copy is the standing of the copyist, 
or of the author publishing it. The names of Ligorius and Pratilli 
are in themselves sufficient to condemn the inscriptions published 
by them alone. 

The standing of the various authors can be learned from the Index 
Auctorum attached to each volume.* In the C I. L., when the unre- 
liableness of an author has been the reason for the rejection of an 
inscription, the fact is indicated by some statement ; as quamquam for- 
tasse genuina, suspecta tamen utpote a tali auctore solo relata II. 432*, 
or inter titulos suspeetos releganda erant necessario propter auctorem 
fide OTwrdno indignum II. 464* ; also by simply attaching to an inscrip- 
tion the name of a well-known falsifier, e.g. Ligorius or Pratilli, 
X. 406*. 

The science of palaeography is useful in the criticism of inscrip- 
tions as defining certain rules and usages, a violation of which leads 
to a suspicion as to the validity of the inscription. This method of 
criticism has to do with the external presentation, and is concerned 
with the types of letters, the marks of punctuation, the forms of nu- 
merals, etc. ; also, if the inscription can be seen, with the nature of 
the engraving. 

Such a criterion of criticism is indicated in the C. I. L., thus: 
puncla rotunda pessime facta ad imas litteras apposita sunt, XII. 145* ; 
also titulum recentem esse cum litterarum forma turn spatia inter 
vocabula relicta punctis deficientibus demonstrant, XII. 305*, or vidi 
ego et medio aevo incisam intellexi X. 143*, or descripsi et damnavi 
V. 75*. 

The last method. of criticism has to do with the text itself. Vio- 
lations of epigraphic laws, of established principles of the Latin 
language, or of well authenticated theories as regards Roman antiqui- 
ties, should arouse suspicion as to the authenticity of the inscription 
or any portion of the same. 

In X. 52*, for instance, the tribus does not hold its proper place ; 
in X. 565* there is irregularity in the use of the nomina and prae- 

1 Non tam inscriptiones singulas in ittdicium vocavi quam singulos auotores. 
Mommsen, C. I. L. IX. and X. p. li. 



12 LATIN mscRiPTioisrs 

nomina; in V. 40* a munus senatorium is inserted among the eques- 
trian munera, thus violating rules of the cursus honorum; in X. 629* 
Sylvanus is termed divus, and not deus, and in X. 506*- appears 
the irregular expression sacra aedes. 

Inscriptions have been invented to prove certain statements of 
classical authors, tO' account for the name of a town, or determine 
some disputed point in Roman antiquities or mythology, e.g. XII. 
188*, where the comment reads Jicta ni fallor ad Annecy women expU- 
candum. Antonini held that Paestum had been a municipality, and 
based his theory on two inscriptions, X. 109*, 110*. Pratilli declared 
that amphitheatres were consecrated to Hercules Victor, and used for 
this theory an inscription of the amphitheatre of Teanum X. 607*. 

The unreliability of the source determines at once the authenticity 
of the inscription, when such striking support to a chosen theory is 
so readily supplied. 

Other inscriptions, containing historical names and allusions to 
events of history, were undoubtedly composed for various purposes. 
Cyriacus shows an inscription from a statue in honor of Cicero, 
dedicated by the people of Arpinum^ X. 711*. Antonini publishes 
an epitaph of a tomb raised to a son by M. Lamponius, general of 
the Lucanians in the Social War, X. 91* ; the comment here is ut M. 
Lamponii in hello sociali Lucanorum ducis gens in lapidibus quoque 
reperiretur. 

Methods of Presentation. 

f 

Preliminary to the text of the inscription, information is given as 
to where it was found, its location in antiquity, and at the present 
time. In some cases the nature of the monument is described, as 
hasis statuae, tabula marmorea. The text itself is printed in Roman 
capitals, even if the original was in cursive letters. Imperfect let- 
ters are represented by type broken in such way as to indicate 
what remains. Ligatures are shown, also accents and punctuation 
marks of various forms. The lines of the inscription are repro- 
duced in the text, but the words are always separated, even if they 
are united in the original. With the text is also given a brief 



INTRODUCTION 13 

description, printed in small script, of any design appearing on the 
monument. Thus with the inscription on a sarcophagus, 

C. L ly XII. 1537. mulierift imago pueri imago 

cwm ■solumine cwm twni&a 

in manibus laticluvia 

in dipeo et volvm/i/jic 

quem duo 

genii sustinent, pastor cwm grege. 

Special characters are employed as f oUows : 

I. Roman capitals inclined indicate 

1) Letters added after the first cutting. 

X.6051. M • T R E B I 

N I G R I 
IN • F- P • XII • IN ■ AG • p. XII 

G ■ M A M I LI ■ S P 
F ■ P R I M I G E 
Note: V. 4-5 posf tempus adiecti sunt. 

2) Letters seen by an early editor, but afterwards missing. 

VI. 1098. /i;/l/?C//1£-0 7"/1C/LiAE-SEVERAE 

SANGTISSIMAE-AVG * 
yi;/l7"/?/.CASTR0RVM * 
S E N ATV S ■ AC • PATRIAE 

Note : Quae inclinatis expressi desumpsi ex Maffei. 

3) Letters substituted in antiquity in place of erasures. 
VI.1085.- SENATVS ■ ET ■ PATRIAE ■ ET 

Note : Litteris inclinatis expressi quae in litura reposita sunt. 
The above was substituted for 

FVLVIAE-PLAVTILLAE-AVG. 



14 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

II. Italics with points beneath indicate letters erased in antiquity 
which can be replaced. Capitals with points beneath indicate letters 
erased, but partly visible. 

xiy. 1007. D • M • S 

qifinto B Ebi FELICISSI 
MO • QVI . VIXIT • AN • XXIII 
V. 1 et V. 2 ex parte erasi simt. 

III. '! 1 1 ! ! indicate letters erased which cannot be replaced. 
The number of dashes depends upon the number of letters. 

VI. 1081. IMP-CAES-M-AVRELLIO 

ANTONINO • PIO ■ FELICI 
A VG V STO 

^! a a a a a a a a a an an 1 an I ! I ! 

I^MVM N I • E I V Sf 
deuo\l I S S I M \{s 

IV. VIII. 6806. 



ET SVPER OMNES RETRO PRINCIPES INVIC 
TISSIMI 



Letters thus enclosed have been substituted in antiquity for earlier 
erasures. 

V. 1 1 1 1 1 1 indicate illegible or imperfectly copied letters. 
The number is regulated by the number of letters. 

XIV. 2160. D M 

S A C R V M 
Q//// SYNILESI 
H E R E D E S 

VI. ...... indicate the same as V., but are used only when an 

early editor has adopted this form. 



INTRODUCTION 15 

VII. FECIT. This kind of type indicates letters barely visible. 

VIII. Small italics are used to fill out what is known to have 
formed part of a mutilated inscription ; also to indicate when a new 
reading replaces an old. The old reading is given in the commentary 
accompanying the inscription. 

VI. 926. \ IN ■ HGnorem 

n er n\\ S ■ CLAVDil c a e s a u g germ 
pont. \MAX ■ TRIp/p o t 

IX. When there is any break in the stone, it is indicated by lines 
which trace out the fracture. 

Any confusion which might arise through the use of similar 
characters for different purposes is obviated by suitable information 
in the commentary. 

After the text of the inscription there follows the testimonium, 
of the eyewitness and the editor, e.g. descripsi et reco^nov^ vidit I. B. 
de Kossi, Holstenius descripsit; next the principal authors and 
reviews providing the inscription; and finally the lectiones variae, 
with authorities for the same. 

If the abbreviations are difftcult to understand, or if the inscrip- 
tion is much mutilated, a transcript is often given in cursive letters. 
In this transcript square brackets indicate where substitutions are 
made for letters erased or corrected, while parentheses show, tho, fill- 
ing out of abbreviations. Where nothing can be supplied, the lacuna 

is indicated by points equal in number to the missing letters. 

Vertical lines show the limits of the lines of the text. 




'■mif:i-'-fiif'K^ 



The Duenos Inscription. 
See page 846, 



PART I 

CHAPTER I 

THE LATIN ALPHABET (HISTORICAL) 

For its civilization Rome was greatly indebted to the Greeks. Its 
pMlosophy was transplanted from Greece ; its literature was an imi- 
tation of the literature of the same people. The resemblance between 
the alphabets of the people of Italy and those of the Greeks proves 
that for the source of the Italic alphabets we must look in a similar 
direction. A careful study shows that it is to the Chalcidian colo- 
nies, such as settled Cumae on the west coast of Italy and Naxos in 
Sicily, that the Italic alphabets are to be traced. 

The origin of the Greek alphabet is the Phoenician. Tradition, of 
however little authority, supports this theory. Herodotus, V. 58-69, 
states that letters were introduced into Greece by Cadmus, a Phoeni- 
cian who came to Boeotia. Pliny, N. H. VII. 66 (67), 191, repeats a 
similar tradition, adding that Cadmus introduced sixteen letters, 
a, /8, y, 8, e, i, k, X, fi, v, o, tt, p, a; r, v, and that Palamedes and 
Simonides each supplied, four more. Tacitus, Annales, XL 14, offers 
an interesting theory, tracing Greek letters through the Phoenician 
back to the Egyptians, assigning their introduction to Cadmus or 
Cecrops or Palamedes, but the addition of new letters to Simonides. 

The early Greek and Phoenician characters show a marked re- 
semblance in form, and stand in similar alphabetical order. Knowl- 
edge of the order of the Phoenician letters is obtained by a reference 
to the order of derived alphabets, such as Hebrew. The order of 
the Greek alphabet is known from an abecedarium scratched on a 

LAT. INSCEIP. — 2 1"7 



18 




PLATE I 








PHOENICIAN. 


PHOENICIAN. 


GREEK. 


GREEK. 




Baal Lebanon. 


Mesha Stone. 


Abu Simbel. 


Euboean Inscr's. 


Aleph 


< 


+ 


A 


A 


Beth 


"^ 


5 


B 


B 


Gimel 




^ 


r 


r c 


Daleth 


-=7 


^ 1 


> 


D D 


He 




^ 


P£ 


/^ 


Yctu 


F 


T 




rf^ 


Zayin 
Clieth 


I 





H 


1 

H g 


Teih 


® 




^ 


® 


Yod 


^ 


=L 


1 


I 


Kaph 


JA 


-7 


K 


K 


liamed 


i 


^ 


A 


/^/\\/ 


Mem 


^ 
^ 


5 


rA 


M 


Nun 


:? 


H 


A/ 


Samekh 
Ayin 


4 
O 


o 


o 


O 


Pe 




; 


r n 


P 


Tsade 


V 


i^ 






Q'oph 


q> 


f 


? 


? 


Resh 


^ 


1 


P 


/? 


Shin 


w 


Vv 


/ 


5 s 


Taw 


r 


t 


T 

V 

1 CD 

2 X -X-oA 


T 

V 

1 ^=J = *« 








3 \1/='^=P» 


^ \1/ = X = "*■ 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 19 

vase found at Formello near Veii in 1882.' The civilization of the 
Greeks is younger than that of the Phoenicians, and the names of 
tlie letters are Semitic, not Greek ; hence the inference that the 
Greek alphabet is Semitic in its origin, derived from the Phoenician. 

The Phoenician alphabet was not in all respects adapted to the 
phonetic requirements of the Greek language. Pirst of all, there 
were no letters to represent vowel sounds. This want was supplied 
by the use of aleph, he, yod, ayin to represent a, e, i, o. Vau F may 
have supplied the u, the semivowel, but a new sign was invented to 
provide the vowel u, V or Y. There appears to be a resemblance 
between the Vau of the Mesha (Moabite) stone and the Greek Y 
upsilon, but Kirchhoff believes this likeness merely accidental. 

The sibilants abounded in the Phoenician alphabet, and were 
beyond the needs of the Greeks. In consequence of this, much con- 
fusion has arisen as to the history of the Phoenician sibilants in 
the blending of the two alphabets. These Phoenician letters were 
zayiH=clz, samekh=:s, isade=ts oi ss (lingual), and shin=sc7i (palatal). 
Of these, tsade appears to suggest the name zeta, while zayin re- 
sembles it in form and holds a similar place. Some declare that zeta 
obtains its name through analogy owing to its proximity to ^ra and 
O^ra. Samekh seems to have supplied the sound of s and perhaps 

1 The Pormello alphabet is given on Plate II., column I. See Roberts's 
Greek Epigraphy, p. 17. 

PLATE I. 

CoLTTMN I. Names of Hebrew letters corresponding to the Phoenician characters in the next two 

.columns. 
Column II. Early Phoenician letters traced from the "Baal Lebanon" inscription as shown by 

fac-simile in Corpus Iii^aripiionum Semitiearum. This inscription is dated by some as early 

as the tenth century B.C. 
CoLUiMN III. Early Phoenician letters traced tcoTn the fac-simile of the Mesha Stone as found in Die 

Inschrlft den Konigs Mesa von Moab. E. Smend und A. Socin. Freiburg, 1886. This 

inscription is placed by scholars in the ninth century b.c. 
OoLTTMN IV. Greek alphabetic characters from representation of the Abu Sirabel Inscription as 

found in Tnscripiiones Gvaecae Aniiqwissimae^ Eoehl, No. 482. This inscription represents 

the Ionian and so the Eastern Greelc alphabets and may be placed in the early part of the sixth 

century B.C. 
Column V. Letters taken from Euboean inscriptions of Styra and Chalcis, as shown in Inscrip- 

tiones Graecae Antiquissimae, Koehl, pp. 87-103 ; and from Kretschmer's GriecMschen 

Yaseninselirifien, pp. 62-72. This Euboean alphabet represents the West Greek alphabets. 



20 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

its name, while shin has given the form ^ or 2 of the Greek sigma. 
In some Ionic inscriptions samekh is found equivalent to ^t. Again, 
there are inscriptions in which the sign for siyiiM is M, the Phoe- 
nician tsade, and it has been suggested that the Greeks had in some 
alph9,bets a fourth sibilant san of this form M equal to s, while 
others had sigma ^, S- 

Another difference between the Greek and Phoenician alphabets 
consists in the use, in the former, of additional characters to repre- 
sent ps or phs, kh and pli. In the early inscriptions, such as those 
of Thera, Melos, and Greta, these phonetic values are expressed 
by the actual combination of the already existing letters.' The 
appearance , of the new characters X (+), <t>, sU (Y) in the alphabets 
of Chalcis and the Chalcidian colonies leads to the belief that they 
were introduced before the eighth century b.c' Various theories 
have been proposed as to the origin of these letters, but none has 
been found worthy of acceptance. W. Deecke^ considers them 
Cypriote, arguing from the phonetic values of Cypriote syllabic 
characters, Y = m, 4^ = pw and plm, :>< = Jcu and kliu, pu, Y, 
^ = se. 

Kirchhoff has classified the Greek alphabets prior to 403 b.c. (the 
archonship of Eucleides) in two divisions, — ■ 

1) The eastern alphabets, which are those of the Aegean Islands, 
Asiatic coast towns, and certain places in the mainland of Greece, as 
Corinth, Argos, Attica. 

2) The western alphabets, which belong to the Euboean cities 
Chalcis and Eretria, to Sicily, and the Greek colonies in Italy ; also, 
on the mainland of Greece, to Boeotia, Locri, Thessaly, Western 
Peloponnesus. 

The order and value of the purely Greek letters, those newly added, 
determine the difference between these two classes. The eastern 
alphabet shows the order <}>, X, J^, with X = c7i and 4,=ps. The 
sound ks (|) is expressed by I or hH samekh seen between N and 0. 

The eastern alphabet became the recognized Ionic alphabet after 
certain changes had taken place. The cheth H used at first as spir- 
itus asper became long e. The was differentiated to produce O = o, 

1 Kirchhoff, StudieiV*, p. 172. ^ Bauraeister, Denkmdler, p. 51. 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 21 

and placed in the last position. The use of the F digamina and 
the 9 koppa as letters had ceased, and the F = 6, and the 9 = 90. 

The western division retained the I (or B3 in the Formello alphas 
bet) as a numeral in the same way that F and 9 were used as numer- 
als in the Ionian alphabet. The order of the letters was X, <)>, J^, 
with X = fe, <t> = ph, J, = ch: For 4* = ps, ira or c^o- was used. 
Besides these peculiarities, C, D, V are found for f, A, A, also H 
with the value of spiritus asper, also the older form of mu, /w. 

The different Greek colonies entering Italy brought with them 
their own alphabetic forms, but the Chalcidian colonies provided 
the alphabets for the people of Italy probably previous to 600 B.C. 
The proof of this derivation rests on the similarity in the forms 
V and C (gamma) in the Italic and Chalcidian alphabets, for the 
appearance of these characters in the same alphabet marks it as 
Chalcidian. 

The Italic alphabets arrange themselves in two classes. The one 
class contains the Etruscan, the Umbrian, and the Oscan ; the other 
the Latin and the Faliscan. The distinguishing character is the form 
8 found in the first class with sound of F.' The Latin and Faliscan 
not possessing this letter used F {van) in place of <t> disregarded. 

The Etruscan alphabet was found north of the Tiber, the Oscan 
in Campania, the Umbrian east of the Apennines, the Latin and 
the Faliscan between the Etruscan and the Oscan. 

Etruscan. — This is evidently a Chalcidian alphabet, since it shows 
the use of ■\ and 0. The X, which in the Chalcidian alphabet = lis, 
is in the Etruscan a numeral. The tenues were originally all in use. 
K is at first found, then disappears, while supplies its place, giving 
up the value of g, media. The other mediae, B and D, are not found 
in the oldest inscriptions. The 9 is found only in the earliest 
remains, and soon falls out of use. There are two forms of the 
sibilant, M and ^ or 3, used side by side. The prevailing form 
in the inscriptions is 8; ^ seldom occurs. Two forms Q and ^ with 

1 For the / sound, the bilabial spirant, the Italic nations seem at flrst^to have 
used FH, the aspirated digamma. Cf. fhefhaked on the Praenestine fibula and 
the Etruscan vhulxenas = Fuloinius, Fabretti C. I. I. Suppl. III. 306. The 8 is 
a modified H- 



22 


PLATE 11 — ALPHABETS. OF 


ITALY 




SEEEK 












IN 


JETRUSCAN. 


UMBEIAN. 


OSOAN. 


LATIN. 


FALISCAN. 


ITALY. 












^ 


A 


/=T 


f^ 


AA/fvA 


f\ 


B 




a 


3 


U 




< 


) 




> 


< c 


C ) 


\) 






P 


D 


a 


^ 


^ 


^ 


3 


? II 


^ 


1^ 


i 


• ? 


J 


F 1' 


t 


^ 


^ 


:t 


I 


G 


4: r 


B 


B 


® 


B 


H 


9- 


® 
1 


Q O 
1 


1 


1 


1 


j 


1 


1 


i 


> 

^ 


1 




I 


J 


4 


>! 


I L 


-i 4/) 


ISA- 


vn vvi 


VJ\ 


m 


M /^ 


yv\ 


h' 


M 


w 


H 


N 


1/1 


B 





















o 





p 


1 


1, 


n 


P P 


7P 


/^ 


-^A 










? 








? 




p 


(1 


a 


a 


1^ P 


;i 


^ 


n 


z 


\ 


5 s 


5 


r 


t 


> 


r 


T T 


1: r 




V 


V 


V 


V 


V 








X 


X 


4* 


4> 










f 


^ 












8 


8 
S 
d 


8 
h 







THE LATIN ALPHABET 23 

value r are found. The vowels are a, e, i, u, with o wanting. The 
Etruscan is always found written from right to left. 

Umbrian. — All the aspirates are wanting save one, O, which is 
itself rare, and does not differ in value from the T. Of the mediae 
C and D have disappeared, and in consequence the K is still in use. 
The 9 is not in use, perhaps was never adopted. The Umbrian, 
like the Etruscan, has no o, but possesses the other vowels, a, e, i, u. 
The peculiarities of the alphabet are B appearing as , and the new 
letters S and d, which, with 8 found in Etruscan, have been added 
to the Greek alphabet. The first, S, is a by-form of the Etruscan Q, 
but it does not have the same value, being equal to rs.' Hence it 
takes a different place in the alphabet. The d serves for the sound, 
peculiar to this dialect, of k before the vowels e and i. The Umbrian 
is, as a rule, written from right to left. 

Oscan. — In this alphabet there are wanting the vowel o, X = ks, 
M = s, and 9. The d was at first disregarded, and the form Q was 
assumed by the r sound; so that when the need of a, media was 
felt, a modified S, i.e. R, was used, which may have taken the place 
of d in the alphabet. Need of was felt at a later date, hence 
the modified u, i.e. V, changed to ^^ . The letter next to the last is 
a modified form of I, i.e. H, which, with V, naturally assumes a place 
after 8, as neither appears on the older Oscan coins. The order of 
writing is from right to left. 

1 See Biicheler, Umbnca, and von Planta, Grammatik der Oskisch-Umbrischen 
Dialekte, p. 48. 

PLATE II. 

Column I, The Greek Alphabet as found on the Formello Vase. This is the Greelc Alphabet 
as it was written in Italy, and is the link between the Western Greek Alphabets of Euboea, 
particularly of Chalcis, and the Itahc Alphabets. These letters have been traced from Plate 6 
of Melangefi de r^cole FranQaUe de Boine, vol. 11., Br6al. 

Column II. Etruscan alphabetic characters traced from representations given in Die Mruaker, 
C. O. Miiller and Muller-Deecke. 

Column III. Umbrian letters traced from Les Tables Eugithines. Michel Br6al. 

Column IV. Oscan letters from fac-simile inscriptions, in Tnaoripiiunes Oscae {Tabulae). J. 
Zvetaieff. 

Column V. Latin archaic letters. 

Column VI. Faliscan letters from Inscripiiones Italiae Mediae Dialeciicae {Tabulae). J, 
Zvetaieff. 



24 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Faliscan. — This alphabet possesses peculiarities that lead to a 
classification with the Latin. It differs from the Latin in the disap- 
pearance of the B and 9. The K also is wanting. The vau F is 
represented by the form T. The old form ij; and the position of 
the Z show the early adoption of the alphabet. The order of writ- 
ing is from right to left. 

All these alphabets, together with the Latin, are evidently derived, 
directly or indirectly, from the same Greek alphabet. The test 
characters are -1- = ch, X = ks, C gamma and V lambda. The Oscan 
and Umbrian people obtained their alphabets through the Etruscans, 
while the Latins took their letters from the Chalcidian colonists.^ 

Latin. — The following peculiarities mark the Latin alphabet as 
distinct from those mentioned above. It has a complete vowel sys- 
tem, so that is foundas well as A, E, I, V. It employs vau Ffor 
the sign 8, which does not appear at all. The V serves the purpose 
of both vowel and consonant. The K has really disappeared from 
use, except in a few words and abbreviations, and C has taken its 
place. To provide the gutteral media, C is made into G by a mark 
of differentiation, and the new letter assumes the position of I (Z), 
svhich early goes out of use. In the time of Cicero, I, the old zeta, 
m& Y, upsilon, were taken from the Greek alphabet and placed after 
X {ix), and the former appeared in the shape Z. The Greek aspirates 
did not become letters in the- Latin alphabet, but were u^ed as 
numerals,^ H' or J-, the Chalcidian ch, =50, O = 100 (probably), 
= 1000. The 9 remained in use, but gradually lost ground in 
later days. The mark of differentiation was added to the P to form 
R when the letter P began to have a form nearly closed. 

The original right to left direction of the writing is found gener- 
ally in the dialect alphabets of Italy, save those of the Eomans and 
Volsci, a fact which assigns the adoption of these alphabets to a 
period prior to the change in direction in the Greek parent alphas 
bet. The medium of change from the original order to the left- 
to-right is the " boustrophedon " method, which combines the two 

1 Von Planta, Osk. Umbr. Dialekte, I. 44. 

2 For a different origin see Zangemeister " Entstehung der romisclien Zahlzei- 
chen" {Siteungsher. d. k. Preuss. Akad., 1887). 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 25 

systems. With a very few exceptions, the writing of the earliest 
Latin inscriptions is from left to right. The " boustrophedon" order 
is found in the inscriptions on the bronzes from Lake Fucinus/ but 
the language of these inscriptions cannot be said to be pure Latin. 
The Duenos Inscription ^ (Vascula Dresseliana) is written from right 
to left, but, being on a vase, the order of some lines may be due to 
economy of space. The inscription on a, fibula from Praeneste,^ which 
is regarded as perhaps the oldest Latin inscription, is written from 
right to left, an order which may be due to an attempt at concealing 
the meaning, as in charms. It is reasonable, however, to believe 
that this last inscription is a trace of the early retrograde direction 
of Latin writing. 

Modifications in the Latin Alphabet. 

C. This letter is the curved form of the gamma of the Greek 
alphabet. Its value at first was that of the Greek letter, but after- 
wards it had the sound of k (surd guttural), a value it assumed in 
the period preceding the decemviral legislation (451 b.c). 

G. This letter finds its origin through the process of differentia- 
tion in the letter C. The modification was due to the confusion 
arising from the use of C as the sharp guttural k and as the flat g. 
In the Duenos Inscription virgo is spelled virco (some read vir 
cosied), while in the word feced an attempt has evidently been made 
to change a K into a C, but the K still remains in pakari. Plutarch, 
Quaestiones JRoin'anae, 64 and 69, declares that Spu.rius Carvilius 
Ruga, who opened a school in Rome about 623/231, invented this 
letter. Mommsen (Unterital. Dial, p. 33) shows that Spurius Car- 
vilius did not invent the letter, for it appears in inscriptions before 
his time. He may, however, have been the first to teach its use 
at his school, or he may have given it the position it still holds in 
the alphabet. 

The letter G is first seen on the as libralis of Lueeria, dating 

1 H. Jordan, Hermes, vol. XV., 1880, p. 5 ; F. Bucheler, Bhein. Mus. 
XXXIII., 1878, p. 989. 

2 See page 16. ^ See page 265. 



26 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

before 486/269, then in inscriptions in the epitaph of Scipio Bar- 
batus, who was consul in 298 b.c. The epitaph appears to be less 
archaic than that of his son, who was consul 269 b.c. Eitschl has 
set the date as not" later than 234 b.c. The words in the Scipio 
epitaph in which G appears are Gfnaivod, prognatus, subigit. It is 
found also on paterae from Tarquinii in the name Gabinio, the 
date of which is supposed to be about the same as that of the Epi- 
taph.' Again it is found in the decree of the Senate " de Bacchanali- 
bus " of 186 B.C., in the words magister, magistratud, magistratum, 
gnoscier, figier, agro.' The letter G does not appear, however, in 
the inscription of the Columna Eostrata, which, though dating 
originally in the time of the Epitaph, was renewed, with a com- 
bination of modern and archaic forms in the Empire, perhaps under 
Augustus.^ This character probably did not come into general use 
until a period much later than the time of its introduction, for the 
archaic form C is found long after the invention of the G. A trace 
of the early use of C is found in the abbreviations C for Gains and 
Cn for Gnaeus. 

I. This letter served as both vowel and consonant (semi-vowel). 
In the time of Cicero a double I is found indicating the semi-vowel ; 
thus Aiiax, Maiia, aiio, Troiiam, are mentioned by the grammarians 
Quintilian, I. 4, 11, Velius Longus VII. 64, k, ana others, and in the 
inscriptions are found cuiius, eiius, plebeiius.^ TJiis doubling of the 
vowel for such a purpose did not come into general use. In in- 
scriptions of the imperial period the tall letter I stood between 
vowels as the semi-vowel, though ATElO and EiVS are already 
found in inscriptions of the late days of the Eepublic' 

It should be remembered that J was not specialized as a letter 
until the fifteenth century a.d. At first the letter I, initial, was 

' 1 Corssen, Aussprache, I. p. 10. 
2 See page 359. 

' It may, however, be an inscription of the days of Augustus, with imitation 
of archaic forms. 

4 C. I. L. II. 1953, 1687, 1129. Seelmann, Die Aussprache des Lateins, p. 236. 

5 C. I. L. I. 750, 1418. Christiansen, De Apicibus et I Longis, p. 29. 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 27 

changed to J by being curved to the left, the original shape still 
serving as the medial letter. As the initial I was usually the semi- 
vowel, the initial shape became identified with the letter J. 

K. This letter, in the earliest period, served as the sharp guttural 
(k), but was afterwards replaced almost absolutely by the letter C, 
which, at first equal to the sonant g, was relieved of this double 
service by the use of the differentiated C, i.e. G. K is found in 
"fhefhaked" on the Fibula Praenestina, which probably belongs to 
the sixth century B.C., and is apparently altered to C in the Duenos 
Inscription, dating about the beginning of the fourth century B.C., 
so that its disappearance from general use must have taken place 
at a comparatively early period. Its appearance in Latin orthog- 
raphy is confined to a few words for which it was the common 
abbreviation, as KcUendae, Kaeso} 

V. This letter, originating in the Greek upsilon of the form V, 
served the purpose of both vowel and consonant (semi- vowel). The 
differentiation of the vowel and the consonant did not occur until 
about the tenth century a.d. 

X. This letter, which Quintilian calls nostrarum ultima, was the last 
letter in the early alphabet of the Eomans. In inscriptions of all 
periods after the Senatus Consultum de Bacchanalibus 568/186, 
which has, e.g., the form EXSTRAD for extra, xs are found for x, 
perhaps because the X is regarded as equal to Greek X (c7i), and 
then naturally s is needed. The attempt to express the sound of c 
followed by s led to such irregular orthography as ucxor, vicxit 0. I. 
L. V. 6736, iuxcta G. I. L. VI. 14614, and visxit G. I. L. VIII. 67. 

Y. This letter, in reality the Greek upsilon, was employed in the 
days of the Eepublie to represent the Greek v, for the Latin V cor- 
responded more nearly to Greek ov. Before the use of Y, the Greek 
i; was represented by Latin V or at times I. (Of. Cic. Orator, 48. 160, 

1 Quintilian, I. 4, 9 ; I. 7, 10; Vel. Long., 2218 (Keil, (?. L., p. 53); Ter. 
Maur. 2400 (Keil, G. £., p. 349). 



28 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

where Ennius is said to Have written Burrus for Pyrrhus and Bruges 
for Phryges.) Eitschl, P. L. M. E. 124, states that, with one exception, 
there is no instance of the use of this letter until the seventh century 
of the City. 

Z. This letter belonged to the earliest Latin alphabet, in which 
it probably had the place which the letter G afterwards assumed, 
since this is the position of the ^ in the Greek alphabet. 

In the Duenos Inscription it is believed by some to occur in the 
word dze for die, although the letter may be 1, or a V forming part of 
the word Duenoi. It is found in a fragment of an old priestly prayer. 
Carmen Saliorum, given by Varro, L. L. VII. 26 (M).^ It appears 
on a coin Of Cosa dating after 273 b.c.^ taking the place of S in. the 
word Coza(no), and is also seen in the transcription of an Oscan 
Law of the time of the Gracchi.' After this we have no trace of 
the letter until the time of Sulla, when it reappears as representing 
the Greek f, for which, when initial, S had been used, or, when 
medial, SS.^ Cicero (Orator, 48. 160), — Nee enim Graecam litteram 
adhibehant, nunc autem etiam duas, — probably referred to Y and Z. 
It should be remembered that Z, when reintroduced, was a Greek 
letter, and was so recognized in the first century a.d. Z took the 
last place in the alphabet. 

Various attempts were made to add to the Latin alphabet. Ver- 
rius Placous, of the Augustan age, suggested a mutilated M, i.e. 
IV , to take the place of M when final.' No trace of this has been 
found, so that it evidently did not come into use. 

The Emperor Claudius invented three letters : the Greek digamma 
inverted, to provide the consonant V, the antisigma for the soimd 

^The word is cozeulodoizeso (some read cozeulodoriesd). Velius Longus, p. 
2217 (Keil, Q. i., p. 52) wrote : mihi videtur nee aliena sermoni fuisse (s littera), 
cum inveniatur in Carmine Saliari. 

2 C. I. L. I. 14; P. L. M. E. VII. 40. a, b. 

8 G. I. L. I. 197. 

* Jordan, Kritische Beitriige, p. 151, states that Z once stood for s between 
vowels, but lost its usefulness in consequence of " Ehotacism." 

6 Velius Longus, p. 2238, Keil, (?. L., p. 80. 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 29 

of bs and ps, and the Greek sjnritus \- for the sound intermediate 
between i and n. Claudius wrote a book discussing the need of these 
letters, and, when emperor, ordered that they should be introduced. 
This was done in state documents, as senate decrees, such as Tacitus 
saw (Annalen, XI. 14), also in the mandates of magistrates and of 
priests. The most common of these letters is the inverted digamma 
to indicate the consonant V. There is no certain example of the use 
of the antisigma 0. The letter \- for the middle sound between i and 
u is found in inscriptions of the time of Claudius to express a Greek 
iipsilon in the words Aeg\-pti, Bath\-llus, G\-cnus, Gl\-conis, M\-ro, 
N\-m2Mus, P\-lades, Zop[-rus. It also occurs in B{-bUotheca and 
once in G\-hernator. It answers to the * or u before labials, which 
occurs in the superlative terminations, as opt\-'iiius and max\-mus. 
This letter may have had the value of the French u or the Ger- 
man a} 

In the early period, to represent the Greek <j), ^ and 6, the Latin 
employed P, C, and T just as S and SS had been used for ^, and V 
or more rarely I for Y. About the close of the second century b.c. 
the aspiration -begins to appear, and for the following fifty years 
the usage varied between the aspirated and unaspirated letters, until 
finally the aspirated form prevailed.^ In inscriptions of the imperial 
period, however, there are found P, C, and T, instead of the aspirates, 
and in the later imperial period F for PH. 

Double Consonants. 

The introduction of double consonants is commonly assigned to 
Ennius (239-169 B.C.). This usage, beginning about the end of the 
sixth century of the City (150 B.C.), did not become common until 
the middle of the seventh century of the City (100 b.c). The double 
consonant is seen first in the decree of Aemilius Paulus, dating 189 
B.C. (See page 359.) 

Marius Vietorinus (p. 2456) and Isidorus (Orig. I. 26) refer to the 

1 Lindsay, The Latin Language, pp. 25 and 79. 

2 PH, CH and TH are seen in tlie dedicatory inscriptions of L. Mummius, 
dating 146 b.c. C. L L. I. 546. 



30 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

sicilicus 0, ■whici. was placed over letters to indicate double conso- 

3 3 

nants, thus SELA, ASERES. The occurrence of this sign is uncom- 
mon, the period of its most frequent appearance being the early days 
of the Augustan age. 

Double Vowels. 

The tragic poet, Attius, 170-94, introduced the double letter to 
represent the long vowel.' Eitschl shows that this usage appears in 
Latin inscriptions from the time of the Gracchi up to the Mithridatic 
war (75 b.c). The first instance is in the word paastores on the 
miliarium of Popillius, dating 132 b.c. This doubling was employed 
in the vowels A, E, U, but not 0.^ Thus we find /aato, haace, luulius. 
Reference has already been made to the doubling of the I, not for 
the purpose, however, of lengthening the vowel, but to indicate the 
consonantal I. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Die Unteritalischen Dialekte. Th. Mommsen. Leipzig, 1850. 

Tiber Aussprache, Vokalismus und Betonung der Lateinischen SpracJie. W. 

CoRSSEN. 2d ed., 2 vols. Leipzig, 1868-70. 
The Alphabet. Isaac Taylor. 2 vols. London, 1883. tLt^iM 

Die Aussprache des Lateins. E. Seelmann. Heilbronn, 1885. 
Studien zur Geschichte des Oriechischen Alphabets. A. Kibchhoff. 4th ed. 

Gutersloh, 1887. 
The Latin Language. W. M. Lindsay. Oxford, 1894. 

1 Velius Longus, p. 2220. 

2 0. L L. I. p. 600. In a Falisoan inscription we find vootum. Zvetaieff, 
Inser. Ital. Inf. 70. 



CHAPTER II 

THE LATIN AI.FHABET (MORFHOLOGICAIi) 

The early writing of the Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans, shows 
a uniform style employed for both public and private use. Similar 
forms are found on the various materials used, such as clay or wax, 
and metal or stone, since there is only one form of writing. This 
uniformity is at first interfered with by reason of the difference in 
materials. Letters made in soft substances naturally display curved 
and easy lines, while stiff set forms are found on the hard surface, 
as the cutting of letters on metal or stone demands greater and more 
laborious toil. This difference in style is still more marked after 
the introduction of outlining in crayon or chalk, and of drawing let- 
ters in colors with a brush on such surfaces as walls and board 
tablets, finally in the use of ink and pen on papyrus or parchment. 
The Greeks appear to have used, for the most part, similar styles of 
writing for both public and private documents, and for inscriptions 
on monuments, down to the time of the Macedonian supremacy. In 
like manner the most ancient remains of Roman writing show a 
style uniform even in its rudeness. This style was not changed 
until the sixth century of the City, when there was introduced from 
the Greeks the custom of adorning buildings and monuments with 
inscriptions, the letters of which were made with regard for beauty 
and elegance. 

Aechaic Alphabet 

This early uniform writing of the Romans may be designated as 
the Archaic Alphabet. We know from Dionysius of Halicarnassus 
{Antiq. IV. 26 and 58) that the Romans used writing very early in 
their history. The treaty of peace made by Tarquinius (Superbus ?) 

31 





PLATE 


III — ALPHABET OF THE F 


.EPUBt 


.ic ■/ 


A A 


A 


A A 


L L 


L 


k 


A A 


A 


^ 


AA^AA 


/v\ 


A 


t 6 






/V K] 


N 


v\ 


< < 


C 


c. 


O 





o 


t> ^ 


D 


D 


p p 


:> 


p 


/f H 


- 


t II 


^ A, 


a 


c^a 


^ ^ 


F 


f ' 


^ R 


R 


R R 


G 


G 




s > 


5 


s 2 


H 






T T 


r 


r 


r I 






V > 






K ^ 


V 


K 


X 







32 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 33 

with, the Gabii was written on an ox-hide ypdixnamv apxaiKoi's and 
stored in the temple of Sancus.' A treaty made by Servius Tullius 
with the Latins is said to have been cut in bronze (a-T-qXrjv xa-^i^V^)-" 
Cicero (pro Balho 23. 53) refers to a treaty of alliance between 
Eome and the Latins engraved on a bronze column, and Polybius 
III. 22 mentions a commercial treaty made between Carthage and 
Kome in the earliest days of the Republic, likewise engraved on 
bronze in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. 

The oldest Latin inscription extant, that on the golden fibula of 
Praeneste,^ dating possibly in the sixth century b.c, shows letters 
which are really Greek in form, and which bear witness to the Greek 
parentage of the Latin letters, and to a period when the Latin alpha- 
bet was in a transition state, not fully naturalized. Very old forms, 
showing Greek influence, are also found in the Duenos Inscription,* 
which dates perhaps in the early part of the fourth century b.c. 
Besides these, there remain to us inscriptions on coins, mirrors, boxes, 
and vases. This archaic alphabet is foimd in the inscriptions given 
by Eitschl. P. L. M. E. plates I.-XVII. The marked characteristics 
of this alphabet are, first and mainly, the near approach to the par- 
ent alphabets, the Greek and the Phoenician ; the lack of uniform- 
ity in the various forms of the same letter (see A), also the oblique 
lines (as in N) ; together with general irregularity and unevenness. 
Such archaic forms as A A A, &, l>, H, I', U, HH, P, 9 0., I*, f, indi- 
cate a period prior to the Second Punic War. 

Monumental Alphabet op the Eepubhc 

The employment of inscriptions on great momiments led to an 
improvement in the style of the letters. This can be seen by exam- 
ining the monuments of the last three centuries of the Eepublic. 

The earliest of these are the dedicatory inscriptions from the 
grove of Pisaurum, and the most archaic of the titidi sepulcrales 
from Praeneste. 

1 Dionys. Hal. Antiq. Bom. TV. 58. 2 IV. 26. 

2 See page 265. * See page 16. 

LAT. INSCRIP. — 3 



34 



LATLN INSCRIPTIONS 



I- 









On a oippus found at Pisaurum, fifth century A.u.o. 
P. L. M. E. XLIII. e. 

lunone Be{glnae) matrona{e) Pisaure(ri)se{s) donoQm) ded(e')ro{n')t. C.I- L. 

I. 173. 




Epitaph from a sepulcreium at Praeneste, sixth century a.tj.c. 
Caltia M^arci) fiilia). C. I. L. XIV. 3079. 

It ■will be seen that the letters do not show particular elegance ; 
their parts do not always join, and the lines of direction are not 
straight. 






Epitaph from Praeneste, sixth century a.u.c. 

Staitios) Cupio(s). O. J, L, XIV. 3114. 




THE LATIN ALPHABET 35 

In the epitaphs of the Scipios (see pages 232, 236) and in that 
of M. Furius, tribunus militaris at Tusculum, we find great advance 
made in the evenness and elegance of the letters. 

fe-^liillARX-Pir R.Aj ()A L)•A^AV|y:.E:l2£D£Ll 

Dedicatory inscriptions from Tusculum, sixth century a.u.o. 
P. L. M. M. XLIX. B.o. 

(a) M. Fonriois) G. fiiXios) tribunos militare{s) de praidad Maurte dedet. 
(fi) M. Fourio(s) O. f(ilios) tribunos [nM7iJa]re(«) de praidad For[tunae\ dedet. 
C. I. L. XIV. 2577, 2578. 

Monumental inscriptions of the seventh century of the City show 
marked improvement in the forms and details of the letters, the 
exactness and beauty of which increase with the growth of the cus- 
tom of erecting, and likewise inscribing, large architectural monu- 
ments, whether sepulchral, dedicatory or honorary. The fully 
developed scriptura monumentalis belongs to the days of Augustus 
and to the early Empire. 

DIV04\^L 104 VSSV 



.STATVTVMfST'LEGE 



On a Bmall marble pedestal ^bund at Borne, where it was probably brought from 
some m«7wc*piiwra, now in the Vatican Museum. The date is 710/44 

Hiibner's Mc&mpla^ Wo. 1. 

JHvo luUo iussu I populi Bomani \ statutum est lege \ Bufrena. C. I. L. VL 872^ 



PLATE IV — ALPHABET OF THE EMPIRE 



A h A K A 

^ h A 



h i i 



^ ^ f f 



yi m m }^ 



Iff 
RAX 



ly^ 



H M w ^n « 

« I f j 1 

¥ r ■ I? r s^ 



T f t I T 

V V / ¥ uM 

X. X K 

Y T T 



/ ^ 



36 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 37 

Monumental Alphabet Peefected 

The letters cut in stone and a^apearing on large and impressive 
monuments represent the standard of this fully developed alphabet. 
It is the scriptura quadrata or lapidaria of Fetronius (29. 68).^ 

This standard scriptura moHumeittuUs was mainly the work of the 
professional stonecutter, who made the letters with exactness after 
a pattern previously outlined in color or crayon. There is no adorn- 
ment, such as extended or added lines, apices, cormia. The letters 
are square and exact. Whatever variation is found in this alphabet 
is due to the skill and care of the stonecutter, and is shown in the 
depth of the cut, gracefulness of form and exactness in detail. It 
must be remembered that these forms were not confined to stone, but 
were used on other material, such as bronze. 



Q:CRETIC|-F 

METELLAECRASSI 

Sepulchral inscription on the larg:e tomb of Caecilia Metella 
on the Via A ppia, Rome. 

Hiibner's Exemplar No. 61. 

CaeciUae | Q. Cretici f(iliae) | Metellae Crassi. C. I. L. Yl. 1274. Caecilia 
was the daughter of Q. Caecilius Metellus Creticus, consul 685/69, and 
wife of the son of M. Crassus. Although it is not known when she died, 
the inscription may with probability be assigned to the earlier part of the 
reign of Augustus. 

While this scriptura quadrata is strictly the alphabet of great 
monuments during the early Empire, yet other forms more or less 
ornamented, showing the influence of the lettering of the acta and 
of the more ordinary alphabets, are found in monumental inscriptions 

1 Allied expressions are saxa quadrata, lapis quadratus, opus quadratum, 
opiflces quadratarii. 



38 ' LATIN IlSrSCRIPTIONS 

from tlie days of Augustus. The following will illustrate this ten- 
dency to vary the standard forms. 

IMP-CAESAR-DIVI'F 

AVGVSTVS 

PONJIFEX^MAXlMVS_ 

IMPX ll-COS-XITRlBfOTXIV 

A EGVPTO-INPOTESTATEM 

POPVLI-ROMA Nl-REDACTA 

SOLI-DONVMDEDIT 

On an obelisk "whicli formerly stood in the Cii'cus Maximus ; now in the 
Fiaxza del Popolo, Eome. The date Is 14i/i0. 

Hiibner^B M&empla, No. 52. 

Imp{erator) Caesar divi /(ilius) | Augustus | ponUfex maximus, \ imp{erator) 
XII, co{n)s{ul) XI, trib{unicia) pot(estate) XIV, | Aegupto inpotest&tem \ 
populi Bomdni n-ddcta. | iS6li ddnum dedit. G. I. L. VI. 701. 

^lO'CffOmOED 

TVRCW'GAIIO 

SlU[VD=mBVNO'MIL'I£G-A/lin 
qtodmmP'Caesaris-m; 

From an inscription on a marble tablet in the tower of a 
gateway of the Fropylaea at Athens. 

Hiibner's Mcempla, No. 185. 

■L. Aquillio G. f(iUo) Pom{ptina tribu) Flbro \ Turciano Gallo \ x w(o) 
stl{itibus) iud(icandis) , tribiino mil(itum) leg{ionis) Villi \ Macedoni- 
c(ae), quaest6r{i) imp(eratoris) Gaesaris Aug{usti), \ pr6quaest{pre) 
provineiiae) Gypri, tr(ibuno) pl{ebi), proco{n)s{ule) Achaiae. \ G. I. L. 
III. 551. 

This inscription belongs to the age of Augustus. 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 



39 



EVom an inscription on a pedestal of black marble fonnd at Pompeii, now in the Museum of I^aples, 
Hllbner's Exemptut No. 185. 

Sp. Turranius L. f{iUus) Sp. n{epos) L. pron(epos) Fab(ia tribu) \ Proculus 
Oellianus | praef(ectus) fabr{um) II, praif{ectus) curatorum alJei \ Tiberis, 
praif(ectus) pro pr{aetore) i(ure) d{icundo) in urbe LaJinio, \ pater patratus 
populi Laurentis, . . . l{oco') d{ato) d{ecreto) d{ecurionum). C.I.L.X. 
797. The date is between 47-54 a.d. 



I^maOKEATE 
IMP'CAESARIS 



On a cippuB of travertine found at Pompeii, now in the Museum at Naples. 
Hiibner's MB&mpla, No. 335. 

Ex auctoritate | imp(eratoris) Capsaris | Vespifsiani Ang{usti) \ loca publica a 
privatis \ possessa, T. Suediuf Clemens \ tribunus, causis cognitis et | men- 
surisfactis, rei \publicae Fompeianorum \ restituit. C. I. L. X. 1018. 
This inscription dates between 69-79. 




MPOB'REfiTv 

tamsacvmTym 

EX-S-GBELLO 
NIC05E 



An iuBcription on a pedestal found at Sa^untum, where it still remains. 
Hiibner's Maempla, No. 4£4. 



40 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

P. Scipioni Co(^n)s(uli) \ imp(eratori) ob restitu\tam Saguntum | ex s{en,atus) 
o{onsuUo) hello Pu\nico secundo. C. I. L. II. 3836. 

Hiibuer assigns this inscription to either the age of Trajan or the close of the 
second century. 



TF-FAB-SABINO-EMY' 
PJIOCAVG-BACIAEAPVIENSISPIIOC 
AtrlVMTRMTlANARErPOENJNAR 
IVB:£LA])'SV&P{l/\EF-C!sASSf!!ci(AV£N 

TCORNASIDI 

VESENNICLEMEfTIS 

FlLI-ElVS'EdVO-fVBklAVR"^ 

From an inscription on a large marble tablet found at Falerio 
in Picenum, now at Eome, in the Museum of the Vatican. 
It may be assigned to the middle of the third century a.d. 
Hiibner's Ex&iwpla, No. 551. 

T. Oomasidio \ T. f{ilio) Fab(ia tribu) Sabino, e(gregiae) in{emoriae) v(iro), \ 
procQuratori) Aug(usti) Daciae Apulensis, proc(iiratori) \ Alpium Atrac- ■ 
tianariym) et Poemnar(mn) | iur{e) gladii, subprae.f{ecto) class{is) pr{ae- 
toricB) Baven(nntis), \ ■ ■ ■ T. Cornasidi Vesenni Clementis \flli eius equo 
publ{ico) Laur{entium) | Lavin(atium) . . C.I. L. IX. 5439, vv. 1-5 and 
12-14. 



IMPCAES^M' 
AVREKLA/DD 



1^ 

From an inscription on a pedestal found at Aquincum, 

dating in the year 270 a.d. 

Hiibner's MB&m^la, No. 593. 

Imp^eratori) Caes(ari) M. \ Aurel(io) Claudia \ Germanico \ F{io) F{elic{) 
invicto I Aug{usto), pont(iflci) max{imo), \ trib(unicid) potes{tate) \ III, 
co(ji)s{uli), pro'\ co{n)s(iiU), p^atri) p{atnae), leg(io) II \ Adi(tttrix) VI 
p(ia) VI /(idelis) | Constans \ Claudiana, \ numini ma\iestatique\eius | 
dicatissima. C. I. L. III. 3521. 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 41 

Documentary Poems of the Lettebs 

Eeference has already been made to the influence upon the forms 
of letters due to the materials used. This is seen most clearly in the 
formative period before the alphabet has reached its full develop- 
ment, but subsequently another principle supersedes the former. 
The character of the subject-matter determines the style of writing, 
and letters are made with a certain design and according to what 
finally becomes a fixed custom. The effect of this influence may be 
seen to some extent in the days of the Eepublic, as in the writing on 
the bronze law plates, but in the time of the Empire the alphabets 
as employed for various purposes can be plainly distinguished. 

In contrast, then, to the letter system of the great architectural 
monuments, the letters of which were carefully outlined and deeply 
cut, a more simple style was employed for the more ordinary 
inscriptions. This style, differing at first merely in size from that 
of the monumental, gradually assumed its individuality, and finally 
developed along two general lines, namely, the forms of writing em- 
ployed in public documents, scriptura actuaria ; and again, but more 
widely, the cursive writing used in ordinary life, as on wax tablets. 

In the early days of Rome public announcements were made by 
painting letters with ink on the walls or on white board tablets. 
Such were the declarations of the priests as to the feriae and pro- 
digia, also the publication of the names of the magistrates, and the 
historical notices known as Annales Maximi. By the same method 
advertisements of various kinds and information as to contracts and 
sales were later on placed upon the walls of buildings. This use of 
the brush had its influence upon the forms of the letters, and a style 
which was an approach to the alphabet of the pen, and which after 
became the book-hand, was used for public documents, acta, cut in 
bronze. The curving of the oblique lines of the letters A, M, N, and 
of the transverse strokes as in A, E, F, H, I, T, the extending of the 
tails of L, Q, R, and the diminution in the size of the upper part of 
the B and R, mark this writing of the acta. 

No exact or set lines can be drawn defining the use of this alpha- 
bet, but its letters are found in stone inscriptions also, and this form 



42 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

of writing, scriptura actuaria, became the system used in inscriptions 
in general after the fourth century a.d. 

The following inscriptions will illustrate the alphabet of the acta 
as engraved first of all on metal and then on stone. 



XVV iV\. A V JuL 

ISlBlVlVkGfM'lKCl 

A portion of the Lex de Imperio Ve^pasiani engraved on a large bronze tablet 
found at Borne, now in the Capitoline Museum. The date is 69 a.d. 
HUbner's Msempla, No. 802. 
. foedusve cum quibus volet facere liceat ita uti licuit divo Aug{usto), \ Ti. 
lulio Oaesari Aug{usto) Tiberioque Olaudio Caesari Aug^usto) Germanico\ 
. . . e.q.s. . . . utique,quaecunqueexusureipubUGae.,maiestatedivinarum\ 
hum{an\arum publicancm privatarumque rerum esse [e] | censebit, ei agere 
facere ius potestasque sit . . ■ e.q.s. O. I. L. VI. 930. 



A portion of thq Lex Oollegi Aesculapi et Hygiaa engraved on a large marble tablet found 
at Rome, where it is now preserved in the Palace of the Barberini, dating 153 a.d. ^ 
Hubner's MB&tnpla^ No. 1044. 

Lex collegi Aesculapi et Eygiae \ Salvia O. fiilid) Marcellina ob memoriam 
Fl{avii) Apolloni proc{uratoris) Aug(usti'), qui fuit a pinacothecis, et 
Capitonis Aug{usti) l(iberti) adiutoris \ eiiis, mariti sui optimi piissimi, 
donum dedit collegia Aesculapi et Hygiae ... C. I. L. VI. 10234. 



,.„.„ -„ ^- -....amii 

A portion of a diploma 'niiUta^'ium engraved on a bronze tablet forming part 
of a diptych found near Mantua, where it is still preserved, 208 a.d. 
Hiibner's Exempla, No. 851. 
Imp(erator) Caes{ar) divi M. Antonini Pit Qerm(anici) Sarm(atici') \Jil(ius), 
divi Commodi frater, divi Antonini Pii \ nep(^os), divi Hndnani pron<'p(^os), 
divi Traiani Parthi\ ci abnepos, divi Nervae [adne^pos, L. Septimius \ Severus 
Pius Pertinax Aug(v,stus) Arahic(iis)Adiab{enicv,s)ei.(i.s. C.I.L. HI. p. 890. 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 43 



CuKsivE Letters in the Insckiptions 

Naturally letters made without any regard for elegance or even 
moderate adornment or clearness of outline present the same varia- 
tions which are found in the rapid and inartistic writing of common 
life. Early Koman capitals made rapidly and carelessly are the 
predecessors of the cursive letters of the first three centuries of 
the Christian era. In the early vulgaris^ lettering we find such 
forms as A, 1 1, I ', C}, K, which, in modified form, are prominent in 
the cursive alphabets shown on pages 44 and 46. 

Cursive writing^ is that found on wax or on clay before it is 
baked. It appears on the was tablets of Pompeii and Dacia, on 
the wall inscriptions of Pompeii and other cities, ou tiles marked 
by children, and on vessels for domestic use made of gold, silver, 
and clay. As with the writing of the acta, this cursive style cannot 
be set within v^ell-defined limits, for it is found in the laws and 
invades the dignified inscriptions of the monuments. Even as early 
as the first century of the Christian era, cursive letters are found in 
the monumental inscriptions, and in the course of time some of its 
forms supplant the more regular types. 

Uncial Letters in the Inscriptions 

A form of script used upon papyrus and parchment, consisting of 
rounded forms with vertical strokes somewhat curved is known as 
imcial. Erom the close of the fourth century these letters appear in 
inscriptions cut in stone, mainly in the acta and in carmina of a 
dedicatory character. 

A few inscriptions, however, have been found in Africa, which 
may be assigned to the close of the third century, of which all the 

^ See page 52. 

2 Cursive letters from wall inscriptions and wax tablets of Pompeii as given 
in C. /. L., vol. IV., are shown on Plate V., those from the wax tablets of 
Dacia, as given C I. L., vol. III., on Plates "VI. and VII. The former date no 
later than 79 a.d., while the latter range from 131-167 a.d. 



N 


N 








>- 


^ ^v >V>--;*-'>^V-(^ 


7- =r- 




X 


V X ;>< X 








?• 


'p- y :> ^ ^ 


^ 7 ^ -7 :j 


^ tr 




\- 


(r V- ^ :^ 1- 


t^ ;-- V- 








v^ v^ V^ N-V- 


>-. v_ i^ , ^ 


^^ 




^ 


^-i-^ r^f- 


< ri /-t^r^ 


.r^-r- 




O^ 


^ d ^ £J 


c =r 








c- aj =_ fc -" 


L^ .0 t-. I . C. 

NG ^ ^ ^ 




><- 


^ 


;^ ,^^ /^ ^ 


r, - - "^ 






^ 


:^:^^i>^ 


= = ^ IE 






_I 


-1 ^ ^ ^ ^ 


^ 0^ ^ :j -' 




^ 7r 


jf 


.j^ -^ ^ ic -^ 








^ 


"' V- ^ '-' — 


— ~- ^ — -s -^ 








.3: X -i;^ ^ ^ 


^ d^ ^ ^ ^ 


<^ ^ 


±: 


or 


vj O" vrT vi) ^ J 


vj, v^ \J^ V5^ vj- vjj^ ' 




u^ 


\i-^ ii =_ i. ^ 


-6. »^ S^ sl^ <^ 








\.ij IjJ li/ J- N>-' 


\>^ V* VXJ ■:=, sJ' 






£: 


^ ^ ^ ^ /=; 


/<3 ^0- p jzi /<:> 


^ -^0 




Vj 


V^ \> V. ^ u 


\J \J 






/-:=^ 


'^ f-<A ^ ( -^ (^ 


^s ^ 






< 




,^ '^^ < R <^ 


^-i 


^ 



44 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 45 

letters are uncial in character. The following is a portion of one 
of these. 







'Vmj 



On a pedestal found at Thamugadi, Africa. 
Hiibner's Mcempla, No. 1U7. 

Vocontio. I P. Fl(avio) Pudenti Pompo\niano cQarissimo) v(iro), erga | civeis 
patriamque \ prolixe cultori, exercitiis militaribus \ effeeto, inultifari\ am 
loquentes Ut\teras amplianti, At\ticam facundiam ad\aequanU Bomano \ 
nitori, | ordo incola fontis \ patrono oris uberis \ et fluentis nostrlo] alteri 
fonti. C. I. L. VIII. 2391. 



METHODS OF MAKING INSCRIPTIONS ^ 

To study properly the forms of letters, and appreciate the changes 
which they undergo, it is very essential to consider the methods by 
which these forms were imparted to the various materials used. 

Statements of ancient writers, also terms used in literature and in 
the inscriptions, as well as a careful examination of existing remains, 
provide us with information as to the art of engraving letters. 

The exactness with which letters were inscribed on stone and 
bronze bears witness to the existence of a custom of outlining in 
crayon or chalk, or of painting in black, red, or white color, as pre- 
limiaary to the work of the stonecutter or engraver. 

There is every reason to believe that the practice of giving exact- 
ness to lettering in stone by means of patterns prevailed generally at 

^ Prolegomena, Exempla Scripturae Epigraphicae Latinae. Aem. Hiibner. 



PLATE VI— CURSIVE OF DACIA 



A2■Cc^^<^tj:^)^.v):' 


■) -^ -^ f T? (\ «^ / T V X \ 


» 2 C( i> e (^ f- *? 


>cu> 


^ » )-v 6 f c-v T^ T s X V 


>y.l (^( ^ ^- f ^ 


k ^^ 


I. 7>v y,6o0 C\ p J T UX\ 


\>>- C ^ V J= s-^ 


V ^^y 


v\'^> ^ ^■''^^/"t^.>r^ 


>> a (f c\ N-^ f ^ >i: ^ t 


l^Tl"^ P i>« 1! -x 1^ / -V ^^^^ 


y^ A. C i- '^ /' K )i 1^ -.^^ r^ -■= ? '\ ^ / r ^ >^ 
^ ^. (^ J- IV )-' ^ ) 1^ ox K o = ^ "V > // T: ^-^ X 


/ i d 2^ ^S- 1==^ 




\ >^ >< t^ i^ 0-v, ]N. ./ o-i) y; 


-p ^ /' J- '^ )*' 


)' 


\ (^ T\c^ r^) 7/^Xv.^ 


jy> > t > V- 7 


31 


( ^"^ ^^ '■■^ r i^ 5^ f" T u X 


? \ e- .\ .V jc 


/i 


I c-x 7X '^>>- t 'it r / C vvX 


P "^ f^ X. ^ )!■ 


ll 


l^i) ix ><.v-~'(i|jN/-e"-.?<- 




A 
\ 





46 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 47 

all periods. The effect of cutting after a pattern made with, the 
brush is seen in the later tendency to imitate painted letters in the 
inscriptions. 

The custom just referred to originated in the earlier usage existing 
among the Romans of painting inscriptions, a practice derived, in all 
probability, from the Phoenicians and Greeks, and found also among 
other people of Italy, such as the Etruscans and Samnites, who 
made sepulchral inscriptions in this manner. 

Some of the earliest of the Roman tUuli sepulcrales on the 
Scipio sarcophagi show letters painted in minium. Reference is 
made in the Lex AcUia Bepetundarum 631/123 to the custom of 
painting on board tablets.' Fasti have been found at Rome painted 
in red or black colors on the walls of buildings. In like manner 
registers of oflB.cers of the year 707-708 a.u.c. were painted in black 
upon buildings of Pompeii built of light colored tufa. Amphorae 
of various kinds show many instances of this custom. How widely 
the practice extended can be appreciated by considering that a num- 
ber of painted inscriptions exist to-day, though such a preservation 
is remarkable.^ 

Letters Cut in Stone. 

The next operation in the preparation of inscriptions, after out- 
lining or painting of patterns, was the work of the stonecutter (mar- 
morarius, lapidarius), which consisted in the cutting (sculpo, scalpo, 
insculpo) letters out of stone with the use of tools, principally the 
chisel (scalprum), and the hammer (malleus). Other tools of which 
we have knowledge from representations in the inscriptions ^ were the 
regula, compasses (circinus), used also in the pattern-making, square 
(norma), level and plimib-line (libella et perpendiculum), the scalpellum, 
dolabra, and ascia. The form of the cut is that of an inverted 
isosceles triangle WM!M^^^,'f0M^MM/> hence angular and not oblong 
nor ciirved. This shape has been useful iii determining the genuine- 

1 C /. L. I. 198. verse 14. in tabula in albo atramento scriptos. 

2 Htibner, Exempla, p. xxviii. 
« C. I. L. VI. 16534. 



48 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

ness of inscriptions, for it is an evidence of antiquity ; ' and the addi- 
tions of modern hands can thus be recognized. The smoothness and 
evenness which it displays testify to the perfection attained in this art. 

As we infer from the perfect and exact form of the letters that 
they were outlined before being cut, so the evenness and regular 
order of words lead -us to believe that lines of direction were marked 
upon the stone, probably by means of a cord covered with minium. 
Naturally these have disappeared. In one of the Scipio inscriptions 
lines are plainly seen which were marked in the stone (see page 240). 
After the letters were cut in the stone they were frequently colored 
with minium, Ktterae rubricatae, — a practice which belongs to the more 
recent inscriptions, as well as to those of the most ancient period.^ 

In addition to these methods, it became common in the, days of 
great architectural designs and ornamentation to form letters out 
of some material such as bronze or lead, and insett them in the stone 
by means of rivets set into holes previously prepared, or to fasten 
them upon the surface. The architraves of temples, gates, porti- 
coes, and public buildings, particularly in the Province of Africa, 
were adorned by these letters in relief (litterae incrustatae or caelatae). 
Pavements were inlaid with bronze and lead, and bronze plates 
were inscribed with letters of silver; on vases of silver letters of 
gold appear, while bronze weights were thus marked with silver. 

Letters Engraved on Metal. 

As stone was the material used for monumental inscriptions (titult), 
so bronze was employed for documents (acta), such as leges, senatus 
consulta, edicta, etc. 

The cutting of letters in bronze was the work of the aerarius or 
caelator. This operation is referred to by ancient writers under 
the word incidere} The difference in material required different 

1 Ritschl, Opusc. IV. 694, note. 

2 Pliny, J\^. H. XXXIII. 122 : minium in voluminum quoque scriptura usurpa- 
tur olarioresque Utteras vel in auro (Mommsen in muro, Hubner in aere) vel in 
marmore etiam in sepulcris facit. 

3 Cic. pro Balbo 23, Phil. 1. 10. 26 ; Pliny, N. S. XXXIII. 19 ; Pliny the 
Younger, Epist. VIII. 6, 13. 



THE LATlN ALPHABET 



49 



methods of treatment, lighter ancl smaller tools, and work more 
minute in detail. Hence we find a style of writing related to 
that employed on board and wax tablets. 

As can be seen from the bronze plates given in facsimile by 
Eitschl (P. L. M. E.), in the laws of the Republic the style of the 
letters is that of the early cursive writing with space between lines, 
giving evidence of a rapidly moving scalprum. Later documents 
(acta), show that great skill and facility were attained by those who 
prepared bronze tablets in the time of the Empire (see page 42). 

In addition to the documents which were engraved on bronze, 
inscriptions appearing on various objects of various materials show 
the. use of a similar tool {scalprum), and a similar style of lettering. 
Such £lre the thin bronze plates (laminae), placed on the bases of 
statues and altars and attached in different ways to votive offerings. 



\1 NEITM N 



\A 



€ELKS¥S 



l/l 



N 



Bronze lamina found in Kome, now in the Kircherian Museum. 
Hubner's Exempla, No. 893. 

Neptuno \ ex voto \ On. Domitius | Gelasus, C. I. L. VI. 534. 



Bronze vases and figures, likewise ivory and bone tesserae, and, in 
a more recent period, consular diptychs, were engraved with a tool 
similar to that used in making the acta, and show, in consequence, 
letters of the same or similar character. 

In addition to the ordinary methods of engraving or scratching 
letters upon metal or other materials, at times the lines were made 
by a succession of points cut in the surface. Letters of this char- 

LAT. INSCRIP. — 4 



50 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



acter are found to some extent on gold and silver, but frequently on 
bronze paterae, tabellae, and shields. 








A tahella ansata of bronze found between Niebia and Moguer in Spain, dating 27 a.d. 
Hiibner's Hxempla, No. 869. 

Celer Erhuti f{ilius) Limieus \ Borea Cantibedoniesi \ muneris tesera(rn) 
dedit I anno M. Licinio co(n)s{iile). G. I. L. II. 4963. 

This is regarded as a tessera gladiatoria and is explained by Hiibner thus : Oeler, 
Erbuti fllius, natlone Limieus, munerarius Boreae gladiatori, natione 
Cantibedoniensi, muneris gladiatorii tesseram dedit anno M. Licinio 
consule. 



Written Inscriptions. 

The two forms of inscriptions described above, namely, those on 
stone and those on metal, show letters deeply cut with a graving tool 
by professional worlimen. 

Although not the technical term, the word scribo was used in 
reference to this engraving on stone and metal, but applied more 
exactly and consistently to inscriptions which may be said to have 
been "written," inasmuch as they were made without the formal, 
artistic work of the lapidarius or aerarius, but as the writing of 
ordinary daily life. 

These inscriptions show a style of writing of the character of that 
looked for on wax tablets or on papyrus. Of such a nature are the 
inscriptions cut with a large stilus (graphium), in such material as the 
lime or clay of house walls, or on earthen vessels used for various 
purposes. ^ 

The inscriptiones parietariae of Pompeii were scratched with a 
graphium before the cement had become hardened.' Inscriptions 

■ 0. 1. L. IV. See page 386. 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 51 

in cursive style cut or scratched with a grapMwn are found also at 
Rome, as, for example, on the walls of the guard-house of the 
seventh cohort of the Vigiles.' 

On clay vessels lettering was made either before or after baking. 
In the former case, as the material was soft, the lines are curved, 
while in the latter they are angular, as cut in hard material with a 
sharper stilus. Tiles were also thus marked with cursive lettering 
before or after the material had been hardened, and were used for 
educational purposes, often containing alphabets and verses, also for 
memoranda of various kinds, such as directions to workmen in the 
brickfields.^ Very early examples of these scratched tiles have 
been found in Etruria, containing sepulchral inscriptions with 
Etruscan words written with Latin letters.' 

It is not upon such surfaces alone that these scratched (scaripho), 
or written letters, are found, but metal which was soft enough for 
the purpose was also used as material for what may be termed 
" written inscriptions.'' There exist to-day vessels of silver, such as 
drinking goblets, and patellae, inscribed thus in cursive style with 
the names of the maker and the weight. Bronze tablets were thus 
inscribed with maledictory inscriptions (devotiones), written in a 
cursive or semi-cursive style. Lead, as being a softer metal, was 
freely used for these devotiones and for sepulchral inscriptions, 
but specimens are rare, as the material was easily destroyed. A 
very early example of the use of lead for inscriptions is the dedi- 
catory lamitm given C. I. L. I. 196. 




Pl{autios) Specios Menervai clonomport{at). 
p. L. M. E. II. 0. 

1 G. I. L. VI. 3061. 2 (7. J L. V. 8110 (176). 

3 C. J, L. 1. 1347, 1354-1356. 



52 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Unscientific Cutting in Stone. 

The different methods of making inscriptions described above do 
not include the unscientific cutting (sculpo) of large letters with a 
scalprum by those ignorant of the art of engraving or careless in 
their work. 

A peculiar style of lettering, which approaches the cursive, resulted 
from this amateur inscribing. It has been termed the scriptura vul- 
garis} Eitschl ^ has shown that traces of this style are found in the 
most ancient inscriptions. The imperial period, however, provides 
much more numerous illustrations of this vulgaris writing, which may 
be regarded as the epigraphic cursive style. Inscriptions with this 
lettering were cut without the assistance of outlines, in a careless and 
hasty manner. 

Hence we should place under this classification inscriptions found 
in quarries and on blocks of stone which were inscribed before their 
removal to the place for which they were designed. 




From an ancient limestone quarry situated between 

BirdoBwald and CaBtlesteads, England. 

Hiibner's Sxempla, No. 1185. 

I(_unius?) Brutus | dec(urio) al{ae) Pet{rianae). O. I. L. VII. 872. 

The above inscription was made by cutting holes along the out- 
lines of the letters, and afterwards rudely joining them. 




From an inBcriptlon on a block of Carystian marble found at the Emporium 
in Rome, now in the Lateran Museum. Date, 187 a.d. 

1 HUbner Ex., p. xlvi. 2 p. l M. E., p. Ill ; Opnsc. IV.., pp. 511, 687, 725. 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 



53 



L. Aelio I Caesare n(ostro} II et Bal\bino co(n)s(ulibus} rationis urbicae sub 
cur(a) Irenaei | Aug(usti) lib{erti) proc{uratoris) caesura Tulli \ Saturnini 
i-l {= centurionis) legiionis) XXII Pnm{igeniae). (Hubner's £'x.,No. 1160.) 

Inscriptions are also found cut in the natural rock wMcli show an 
irregularity due in some measure to the hardness of material and in- 
convenience of location. A very early illustration is the sepulchral 
inscription from Pescina, dating in the later days of the republic, 
which is given below. The letters are monumental, but show in 
some particulars a cursive tendency. 










-J 



Sepulchral inscription cut in the natural rock over the entrance to a vault near Peticina. 

N(umerius') Vibidaius V(ibii) f{ilius) | Barbo \ G(aio) Pansa 0(lo) Irtio | con- 
s{ulibus), pri{die) non{as) \ Febr(uarias) . O. I. L. I. 625 = IX. 3771. 

The wprk of the amateur and unskillful stonecutter is seen very 
commonly in the votive inscriptions, appearing on public or private, 
altars of the different gods, and on marble tablets. 



VlllCVi hoatohvaX. 

From ft votive inscription on a marble tablet, now in the Capitoline Museum, 

Rome, probably of the second century a.d. 

Hiibner's Ex&mpla^ No. 1155. 

Silvano sacrum \ Tychicus \ G-labrionis n{ostri) ser(vus) vilicus hortorum | 
v(oCum) s{olvit). C. I. L. VI. 623. 



54 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Again, parts of the fasti magistratuum and of tlie calendaria, also 
of registers of various kinds wMch were added from time to 
time, show a form of lettering evidently made without the care 
and skill of a professional workman. 



6C 

fK^Rium 



A portion of the fasti amm4. luUani engraved on a 
marble tablet, dating between 746/8 and 757=8 
A.D., and running from March 23-31st, 

Hiibner's Muempla, No. 971. 

The Eoman year was marked off into sets of eight days denoted by the letters 
A-H, Utterae nundinales. These appear in the first column. 

The Tubilustrium is the fixed festival assigned to March 23d and May 23d. 

Qiuandoc) rex c(omitiavit) /(as), March 24th ; also NP = nefastits dies and 
C = comitialis dies, are the notae indicating the character of the days. The 
occasion of the feriae on March 27th is given as Caesar Alexandream recepit. 
a I. L. V. p. 223. 

For complete account of the Kalendaria see page 865. 

In like manner miliaria, upon which names or other inscriptions 
were cut without the stone being taken to the domain of a pro- 
fessional engraver, particularly when names of later emperors have 
been added to the original inscription while the stone was in posi- 
tion, show letters carelessly and hurriedly made, often of small size, 
and with shallow cut. 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 66 



1 

MAV R- 
VAL£RIO 
MAXENTIO 
PIOffLlCHNVlC 
toAOPERPetVO 

AVC 

On the fifth milestone of the Via Appla at Bome, dating between 

306 and 812 a.d., now in the Vatican Museum. 

Hiibner's Mcempln^ TS'o. 700. 

Imp{eratore) dipmino) n{ostro) \ M. Aur{eUo) \ Valeria \ Maxentio \ Pio Felici 

invic\to ac perpetuq \ Aug\usto V. G. I. L. X. 0816. 

Inscriptions showing similar irregularity were cut on the seats of 
the theatres or circi giving names of the bodies of Officials or of the 
collegia, as well as of individuals who had the privilege of certain 
portions.^ 

Inscriptions made by soldiers are found in the remains of camp 
fortifications. 



/> P 




MHI'A^C^ 



iDscpibed on a oippus militarise once inserted in the wall of a Eoman fortiiication on 

Mt. Taunus (Hoheburg"), G-ermany, now in the Museum of Wiesbaden. 

Hiibner's Exempla, No. 1181. 

Pedat{ura) Treuerorlum p(edum) LXXXXVI\sub curiam) agente Cres- 
centino Bespecto ^ {= centiirione) \ leg{ionis) VIII Aug (ustae). 

1 a L L. VI. 1796 tZ; also p. 857, 1-82, 97-100. 



56 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Tituli sepulcrales of al\ kinds and from various places form the 
great body of these inscriptions, often monumental in size and pre- 
tension, but ordinary in form and arrangement. 

lOCO- DOX/XTQAXAX; 

CirXTO- ATVUICIX 

SXBMTOXJICE-£r' 

A^'MMO'TJlOr[[l 

From a sepulchral inscription on a marble tablet found at Borne, 

now in Vatican Museum. 

Hubner's Mcempla, No. 1167. 

Loco donato man\cipato a Fublicia | Sabastonice et \ ab Arrio Trophi\mo 
herede \ eius, in f(ronte) p(edes) XVJ s(^emis), | in ag(ro) p{edes) Villi. 
C. I. L. VI. 25165. 

Another method of making inscriptions which is different from 
any mentioned above, and which was employed in the main upon 
the smaller articles classed in C. I. L. under Instrumentum, given 
at the close of each volume, is that of impressing inscriptions upon 
a soft substance by means of stamps of hard material. 

The greater number of these inscriptions stand forth from the 
surface in relief, and were produced by stamps upon which letters 
were deeply cut. There have also been found inscriptions pressed 
into the softer substance, which are distinguished from cut inscrip- 
tions by the shape of the impression, which is curved or square 
rather than triangular. 

These letters in relief appear on various remains. Such are the 
lamps made of clay or terra-cotta upon which the names of the 
potters are pressed, also vessels of every kind, such as large Roman 
amphorae, upon the handles of which these stamped letters are 
found. 

Household utensils of metal are also marked in relief with the 
names of the maker. So arms, metal ornaments and equipment show 
the name of the aerarhis imprinted upon them when in the mold. 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 



57 




On the handle of a bronze patera found at Evaux, France. 

Vimpuro Firmi \ lib(_ertus) Suav (. . . ?) \ v(otum) s{olvit) l(ibens) m{erito). 

(In Utterae punctatae.) 
lAn']si{i) Epap(Ji)rod{iti). (In Utterae impressae.) Hiibner's Exempla, 

No. 933. 

In addition to these, pigs of silver, bronze, and lead, found in the 
mines of England, also the lead water pipes (fistidae plumheae) and 
lead missiles (glandes plumheae), lead tabellae or tesserae which have 
been cast, show these letters in relief (litter ae prominentes). 

The most interesting of these inscriptiones impressae are those 
made upon tiles from the numerous tile and brick kilns (Jiglinae). 
See page 269. 

These inscriptions in relief which have been imprinted by means 
of stamps are seen also on glass vessels. 

Gems cut with a graving tool show inscriptions of a similar 
character. 



INDIVIDUAL LETTERS 
A 



ZM^vJ^^jjA. 



The various forms of the letter A may be classified with reference 
to the three following types : 

1. A, with transverse. 2. A, without transverse. 3. A A, with 
pendant. A. This is found in the earliest remains with the position 
of the transverse varying in its relation to the height of the letter. 



58 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

It is also the momimental form, but with the position of the trans- 
verse fixed midway between the top and bottom of the letter. Little 
ornamentation is attached to this standard letter. 

A A A A -^ yi. In the imperial period ornamented forms 
showing additions (comua) aiid extensions of certain lines become prev- 
alent. It is noticeable that the extensions are regularly to the left. 

A. This form is due at first to the negligence of the graver. It 
appears in the smaller letters of the instrumenta of the Republic and 
Empire, but belongs to the cursive writing of inscriptions of all peri- 
ods. A /K A, more rarely A, are of Latin origin, and belong in the 
earliest period to the vulgaris, and later to the cursive writing, both 
of the Eepublio and Empire. 

B 

The rounded form of this letter is the one in ordinary use in all 
periods. ^, the angular shape, is rarely found in early inscription?, 
but occiirs in letters cut in lead in time of the Empire, the form 
being due to the material. The variation in the forms of this letter 
depends upon the relative sizes of the lobes. Inscriptions in vulgaris 
lettering on pages 63 and 56 show a form in which the upper lobe 
has entirely disappeared. Compare with this the cursive . letters, in 
which further modifications are seen. 

C 

< C ( are the archaic forms. In early inscriptions the only 
point of difference is the breadth, but the full rounded form belongs 
to the best period. 

D 

> D D are the archaic forms, the first recalling the letter of the 
old Chalcidian alphabet. Like C, this letter varies merely in its 
breadth, and the form of the best period is full and round, b D D 
occur on the metal plates containing leges of the republican period. 

E 

E ^ ^ £ II are the archaic forms of this letter. The monu- 
mental form of the best period has three equal parallel horizontals. 
A similar shape belongs to the days of the Republic, though it is 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 69 

very narrow in the kges on the bronze plates, but the letter of the 
Augilstan age is well proportioned. A diminution in the length of 
the central horizontal gives evidence of a period later than the 
Augustan age. 

II. This form is very general in its occurrence, appearing in the 
archaic alphabet and among the cursive forms of the Republic and 
Empire. It is not a form belonging to the City either in origin or 
use, although in the imperial period it is familiar in all regions and 
is found in stone inscriptions. Zangemeister suggests that E, 1: are 
transition forms from E to II. Htibner supposes that II = E is analo- 
gous to I ' = F, and that the latter I ' is developed from F through the 
medium of V or some one of the numerous cursive forms in which 
one transverse is wanting. 

6 . This curved form, due to Greek influence, appears on a coin 
and on a jar of Praeneste of the republican period, and about the 
beginning of the second century a.d. is found in inscriptions which 
have cursive letters. 

F 

/" F P I ' are the archaic forms of this letter. The monumental 
form of the best period has two horizontals equal and parallel. 
Narrow shapes are seen in the law plates. 

F. This form with the second horizontal shorter than the upper is 
rare in monumental inscriptions until the fourth or fifth centuries. 
(~ /' K r I ' are the vulgaris and cursive forms which appear in 
inscriptions of the later Empire, particularly those of Gaul and Ger- 
many. I ' has been referred to in the account of 1 1 under E, with 
which its history is connected. 

Like T and P, F often overtops other letters, particularly when it 
is initial in the line. This custom dates from the second century 
A.D., being fovmd mainly in inscriptions of Italy and the provinces, 
and becomes prevalent in Eome after the third century. 



The earliest form of this letter is G, in which the line of differen- 
tiation rises perpendicularly from the right-hand corner of the letter 



60 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

and terminates in a head scarcely perceptible. This is the general 
form up to the second century, although q is occasionally found. 

6. This curved form is found at times in the first century, but 
becomes more common in the second and third centuries, particularly 
where smaller letters are used or where patterns have been drawn 
before the cutting of the inscription. It is very general in its use 
in City inscriptions of the third, fourth, and fifth centuries. 

C^ Q C, G are the cursive forms which consort with All I ' l^ 
and later appear with uncials. In the latter part of the second 
century they appear on the smaller monuments with monumental 
letters, and become common in the fourth and fifth centuries. 

H 

B. The earliest form of this letter, coinciding in fact with the early 
letter in the Phoenician and Greek alphabet, is seen on the Fibula 
Praenestina A similar form is seen in the other Italic alphabets. 

The main points of variation in the different forms of this letter 
are the breadth and the position of the transverse. 

The standard monumental form of the early part of the first 
century is broad, and the transverse occupies a position at half the 
length of the shaft, but in almost the same period the letter is found 
narrow and with transverse higher up. 

I 

I. This, the most ancient form of the letter, in which there is 
neither head nor foot, was the prevailing shape even in the early 
part of the imperial period ; but during the first century the orna- 
mentation of head and foot was added, particularly where painted 
patterns were followed. From the time of Sulla a tall I is found 
taking the place to some extent of the more ancient El which had 
been used to denote the long vowel. Thus in P. L. M. E. we find 
CHlLO, MAGISTRl, PRiMVS. It occurs very commonly in the 
word DiVVS, also in the genitive case DiVl, again in the dative 
case, third declension, CAESARl, in dative and ablative plural of 
the second declension although more rarely, GRATIS, also in 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 61 

MEIS, His, and in the accusative plural of the third declension, 
SAECVLARlS. 

The tall letter is also used in certain positions as an additional 
form, and as representing merely a custom in writing. Thus it 
appears as an initial letter at the beginning of words and lines, from 
the Augustan period. The words ITEM and I N have g, tall initial 
letter of which there appears to be no explanation save that it is a 
mere custom, originating in the tendency to ornament an inscription 
by the simple modification of certain letters. The form IMP 
(= imperator) is common in inscriptions from 10 b.c' At the close 
of the second century the tall letter denoting the long vowel dis- 
appeared from use, but the graphic tall I seems to have been very 
common during the second and third centuries.^ 

The form J found at the end of words in the latter part of the 
second century is due merely to the caprice of the graver and has 
no additional value. 

The point over the I is not of ancient origin, but appears about the 
fifth or sixth century a.d. 

K 

K. The ancient form of this letter belongs to the time of the 
Eepublic and Empire as well. In the earlier period the transverse 
lines are very short; after the first century, however, letters are 
found with one or both lengthened. In case of one being lengthened, 
the preference is in favor of the upper. 

Occasionally K overtops its fellows. 

L 
^ |_ L ±. These are the archaic forms of this letter. The most 
ancient form 1^, the same as the Chalcidian prototype, gave way, by 
degrees, to the rectangular shape, and disappeared from use about 
200 B.C. 

1 Eltschl. Opusc. TV., p. 570, reverentiae sensu imperatoris personae atgue 
maiestati debitae. Hiitiner declares, however, that in the majority of instances 
in his Exempla the word imperator with tall initial stands as the first word of 
the inscription or line. See Christiansen, De Apicihus et I Longis, p. 37. 

2 For the tall letter used as the semivowel, see page 26. 



62 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

L. The standard letter of the best period is rectilinear and rec- 
tangular, with transverse measuring a little over one half of the 
length of the shaft. The transverse varies in length in later periods, 
being, very short in painted letters, even approaching the simple 
shaft as in I. The letter L is at times taller than other letters. 



M 

The oldest form of this letter consists of five parts, av. This is 
found on the Fibiila Praenestina, also in the Duenos Inscription. . It 
gives rise to aa' a/0, which in the days of the Eepublic stands as the 
abbreviation for Manius, as distinguished from Marcus with abbre- 
viation M. The prevailing form under the Republic, and the stand- 
ard letter of the best period is that made with oblique lines reaching 
to the base of the letter. 

M and M are very rare in the republican period, the former occur- 
ring only on coins and small articles, and the latter on coins only 
because of lack of space. The former appears in the instrumenta of 
the Empire, but as an exception, while it is not seen in the monu- 
mental iascriptions until after the second century, and then very 
rarely until the close of the fourth century. 

M. No instance of the rectilinear form with angle reaching to 
the base occurs in inscriptions until the middle of the first century 
A.D. It does not become a familiar letter until the close of the 
second century, when it is found in Germany, but in the third and 
fourth centuries it becomes so common as to equal in frequency of 
occurrence the oblique forms, especially in Gaul and Germany. 

The oblique form M, however, continued in use as the more ele- 
gant letter, particularly in the fourth and fifth centuries, when the 
monumental alphabet approached the style of lettering found in the 
instrumenta, for the rectilinear form never prevailed in the instrw- 
menta, being merely a chance occurrence. 

The standard type of the best period suffers modification only as 
regards its breadth and ornamentation. The earliest shape of this 
normal letter is very broad and unornamented, its top being the 
simple angles without cornua. It is not obsolete even in the second 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 63 

and third centuries. The ornamented letter JW appears in inscrip- 
tions of the time of Trajan, and becomes common in the period of 
Diocletian. 

I i 1 1 belongs to the old cursive writing, and may be classed with 
II, I', &. It does not occur in the imperial period, save in the 
scratched inscriptions of Pompeii. 

AX. This is a cursive form in the best period, but appears later 
on monuments of the lower class, and in inscriptions of Germany, 
Spain and Africa. ^ 

mJ. This five-part letter, denoting Manius, belongs rather to the 
time of the Kepublic. It exists in a few examples during the Empire, 
and is retained in marking the praenomina of the Consuls. 

N 

/v. The earliest form of this letter is that in which all parts are 
oblique. This was maintained during the Republic, but disappeared 
entirely under the Empire. 

N. The rectilinear form is the normal type of the best period, 
being at first unornamented, afterwards having partial ornamentation, 
N, and finally, from the second century, becoming fully ornamented, 
N. The N varies in breadth just as the M, the quadrate form 
appearing in the early part of the best period, while the slender 
letter is found in painted inscriptions. 

A/ is a cursive letter having a history coordinate with the similar 
form of the m, X\. 



(J <>. These are the archaic forms of this letter. In the 
early part of the best period the form of the like that of other 
round letters of the same time is quadrate, that is with height and 
breadth equal. In the earliest period it is noticeable that the is 
very often smaller than the other letters. This peculiarity lasted 
through the imperial period, especially after the letter C, which 
could envelope the in its curve. This is very common in the 
abbreviation © S from the Augustan age down to the end of the 
third century. 



64 ■ LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



n P P P- These are the archaic forms, the first being due to the 
retrograde directioa found in earliest inscriptions and, like the 
second, recalling the Greek prototype. 

The standard letter of the monumental alphabet is the curved 
and open form. The closed letter is a chance occurrence iu republi- 
can days, appearing on glandes plumbeae and tesserae. It is rare in 
the imperial period until the second century; but from the third 
century it is found in inscriptions of the City and provinces. In 
Germany, however, it appears as early as the close of the first 
century and afterwards with greater frequency than elsewhere. 

Sometimes P rises above other letters, particularly at the begin- 
ning of the line. 

Q 

This letter originates in the Greek koppa, hence its earliest form 
is 9. Q. Q <^ Q are other archaic forms. 

The types of the Republic and Empire vary merely as to the tail, 
which is either short and straight or long and curved. The short 
and nearly straight projection belongs to the latter part of the 
Eepublic, while in the first century a.d. the tail is lengthened and 
curved, the abridged form becoming rare. 



q . The oldest form of this letter as found in the Duenos Inscrip- 
tion is like the Greek original. 

P R. P P are other archaic forms. After the R attained its 
normal curved shape, its form depended upon the relative sizes of 
the upper and lower parts, as in B, also upon the length and shape 
of the tail and the manner of its union with the upper part. 

The early letters have a full circular form with the end of the 
circle at times withdrawn from the shaft, while the tail originates 
at the shaft or close to it. The standard letter of the monumental 
alphabet of the Republic and Empire was marked by the fully 
rounded circular portion whose circumference terminated at the 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 65 

middle of the shaft. A diminished circle with circumference end- 
ing above the middle of the shaft and with a tail somewhat curved 
are later modifications. In this standard letter the tail either 
originates at the shaft, or in the circular portion at some distance 
from the shaft. The former is the earlier shape. 

R. Often the tail begins at the end of an incomplete circle to the 
right of the shaft. This is found in the provinces both in the early- 
period and in some monumental inscriptions of the second and 
third centuries. 

S 

^ S ^ are the archaic forms of this letter of which the angular 
shape is found in the days of the Republic, but not of the Empire. 
S, the standard letter of the best period, shows the upper and lower 
portion equal and fully rounded. Inequality in the sizes of these 
two portions gives evidence of an inferior alphabet. 

/. Very slender letters approaching the straight line are found 
in inscriptions of the lower class, particularly of the provinces. 

C. This is found in inscriptions showing Greek influence, as those 
of Naples and Sicily. It is a form of the Greek §. The original 
four-stroke Greek § appears in Latin as an indication of value to 
denote the semuncia. 

In rare instances S is taller than other letters when standing at 
the beginning of the line, and more rarely still when medial. 

T 

1* T T T are the archaic forms of this letter. 

In the early period of the Empire the standard letter was plain, 
with transverse at right angles to the shaft, not very short, but unor- 
namented. 

A form with transverse slightly curved T appears in inscriptions 
of the first century, and is very common in the second, third and 
fourth centuries. It belongs originally to the documentary writing 
and the cursive letters. 

Very often this letter rises above others, for reasons of space. 
Examples of this are found from the beginning of the seventh century 
of the City, and in the imperial period the usage is very common. 

lAT. JNSCEIP. — 5 



66 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



V. This is the early, and at the same time the regular form of this 
letter in the Republic and Empire. 

At times the apex of the angle is placed a little to the right, and 
as a consequence the right side becomes perpendicular and the left 
side is lengthened. 

The curved form U belonging to the uncial writing is found in 
City inscriptions of the last part of the second and the first part of 
the third centuries. It afterwards appears frequently in inscriptions 
with uncial letters. 

X 

The early form of this letter is unornamented and exact, with 
lines equally divided. In the imperial period the quadrate form is 
the more elegant, but the ordinary shape is narrow and graceful. 

Many instances occur of a form marked by the broadening of the 
transverse X. This is seen not only in the plain letter, but also in 
the more recent and more elegant forms. 



This letter, as well as the Z which follows, was introduced in the 
later days of the Republic, to aid in transliterating Greek words. 
Alphabetic forms were then attaining the perfection which marked 
the Augustan letters, hence both Y and Z are well proportioned in 
their early history. 

The regular letter is a plain rectilinear figure, with the two sides 
of the angle equal. Even in the best period, however, letters with 
curved lines are common. 

Z 

The letters of the best period show equal angles and equal hori- 
zontals. 

d h 

These are the two letters of Claudius that appear in inscriptions. 
The former, denoting the consonant V, is the more common. 



THE LATIM ALPHABET 67 



LIGATUEES 

The necessity for economizing space in engraving^ letters led to the expedient 
of joining them in monograms. This custom first appears in the lettering of 
coins about 200 e.g., and in inscriptions about 150 e.g., particularly at the end 
of the line, wliere other devices, such as the use of small letters and their 
insertion in curved letters, mainly C, e.g. G, S, and superposition, as M. vvere 
also employed. 

The use of ligatures did not become very general in Rome or Italy, but 
they are common in Gallic inscriptions from the first century a.d., and in those 
of Germany after the second century, wliile they abound in African inscriptions 
of the third century. 

The ligatures of the cursive alphabet of the Dacian wax tablets are given in 
Plate VII. These present peculiar difSculties, while those of the capital letters, 
a few of the most common of which are given below, are more readily inter- 
preted.i 

lilGATUKES OP Two LETTERS 



M— am, 


M = ma, 


N — an. 


/R-ar, 


N =aTi, 


»(=au, 


M^sx, 


ei-ch, 

"H-lh, 


B -de, 
6 -ib. 


hO^nd, 
1=11, 


h£ — ne, 
M-jmi, 


/\/t=me, 
kl^-ni, 


/VP— mp, 
f? -ir. 


\f-ve, 
■f-ti, 


/L-al, 


VL-ul, 


JW-nn, 


]T-nt, 


5? — er, 


CR-or; 


^-pr, 


"ft-tr, 


Tl = ta, 


-E-te, 


W-ur, 


W - ru. 







Ligatures of Three Letters 
A?-'aur, 3^-ent, i?-eri, 'fe-ite, At- mae, /ij-mat, R=| — ath, 

In some cases a number of letters are combined, thus : 

W=atur,7fe-matjd,AW\— maxim, @-o(ssa)h(ic)s(ita), Inscr. Bhen. 1983. 
©-o(pto) t(erra) s(it) l(evis) t(ibi), C.I.L. III. 5577. 

1 For a fuller list see Cagnat, Goiirs W iSpigraphie, p. 24, and Hiibner's 
Exempla, p. Ixviii. 



PLATE VII 



'^^ 



^1K 



V 



^'e 



X ^J" 



4 






1^ 



^ 









I 



h 



Son 



y- 



5^ 






^ 



S'?^ 



6- 



■■% 



^ 



-V 



1^ 






'^ 



'^ 



^1 

o 






^ 



c- 



'iR^ 



' 4 



5(^ 
P 



(x^ 



^ 



^ ;^ 



!> 

■^ 



'^M 



.^ 



[.^ 






Vi 



• 'f 



•r^-^l 



'ti; 



'? 



^^ 



^g 



?> 



J^ 



5 ^ 



■P^ 



!/> 



(C^ 



«i 






^ 



s ^ 



14 "^ 



^ 



i^- 






'Z 



n 



^ 






li^ 



5(S 



t^ 



i<^ 



^1 



T^ 



^ 



^ 



- G^ 



i 



.^.;s 



^4 



ft\i 



?^ 



?^ ? 



'A 



5(:^ 



'-t 



'^ 



►/fc, 



-/^ 



^^m; 



h 



'fc 



id- 



L-^^ 



= 0^ 



'■t 



rL 



^ 



\ 



^ 



^ 



^, 



^^ 



= O 



?^ 



^ek 



Pg 









'^ 



"^ 






1^ 



sxi. 



\2- 




a s > 

-peso ft-^ "C ^ ft+J +J -tJ n»s' 

inmt^OQOiOrHMM-^iOSDt-COOiOr-tWO 

tS O Pi « 

t-00a.Or-l<N(ftTj1U2(£I~-a30:Oi-'C2TO^ 
IMWMCOcOCOCOCTCOCOeOCQCO^S^SS 

OJOrH<MCO-*mtDr*«JfflOr^e^OT^g3g 

ilii g g g,.sag|g5al 









§5 



^O 



- > X lu o)^ ea/K o-O tS 



"i ^ § ea ^ 2 



is ^ ^ 



OJOi-tNcOT}Hioot-cociOi-<wcO"<j'tn® 



i-icqw*io«Dt~a3Ci07-'WeO'sfin«ot-oo 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 69 

SICILICUS. APEX. MAEKS OF PUNCTUATION 
SiciLicus D 
This has already been referred to in the treatment of double con- 
sonants. 

The testimony of the Grammarians, that the sicilicus was used to 
denote that the consonant should be regarded as a double letter, is 
supported by a few instances of its use found in the inscriptions 
of the time of Augustus. C. I. L. V. 1361 ; C. I. L. X. 3743. 

Apex 

Prom the period just after Sulla up to the second half of the third 
century vowels long by nature were denoted by a sign termed the 
apex. They appear most frequently in inscriptions of the first 
century a.d., and of the first half of the second. 

The earliest form of this sign is ^ "7 ^ /■, but in the time of 
the Empire the usual form is the acute accent ' 

The apex is found over A, E, 0, V, El = i, but very rarely over 1.^ 

Its occurrence in the acta is decidedly less frequent than in the 
monumental inscriptions. 

Other methods of indicating the long vowel were : 

(a) The double vowel introduced by Attius (see page 30). 

(6) The use of El, the spurious diphthong, to denote long I, a cus- 
tom dating from the Gracchan period, 620/134. 

(c) The tall I, from the time of Sulla up to latter half of second 
century. 

In the Augustan age both methods were still in use, as in the 
Monumentum Ancyranum a number of words (twenty-two at least) 
are found with tall I, and three with El. 

Punctuation 
Prom earliest times individual words in inscriptions were separated 
by marks of punctuation, which regularly occupied a position mid- 
way between the upper and lower limits of the letters. These points, 

1 Christiansen De Apicibus et I Longis, p. 13, shows that out of 1119 instances 
of the use of the apex, 415 were over d, 350 over 6, 169 over e, 147 over u, i 
over i, 32 over de, and 2 over du. 



70 LATIN mSCKlPTlONS 

as a rule, were not placed at tlie end of a line, and did not indicate 
sentences or parts of sentences. 

There are various forms of these punctuation marks. The round 
form, •which may be regarded as the primitive mark, belongs in its 
general use to inscriptions in raised letters. Very rarely are round 
marks found in inscriptions, as in stone this shape would be most 
difiicult to make. Stone workers probably made a square with four 
blows of the chisel, hence we have ■, I, ^m in the more ancient 
inscriptions. In the more elaborate inscriptions triangular shaped 
points are found, ► , j^^ 4> which are made more ornamental by 
the curving of the sides, >-. 

These triangular points remained in use from the earliest times 
down to the most recent periods. 

The triangular shape finally passed into the form of an ivy leaf, 
termed in an inscription (C I. L. VIII. 6982) hederae distinguentes, 
Ci , J3 . This form is very common in the latter part of the first 
century, but is not found in the time of the Republic (see page 40). 
Naturally in cursive writing the form of punctuation would be a 
line. Hence in the "scratched" inscriptions of Pompeii we find 
examples of this form, and from the close of the second century it 
is found in the stone inscriptions. It has the following varieties : 

These points of punctuation were regularly placed between the 
letters, but in some cases, for lack of space, they are found above, or 
in case of the round forms C, D, G, 0, Q, inside of the letter. 

Punctuation was not confined to the separation of words, but may 
be found between syllables, and in soEie cases between letters. In 
sepulchral inscriptions of the lower class unusual punctuation of 
this kind had a place, but it is rare in great public and private 
inscriptions. 

In some instances the component parts of compounds were indi- 
cated by punctuation, as sub • legi, in • perato, ad ■ versus. 

Rarely are points found at the beginning of lines, but more fre- 
quently at the end. 

In carmina the metric lines are marked, and when half-verses 
are written this also is indicated by punctuation. 



THE LATIN ALPHABET 71 

At times a long space takes the place of the punctuation mark. 
In one of the Scipio "Elogia" the ends of the metric lines are 
indicated by the spacing, while in another the punctuation mark is 
used, in this case a horizontal line.' 

Like the ivy leaves referred to above, branches of palm are found 
as early as the first century marking the more important divisions. 

Under the Republic, punctuation marks were rarely omitted. 
The leges of the seventh century of the City are an exception in 
this respect, either because of Greek influence or the carelessness of 
the engraver. 

Still more' rarely are points omitted in inscriptions of the best 
period, from Augustus to Hadrian. In sepulchral inscriptions of 
the lower class, however, they are quite often neglected. 

Division of Woeds 

In the more ancient inscriptions words were not, as a rule, divided 
at the ends of lines, but were written entire. This is particularly 
true of the older leges of the Republic, with some rare exceptions, 
such as the Lex Rubria.^ In the acta of the imperial period words 
are frequently divided, the division following the usual law of sylla- 
bles which generally holds in the inscriptions. 



CXtA^ ' 5 l^ \ '**^ BIBLIOGEAPHT 

Latin Alphabet (Morphological) 

Pnscae Latinitatis Monumenta Epigraphica — Enarratio and Indices. Fe. 

RiTSCHL. Berlin, 1862. 
Opusculn Philologica. Vol. IV. Fr. Ritschl. Leipzig, 1878. 
Exempla Scripturae .Mpigraphicae . Latinae — Prolegomena. Aem. HijBNER. 
■^ Berlin, 1885. 
Cours d' iSpigraphie Latine. 2d ed. Rene Cagnat. Paris, 1890. 
Handbook of Q-reek and Latin Palaeography. E. M. Thompson. London, 1893. 

1 See pages 232, 236. ^ p £. jif. e. Enarratio, p. 120. 

1^ 



CHAPTER III 
NUMERAIiS 

The characters •which served as Latin numerals are as old as the 
letters of the alphabet, and in some cases perhaps older. The original 
numerals were the vertical I denoting the large unit, the horizontal — 
or • denoting the small unit, while V denoted 5, and X denoted 10. 
The earlier system was probably decimal, the small unit being Jj of 
the large ; and, although in the later change to the duodecimal sys- 
tem the small unit became equal to -^-^ of the large, the original 
signs — , • were still used.^ 

Upon the introduction of the alphabet two letters were adopted 
•as numerals, -l (later ^ii, 1, L), the Chalcidian ch, = 50, and <t', pJi 
(later CIO) = 1000, since they were not needed in the Latin alpha- 
bet. A sign for 100 must have been adopted in like manner, and 
its later representative, C, seems to indicate as its origin (tJi), the 
remaining aspirate. This appears from a comparison with Etruscan 
numerals, which closely resemble the Latin, as I = 1, A = 5, X = 10, 
T = 50. As the Etruscan alphabet retained the aspirates, we 
would naturally expect some mark of differentiation, if such letters 
were used as numerals. Hence J.- inverted, i.e. T = 50, <l> becoming 
^ = 1000, and or D, the Etruscan th, becoming ® = 100. The 
similarity existing between the Etruscan and Latin systems thus 
supports the theory that originally expressed 100.^ 

The remaining Eoman numerals were formed by indicating multi- 
plication by the doubling of the signs, as (D = 1000, ® = 10000, 
@ = 100000, while the halves of these : D = 600, ^ = 5000, and 

ra) = 50000. In the more ancient times the Koman numerals did 
not go beyond 100000, so that it was necessary to repeat the sign 

1 Mommsen, Hermes, XXII. pp. 598, 599. 
72 



NUMERALS 73 

for 100000 to indicate higher amounts. In the inscription on the 
Columna Kostrata © is repeated some thirty times. 

At a later period a sign Q_o, indicating quingenta milia, is found 
as a substitute for the repetition of signs denoting 100000. 

In the latter part of the Republic a custom became prevalent to 
write simple numbers and indicate multiplication by lines above for 
thousands, and with others on the sides of the signs for hundred 
thousands, so e.g. V took the place of 100 = 5000, D took the place 
of CLD = 500000, and fxl = lOOOpOO. The earliest use of these lines 
is found in the Lex E-ubria-' of Caesar's time. In the early Empire 
the two systems are both in use. Thus in the Pompeian auction 
tablets of the time of Nero the earlier system is found, while in 
another of the same period the latter. In the later period the latter 
form prevailed.^ 

There appears to have been a tendency at first to assimilate num- 
erals to letters. The original numerals I, V, X were identical with 
three of the letters, and when <t> was divided the resulting form 
became a D, C took the place of the 0, and J^ became L. 

M for miUe or milia appeared from the second century a.d., but 
in the combination M • P = milia passuum the use of M was much 
older. The M was an abbreviation for the word mille or milia, and 
was never used by the Eomans as a numeral.' 

The adoption of the C as 100 must have taken place after the 
date of our earliest inscriptions, subsequent to the time when 
fhefhaked and pakari were written, for centum at that time would 
have been kentum. 

Difficulty naturally arose from the employment of the same signs 
as letters and numerals. In consequence of this we find a mark of 
diiferentiation used, namely, a line crossing the numeral. This is 
seen in ^, which dates from the seventh century of the City ; cf . also 
X denoting the denarius. 

1 0. 1. L. I. 205, P. L. M. E. 32. 4, etc. 

2M. G. de Petra, Le Tavole Cerate di Pompei, Eoma, 1876; No. 15, 
l+S VCCCLII ; No. 16, >^l XXXIX ; No. 39,_IOO(»XXXVIIII. 

SMoramsen, Hermes, XXII. p. 601, XV M • N flSS a.d., Henzen 6086); H-S-L 
M . N (153 A.D., Orelli, 2417). 



74 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

In the Augustan period the line was placed over the numeral, 
perhaps coincident with the use of numerals' of iteration in titles. 
In the time of the Republic the number of iteration with official 
titles was given in letters, but from the time of the battle of Actium 
numerals were used.' 

To express amounts intervening between these numerals, the signs 
were placed side by side until the next denomination was reached. 

Two methods might be used : 1) the addition method, when the 
higher number preceded, 2) the subtraction method, when the 
lower denomination preceded. 

The former of these two methods is the older and more usual. 
1st method, XVIII = 18; 2d method, XliX = 18; so lill is more reg- 
ular than IV, and Vim than IX. 

For the subtraction method Mommsen (Hermes, XXII. 603) gives 
the following rules : 

1) Not merely one number, but many in order, could be subtracted, 
so that 1 1 X is just as correct or incorrect as I X. 

2) Only the numerals I, X,^ C,^ were, as a rule, used in subtraction, 
seldom the sign for 1000, and never V, L, D. 

3) The number I is subtracted, as a rule, only before V and X, and 
only by exception before L and the higher numbers. 

4) The subtractive method has the object of saving space. 
It is therefore inadmissible unless room is gained, so, not MIX but 
VII, not XXXC but LXX. It predominates in cases where an essen- 
tial simplification is obtained, and, therefore, particularly in the 
numbers 80 and 90, and occurs more in the carelessly made private 
inscriptions than in the precise monumental writing. 

6) The numeral or numerals to be subtracted were placed before 
the last numeral of an addition series, so that X 1 1 X = 18 was writ- 
ten, not ilXX; and CCCXXC = 380, not XXCCCC. 

There are certain numerals which deserve special consideration. 

'In 0. J. L. VI. 873, dating fSB/^g, aos. quinct., cos. design, sext., imp. sept., 
and O. I. L. XII. 3148, dating 129/25; '^'^^ i" G- 1- L._X. 3826^ dating m/ si, imp. 
VI. COS. Ill and C. I. L. VI. 701, dating T«/io, imp. XlT cos. XTfW6. potest. W. 

2 C. I. L. I 1166. CCCXvL; 1143. CXvL. VIMS; 536, dating 5C7/is- CCXXC. 

» O. /. L. I. 198, dating 681/123, CDJ. ; C. I. L. VI. 1243 e, /, Cool, CoLX. 



NUMERALS 75 

2. II. This numeral, with the earlier position of line of differen- 
tiation, is regularly seen in ',+S denoting sestertius. 1 1 occurs very 
frequently, particularly when indicating successive consulships and 
denoting duumvir (II VIR). At the beginning of lines ITis also found. 

4. Either IV or 1 1 11. The former, the subtractive form, belongs to 
writing of the lower class, appearing first on the vessels of San 
Cesareo, which date in the seventh century of the City. 

Mil is the more usual form, varying as follows : l+H, HIII-, Mil, 
frequently denoting quattuorviri, III), I Ml VIR. 

5. V. In Pompeian tablets it is found on its side. II 1 1 1 appears 
in African inscriptions. 

6. VI, also ITTTTI. 

8. VIII. The subtractive form I IX is a rare occurrence. 

9. V 1 1 1! is the more common form. ! X is rare. 

10. X. The transverse cuts the middle of the letter when the 
denarius is denoted, X. 

14. Xllll is more common than XIV. 

18. XVIII, but XI IX in a I. L. III. 582. 

19., XVI 1 1 1. 

28. XXVIII, but XX I IX, a I. L. VI. 9934. 

45. XLV. 

In some inscriptions ^= 30, ;>^ = 25, >J^=30, /^=zn, ;!^=40. 

50. 4- is the original form, Jy appears down to the Augustan 
period, ± is seen in the "Lex Repetundarum " (123 e.g.), and 
during the first and second centuries a.d. 

60-100. To represent numbers between 50 and 100, L with X re- 
peated is the regular form. In some African inscriptions XXX XXX 
(C. I. L. VIII. 3914) is found. Txxx. and Xxx^ are worthy of notice. 

500. D, originally half of ®, was subsequently marked by trans- 
verse 9, as in the " Lex Repetimdarum," and in many inscriptions 
of the Empire. 

1000. ® is the oldest form. This was not maintained, but appeared 
in the more common form oo , which was also modified to co or x. 

Combinations of the preceding signs were used to denote higher 
numbers, oo oo oo oo C = 4100. oo oo oo CCXX = 3220. XXT DCLXI 
= 21661. 



76 THE LATIN ALPHABET 

By exception, the additional thousands were denoted by the sub- 
tractive form, thus x y = 4Q0O (0. I. L. X. 1273). 

10000=0, or K^, (^, (cb), mI.i. 

6000 = 'P, or U, k, l». 

100000 =@, oc ^. 

50000 = p), or \j). 

The use of a horizontal and verticals has already been referred to. 
X = 10000. [Xl = 1,000,000. 

In the time of Hadrian the n, regularly denoting 100000, was 
strangely used to indicate 1000. 

Naturally the variety of the uses for which tliese horizontal and 
vertical lines were employed caused much confusion (Suetonius, 
Galba. 5). 

FRACTIONS 

The Eoman system of fractions is based upon a division of the 
unit, as, into twelfths, unciae, the former being denoted by I, the lat- 
ter by — or -. The use of the nobler metals led to a division of 
the uncia, thus ^, \, \, ^, ^^, -^, and finally yj^ of the uncia. 

All these fractions have special names, and can be arranged in the 
following table, showing the duodecimal sy stem. 

Table A 

As. Unciae. 

As 1 12 I 

Deunx ^J 11 S = = — 

Dextans f 10 S — = 

Dodrans f OSzr — 

Bes f 8 S — 

Septunx ^j 7 S — 

Semis J 6 S 

Quincunx ^j 5~~ — or~ — — 

Triens i- i — — 

Quadrans j 3 ~ — 

Sextans . . | 2 zr 

Sescunx | 1|£ — or S — 



Uncia ^ 1 — or o, 



^1 



tN3 



I'RACTIONS 77 

As, Unciae. 

Semunoia j'j J jC or S or 6 

Binae sextulae or duella ■ • it i 2i 

Sioilicus 5^ i 3 

Sextula ^ ^3 

Dimidia sextula jjj ^ -g- 

Scriptulum ^ 3^ 9 

Siliqua „ijy ^i j 

The signs for the various fractions are derived from the initial 
letters of particular words; thus, S for semis; 2, and later £", for 
semuncia and sembella; 3 for sextula; T for feruncius, which cor- 
responds to the sicilicus. The of the sicilicus and the 3 of the 
scriptulum are from the round forms of the Greek sigma.^ U, is 
due to the repetition of the 8, the sign of the sextula. 

With the introduction of the silver nummus (i/ovju/ios), sestertius, 
a new system of fractions appears. 

The sestertius became the major im^it corresponding to the old as ; 
the libella became the minor unit corresponding to the uncia, but, as 
the system was decimal, the libella = ^ of the sestenius. 

The following table shows this fractional system with the signs, 
which are adopted from the duodecimal system : 

Table B 
Sestertius = 1 

Semis = J of sestertius, 8 

Libella =^^ <■<■ " — , as corresponding to the uncia. 

(Singula) Sembella = i^ " " 2, like semuncia. 

(Sicilicus) Teruneius = jV " " or T 

With the sestertius equal to 2^ asses, the copper denominations 
may be arranged in a decimal system with the sestertius as major 
unit, and with signs adopted from the duodecimal system : 

Dupondius f or jSj of sestertius, so S I3-, i.e. i + ^. 

As I " /t " " " = = 

Semis i " tit " " " 

Quadrans ^ " — 

^ The Greek C = s appears on Tarentine coins struck before the time of 
Pyrrhus, and in Greece after the time of Alexander. Mommsen, Hermes, 
XXII. p. 605. 



78 



LATIN msCRIPflONS 



In like manner if the denarius be taken as a major unit, witi 
value of 10 asses, the system stands : 



Denarius . . 
Quinarius 






1 5£ 

1 denarius, so S 


Sestertius . . 
Dupondius . . 
As . ... 
Semis . . . 






i " 


' = " A 


Quadrans . . 






A " 


' TorO 



The duodecimal fractional system, with the as serving as any 
unit, was applied very generally, e.g. to land measure, to computa- 
tion of interest, to weight, time, and money. The decimal system 
was applied to money, to the denarius and as, then to the fractions 
of the sestertius. 

The final depreciation of the as brought it down to the value of 
J|r of a denarius, and, as the sestertius = -^ of a denarius, the as = -^ of 
a sestertius. 

The duodecimal fractional system of the denarius, when equal 
to 16 asses, is set forth in the following table : ^ 

Table C 

Denarius 3£ ^ 

Quindeeiaere . i| = tJ + ^, so " S = Z~- deunx sicilicus 

Quattuordeoiaere | = | + j^i " " S n ~ S dextans semuncia 

r dodrans 



Tredeciaere 


■ if=i+,^j + jV, 


" " s z^ s 


0- 


semuncia 








sicilicus 


Duodeoiaere 


• f = f. 


" " s:3- 


dodrans 


TJndeciaere 


■ «=! +A, 


" " 8= 


bes sicilicus 


Decus[sis] . 


• f=A + A, 


" "8— 2 


septunx 
semuncia 










semis 


Nonus[sis] . 


• A= i+i^ + ^, 


" " S S 


■ 


semuncia 
. sicilicus 


Octus[sis] . 


■ i = h 


" " S 




semis 



^ From Manuel des Institutions Bomaines, BouchS-Leclercq. 
-This sign merely denotes denomination. 





FKACTIONS 






Septus[sis] . . 


A = A + A, so3e=z- 


3 


J quincunx 
[ sicilicus 


Sexis . . . . 


i=i+^\, ""=: = 


s 


triens semunoia 
r quadrans 


Quinques[sis] 


A= i+i: + ih. " "=-2 





i seniuncia 
I sicilicus 


Quattrussis . 


i = i. " " =- 




quadrans 


Tressis . . 


A=i +^, " "= D 




sextans 
sicilicus 


Dupondius . 


i=A + l^. ""S_ 




sescuncia 


As ... . 


• A = ^'t + 5V- " " s 3 




semuncia 
sicilicus 



79 



The decimal fractional system of the sestertius, when equal to 4 
asses, is shown in the following table : 



Table D 



H-Si 



Tressis semis . . J = A + A + 5V1 .^° 

Tressis .... i = -^^ + i^, "' 

Dupondius semis f = ^ + jij, " 

Dupondius . . ^ = ^j, " 

As semis . . . f = t^j + jV + iV > " 

As i = A + A, ' " 

Semis' .... i = tV + A, 



s— S 
S— T 
S 



ooto libellae 
' S 3- ST -j singula 

. terruncius 
septem libellae 
singula 
■ sex libellae 
teiTuncius 
f quinque 
I libellae 
r tres libellae 
12- ST ] singula 

l terruncius 

I duae libellae 

\ singula 



— T 



J libella 
\ teiTuncius 



In money, the duodecimal system as indicated above was followed 
before the as was reduced, that is, as long as the as was considered 
the aes grave or libral as. 



' This sign merely denotes denominatiou, 



80 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



The coins were : 










As 


f12 


unoiae, 


m&rked 


1 


Semis 


= 6 


li 




S 


Triens 


= 4 


ti 




0000 


Quadrans 


z= 3 


(( 




000 


Sextans 


= 2 


(( 




00 


Uncia 


= 1 


uucia 








In addition to these were : 

Dupondius = 2 asfees, marked II 

Tressis or Tripondius = 3 " " III 

Deoussis =10 " " X 

When silver coinage was introduced, 485/269, the copper as 
became a subordinate denomination of the superior metal, and sub- 
sequently depreciated in value so as to be entirely distinct from the 
-old libral as, i.e. the unit of the duodecimal system. 

The silver system may be shown by the following table : 

f Denarius = 10 asses, later 16 asses 3€ 

Silver J Quinarius =5 " " 8 " V 

[.Sestertius = 2| " " 4 " H-S 

r Dupondius = 2 " H 

^"PP^^As = 1 I 

We might expect that in money calculations of ordinary life 
the subordinate denominations would be expressed in terms of 
copper coins, but it was customary to follow the silver fractional 
system as far as possible. 

Thus, in an African inscription of the days of Hadrian, Ephem. 
Up., VII. 426, we find : 

[fecit stajtuam argenteam ex l-HS U CCCXXXV tribus lit)el(lls) sing(ula) 
terr(uiicio) et aeris quad(rante) cum rei p(ublicae) H-S I. prom(isisset), ie. 
61335 sestertii, 1 as, 1 semis, 1 quadrans, since ^ (tribus libellis) + ^ {singula) 
+ j^5 (terruncio) = ^ + J, but ^ of a sestertius = 1 as, and | = semis. The -word 
aeris shows that quadrans is from the copper system. 

In denoting money the various indications are : for copper money, 
aeris gravis, or aeris, or A(sses) ; for silver, N = nummi, or 
H-S • N = sestertii nurnmi, rarely in the order N • H-$, but later 



FRACTIONS 



81 



regularly H-S ■ • • N, with the number placed between. With the 
sums denoting denarii, 3£ alone was used. 

The duodecimal system served for measures of weight, also for 
linear and surface measures when the foot was divided into twelve 
parts; e.g. summa ped(um) CXXVIIII S — I^ £" = 129|| feet;^ in 
agr. p XX\/ S= := £ = 251 feet." 

In weight, PI denoted a pound, P being the abbreviation for 
P(pndo), which was the indication of weight, and hence was regu- 
larly used with the subordinate denominations, e.g. P ■ I S ^ = Im- 
pounds ; P Z=- 3 111=3 unciae, 3 scriptula;^ P — Zb- 3 — = 5 unciae, 
Sscriptula;' Pii^"^ £= 5^ unciae.* '" 

In expressing linear or surface measure, P{edes) or PED(es) is used 
where the measure exceeds the foot. PED • LXIII S — ^^ £ = 
pedes sexaginta tres deunx semuncia, or 63 and -i-^ + J^ (Wilmanns, 
2875). In the building contract of Puteoli, G. I. L. I. 677, I. 14 : 
latum p. I'-, altum p. S',- ; and I. 15: crassos S', , altos p. \. It is 
exceptional to find the exponent with the simple fraction. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



,/>.«• *> 



Bomische Staatsverwaltung, vol. II. J. Marquaedt. Leipzig, 1876. 
Griechische und Bomische Metrologie. F. Hultsch. Berlin, 1882. 
Manuel des Institutions Bomaines (Appendix). A. Bouch£-Leci.brcq. 



Paris, 



Hermes, XXII. 1887. Article, ZaM- und Bruehzeichen. Tii. Mommsen. 



1 O. I. L. VI. 2059. 
8 C. I. L. XIV. 21. 



2 C. I. L. XIV. 665. 
4 C. I. L. XII. 354. 








Unoia. 



QUADBANB. 



Tribns. 



Seakib. 



lAT. INSCKIP. — ^ 



PART II 



CHAPTER IV 

THE ROMAN NAME 

The Eoman name enters very largely into the composition of 
inscriptions of all classes, and forms, therefore, the most important 
element in their subject matter, often making up the inscription 
itself. A knowledge, accordingly, of its history and chronological 
development, its formal arrangement and abbreviations, is essential 
to a proper interpretation of the inscriptions, which, moreover, are 
themselves the great source of information as to this subject, since 
here the Roman name has its fullest use and most complete form. 

It must be understood, first of all, that the name among the 
Romans was not of fixed or abs -lute form, but that it varied with 
the history of the people, passing through a process of development 
and reaching its complete form in the most prosperous period ; then 
suffering modification and losing its regularity in the declining days 
of the later Empire. 

In the earliest times the individual, strictly speaking, was desig- 
nated by one name, but as a member of society, and in relation to 
the state, his name consisted of the personal element, with the 
addition of certain determinatives.^ The first determinative was 
the genitive case of the name' of the one in whose possession or 

1 In a fragment of uncertain authorship, entitled de Fraenominihus, placed 
as the tenth book of Valerius Maximus by Julius Paris of the fourth century 
A.D., the statement Varro simplicia in Italia nomina fuisse ait is supported by 
a reference to the names Romulus and Bemus, but controverted by a reference 
to Jthea Silvia, Silvius Nilmitor, Amulius Silvius. 

82 



THE ROMAN NAME 83 

under whose authority the person belonged, as of the father in the 
case of a son or daughter, of the husband in the case of a wife, or 
of the owner in the case of a slave. Thus Marcus Marci, Caecilia 
Crassi. Later this genitive was followed hj f(ilius) ot /(ilia), uxor 
or s(ervus). The second early determinative was the name indicat- 
ing the family (gens). This at an early period was marked by the 
suffix -ius. The early Roman name thus consisted of, a) the per- 
sonal name, 6) the family name, c) the name of the one in authority, 
the father or husband, and at times the names of the grandfather 
and great-grandfather.^ 

Q. Fabius Q(uinti) f(ilius). 

In the course of time an additional element, the cognomen, brought 
the Eoman name to its full development, so that free-born men pos- 
sessed a triple name, praenomen = individual name, nomen = name 
of gens, cognomen = name of family (stirps). 

L. Cornelius Scipio. 

Official usage required that with these three names there should also 
be given the names of the father and of the tribe. These were both 
placed before the cognomen.'' With the name of the father there 
might also be given those of the grandfather and great-grandfather. 

The inscriptions show that the regular order was praenomen, 
nomen, cognomen. It was observed by the writers of the best prose 
as Cicero and Caesar.^ Any variation is due to the necessities of 
the metre, as in the Scipio Epitaph, where the nomen precedes the 
praenomen. or to Greek influence, or to the irregularity of rustic 

1 The original order was I., individual name ; II., father's name ; III., family 
name; so Mommsen, who refers to the order among the Greeks, Umbrians 
and Volsolans. The Romans and Samnites transposed the last two. 

2 Lex Julia Munioipalis (709/45). C. I. L. I. 206, p. 122. 

3 In prose of the good period the usage was M. Claudius, not Claudius Mar- 
cus, even in Livy ; M. Claudius Mareellus, not M. Marcellus Claudius. With- 
out the praenomen, according to older method (so Cicero), Marcellus Claudius; 
according to later method (so Caesar), Claudius Marcellus. G. Lahmeyer in 
rhilol. XXJI. 1865. 



84 LATm iNSClilPTlONS 

usages, as Alfenos Louci(ps) on a cinerary jar from the sepulcretum 
near the church of San Cesareo (O. I. L. VI. 8220). 

Peabnomen 

The praenomen, the strictly personal name, was conferred by par- 
ents upon children on the dies lustricus, which was the ninth day 
after birth in the case of boys, and the eighth in the case of girls. 

This is the opinion of ancient writers in general," but Q. Scaevola ^ 
is authority for the statement that the name was not conferred upon 
a boy before he assumed the toga virilis, nor upon a giyl before her 
marriage. 

It is probable that the informal conferring of the name in the 
family took place on the dies lustricus, but the official recognition of 
the same occurred at the time of the assumption of the toga virilis. 
This opposition between theory and practice is set forth in the 
inscriptions, where we find names of persons dying in childhood 
both with and without praenomina. Frequently the word Pupus 
(abbreviated PUP) took the place of the praenomen, thus indicating 
an early death. 

PVP • PONTIC . T • F. VO(Z?) 
PROCVLO -AN • XIII . 

Fup{o) Fontio, T. (Pontii) f{iUo), Vo[l']{tinia tribu), Proculo, an^noruTn) 
tredecim. (Of the first century a.d.) C. I. L. IX. 2789. 

The number of inscriptions giving the praenomina exceeds that of 
those without, particularly after the second century a.d. 

The praenomen was regularly abbreviated when joined with the 
nomen and cognomen. This was not a matter of choice, but an 
established custom, indicating Eoman citizenship. In consequence 
we do not find the praenomen written in full, unless standing alone 
or in inscriptions in which Greek influence has been felt, or in those 
of the lower class dating mainly after the second century a.d. 

1 Festus, p. 120 ; Macrobius, Sat. I. 16. 36 ; Plutarch, Quaest. Bom., p. 102. 

^ De Praenominibus, § 3, pueris non priusquam togam virilem sumerent, 
puellis non antequam nuberent, praenomina imponi moris fuisse Q. Scaevola 
auetor est. 



THE ROMAN NAME 85 

The following are the praenomina in general use, with their abbre- 
viations. Kaeso, Manius, Servius, Spurius, are the most uncommon. 

A Aulus. D Decimus. av (M') Manius. Q Quintus. S Spurius. 
C Gaius. K Kaeso. M Margus. SER Servius. Tl Tiberius. 

CN Gnaeus. L Lucius. P Publius. SEX Sextus. T Titus. 

Aulus. Abbreviations: A, AV, or AVL (rare), (very rare). Additional form, 
Olus. Cf. the slave name Olipor. 

Decimus. D, DEC (rare and late). Additional form, Decumus. This prae- 
nomen is regularly found with the names of the Claudii (patrician), and 
of the luiiii and Laelii (plebeian). 

Gaius. C with the primitive value, that of the Chalcidian T.' 

Gnaeus. CN, GN (very rare). Additional forms: Gnaivos (early), Naevus, 
Naeus, Gneus (rare). 

Kaeso. K. This praenomen is not common. It is found with names of the 
Acilii, Duilii, Fabii, as shown in the Fasti Consulares, and the earlier in- 
scriptions, such as those found at Praeneste. 

Lucius. L, LV (rare). Early form, Loucios. 

Manius. AV or AAj. The familiar form with an apostrophe M' is not found 
in the inscriptions. This praenomen is common with names of the AemUii 
and Sergii. 

Harcus. M. This is probably the most common praenomen. 

Publius. P, PVP = Puplius (rare), PO appears in one instance for Poblio, 
C. I. L. IX. 5699. 

Quintus. Q. Additional form, Quinctus. 

Servius. SER. This praenomen is found with names of the Comelii and Sul- 
picii ; elsewhere it is rare, and, for the most part, archaic. 

Sergius is the family name, having the same origin as Servius.''' It is first 
found as a praenomen in an inscription of Salona, Eph. Epigr. II. n. 522, 
referring to the Emperor Sergius Galba. S is a rare abbreviation for Ser- 
gius, C. I. L. XIV. 2636. 

Sextus. SEX, SX for reasons of space on a denarius of the City, of the sixth 
century, SEXT (once, Q. I. L. II. 1495), S appears in lists of Praetorian 
soldiers and on tombstones of the second and third centuries a.d., and in 
Africa. 

1 Quintilian, Inst. Orat. I. 7, 28, Terentianus Maurus, Be Metr., V. 890 ft., 
Priscian, I. 7, 28, are authorities for the statement that C and CN were abbre- 
viations for Gaius and Gnaeus, with values G and GN. 

* " Sergius and Servius are related as ni(^n)gere and nives, vixi and vivere 
(Corssen, Ausp. I. 44). They are merged in an older Serguius, as nig- and mio- 
m ni(n)gvAs." (Mokhbssu; MomiscJie Forschungen, p» 8.) 



86 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Spurius. S (archaic), SP after middle of the first century a.d. 
Tiberius. Tl, later TIB. 
Titus. T. 

The three following, belonging to certain special patrician families, 
should also be added : 

Appius. AP, APP (rare). This praenomen is the same as the Sabine Atta, and 

was probably brought to Rome by the Claudii. 
Hamercus. MAM, used exclusively with the names of the Aemilii as seen in the 

Fasti Consulares of the third, fourth, and seventh centuries. 
Numerius. N. Gk. T^e/iipios. This is Samnite in its origin. — Festus, p. 170, 

and the author of de Praenom. § 6 inform us that through the marriage of Q. 

Fabius Vibulanus with the daughter of Numerios Otacilius of Maleventum 

this name was brought into the Fabian family. Cf. Numasioi on the Fibula 

Praenestina. 

Of these eighteen praenomina certain only were selected by the 
individual patrician families. 

Mommsen has arranged these in a table (Bom. Forsch., p. 15). 

Aemilii: C, CN, L, MAM, AA/(M'), M, Q, Tl. 

Claudii: AP, C, D,L {disregarded later), P, Tl, Q. (Ephem. Ep. IV., p. 218). 

Cornelii: A, CN, L, M, P, SER, Tl. 

Fabii: C, K, M, N, Q. 

Furii: Agrippa, C, L, M, P, SEX,, SP. 

lulii : C, L, SEX, Vopiscus. 

Manlii: A, CN, L, M {disregarded iuZIO s.o.'), P, T. ' 

Still further restriction in the selection of names is shown in the 
exclusive use of Tiberius and Decimus by the Claudii Nerones, and 
OnoLeus, Lucius, Publius, by the Cornelii Scipiones. 

After a certain time the Claudii did not use Lucius, nor the Manlii, 
Marcus, because, as Cicero and Suetonius inform us,^ certain men 
bearing these names committed crime. Likewise, Marcus was not 
used by the gens Antonia after the downfall of the Triumvir.'' 

In addition to the praenomina just discussed, which form the body 
of those in general use, there are others worthy of mention, either 

1 Cic. Phil. I. 13, 32. Suetonius, Tiberius, c. 1. 

2 Plutarch, Cir,. c. 49 ; Dio, LI. 19 ; Tacitus, Ann. III. 17. 



THE ROMAN NAME 87 

those which fell into disuse in early days, and are known from the 
Fasti, or from statements of authors,^ or those which are of foreign 
origin and of rare occurrence. 

Agrippa. AGRIPP is found in the Fasti Cons, with names of the Furii and 

Menenii. 
Faustus, with names of the Cornelii Sullae. (Consuls 31 and 52 a.d.) 
Hostus, with names of the Lucretii. 

Lar, with names of the Herminli. This is an Etruscan praenomen. 
Opiter. OPl or OPET, with names of the Verginii. 
Paullus, with names of the Aemilii, Lepidi, and Regilli ; afterwards with those 

of the Fabii and Postumii. 
Postumus. POST, with the names of the Aebutii, Cominii, and Veturii, also 

Umhrian. 
Proculus. PR, with the names of the Geganii and Verginii. 
Vibius. V (archaic), VI and VI B (rare), with the names of the Sestii. The old 

form was Veibius. This is common in inscriptions from the district of the . 

Oscan dialect. 
Volero. VOLER, with the names of the Publilii. 
Volusus. VO, with the names of the Valerii. 
Vopiscus, with the names of the lulii. 

The following praenomiha are, as a rule, of foreign origin, and 
occur only in individual instances : 

Annius AN 

Aruns AR Etruscan. 

Atta ov Aitus .... AT (so AttusClausus is Sabine for Appius Claudius). 

Ban-- ? Oscan. 

Caesar, originally a praenomen. — Varro, de Praenom., § 3. 

Denter-, Denter Uomulus, praefectus urbi under Romulus. Tacitus, Ann. VI. 11. 

Epidius EP Oscan. 

Marius Sabine. 

Mesius Oscan. 

Min{atms f) OT Minius f MIN Oscan. 

Naro NER Umbrian. 

Novius NO or NOV . . . Sabine. 

Ofl OF Sabine. 

Ovius OV Oscan. 

Paquius or Pacuius . ■ PAC or PAQ . . Oscan. 

1 Varro, according to de Praenom. § 3, names fourteen of these : Agrippa, 
Ancua, Caesar, Faustus, Hostus, Lar, Opiter, Postumus, Proculus, Sertor, 
Statins, Tullus, Volero, Vopiscus. 



88 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Percp.nnius 9 or Petro ? . PE Sabine. 

Petro PET Sabine. 

Pe.scennius or Percennius, PESC and PER . Sabine. 

Plancus or Flautus 9 . . PLA ? .... Sabine. 

Pompo or Popidius . . POP 

Uetus R, perhaps Keltic (HUbner). 

Salvius SA or SAL . . . Osoan, common as a praenomen 

and later as a cognomen. 

Sertor SERT .... Sabine or Umbrian. 

Statins ST or STA . . . Oscan. 

Tims TIR (C. /. i. XIV. 3110). 

Trebius TR, later TREB . Oscan, O. I. L. XIV. 3224. 

Tullus TVL 

The praenomina, when first used, evidently had a significance 
suited to the circumstances of their original application.' This 
primitive meaning lost its force, so that words originally conveying 
some reproach might be given to those of high birth. 

Although the common praenomina were eiaployed in naming the 
first four sons, nevertheless the following were used, finally with 
loss of original meaning : 

Primus PR or PRI Secundus. 

Tertius (abbreviated in one instance), TERT Quartus, QVAR or QVART 

Quintus. Sextus. 

Irregularities. 

a) Cognomina as Praenomina. 

In certain countries, notably Gallia Cisalpina, cognomina were at 
times used as praenomina. 

So, Maximus C. I. L. V. 5902, Bufus O. I. L. V. 7064, Firmus 0. 1. L. V. 7339. 

In the Augustan period this transfer in use, so that cognomina 
served as praenomina, is found in the names of members of the 
imperial family, and those of the nobility. 

1 So, 'Manius (mane), bom in the morning ; Tiberius, Tiberis, the god of the 
river ; Titus, tata, used by children as papa ; Appius, atta, applied by children 
to old men. 



THE ROMAN NAME 89 

Cossus . . . Cossus Cornelius Lentulus. Consul, 753/1. 
Drusus . . . Drusus lulius Ti. f(ilius) Aug. n(epos) divi proii(epos) 
Caesar 
= Drusus, son of Tiberius. 
. . . Drusus lulius Germanici f. Ti. n. Aug. pron. Caesar 
= Drusus, son of Germanicus, 
Sisenna . . , Sisenua Statilius Taurus. Consul 16 a.d. 
Taurus . . . Taurus Statilius Corvinus. Consul 45 a.d. 

The designation "of honor, " imperator," which in republican days 
followed a triumph, in the time of Julius Caesar became an actual 
title, and finally in the days of Augustus took the place of the prae- 
nomen. See page 115. 

b) Nomina as Praenoaiina. 

Prom the middle of the second century a.d. the nomina Aelius, 
Aurelius, Flavius, Ulpius were frequently used as praenomina, and 
were abbreviated.^ 

Praenomina of Women. 

In the names of women as found in the inscriptions the praenomen 
is of uncommon occurrence and little importance, compared with 
the regular appearance and significance of the same element in the 
names of men. The praenomen was all-important to a man in his 
relation to the state and to society, while in a woman's name its 
presence was by no means essential, and its abbreviation did not 
imply what a similar abbreviation implied in the praenomina of men. 

Nevertheless, from the earliest times, women had praenomina, and 
during the republican period this custom was maintained. This is 
shown by the legendary names Acca Larentia, Gaia Caecilia, Quinta 
Claudia, Quarta Hostilia,^ also from the testimony of the inscrip- 
tions, such as those of the grove of Pisaurum {Cesula Atilia, C. I. L. 
I. 168), which regularly give praenomina of women, also those from 

^ In an inscription from Apulia, dating second or third century a.d., AemQia 
Is referred to as a praenomen. O. I. L. III. 1228. 

^ de Praenomin. § 7 '■^ Antiquarum mulierum frequenti in usu praenomina 
fuerunt Butilia, CaeselUa, Bodacilla, Murrula, Burra a colore ducta. Ilia 
praenomina a viris tracta sunt Gaia, Lucia, Publia, Numeria, ceterum Gaia 
usu super omnes celebrata est." 



90 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

the tombs of Praeneste, e.g. Gala H(e)r(enia f) (C. I. L. XIV. 3149), 
and with abbreviation, G. Comeniai, C. Usor{i) ? (C. I. L. XIV. 3102). 

In the case of two sisters the elder was known as Maioif), the 
younger Mino(r) — Maio Fabricia, Mino Gumia (C /. L. XlV. 3111, 
3133), Mino Ania G. f. (G. I. L. XIV. 3068). In some instances, at 
a later period, the oldest sister had the praenomen Maxima. 

Other praenomina of importance are Pola (oldest form) for 
Paul(V)a, Folia (in country districts), Fusilla, Pupa, also the num- 
eral adjectives which were in use in all periods, Frima, Secunda, 
Tertia. 

In the imperial period praenomina of women are of little account, 
and occur entirely as exceptions. » 

NOMBN 

The second determinative in the early Eoman name was the name 
which belonged to all members of the same family, and which was 
at first identified with a certain locality. Afterwards the nomen 
denoted members of the same gens, men, women, clients, freedmen, 
while the cognomen indicated the family of the gens. 

The nomina of the ancient Roman families, both the patrician 
and, for the most part, the plebeian, ended in -ius, and the closely 
related terminations -aius, -eius, -eus, -aeus. 

Ex. — Aemilius, Cornelius, Furius, Manlius, Vibidaius, Arcaeus, Terraeus, 
Cooceius, Pompeius. 

In early inscriptions, such as those on the earthen vessels from 
San Cesareo, nomina are found ending in -is, in place of -ios, so 
Anavis, Glodis, Gaecilis, and the Oscan Heirinnis. 

In addition to these there are many with different endings, which 
were once restricted to certain localities of Italy. 

The terminations -arna, -ema, -enna, -ina, -inna, show Etruscan 
derivation. 

Mastarna, Perperna, Caeoina. 

-as, -anas, -enas, -inas, show Umbrian derivation. 

Maecenas, Sentinas. 



THE ROMAN NAME 91 

-acus, -avus, show Gallic derivation. 
Avidiaous, Amnavus. 

-enus shows Sabine and Oscan derivation. 
Alfenus, Varenus. 

-icus marks nomina from Illyria, Lusitania and Africa. 
Abalicus, Boicus, Veronicus, Caturicus. 

To these there should be added Latin, Sabine and Umbrian nom- 
ina in -anus, mainly derived from names of places. 

Aoerranus (Acerrae), Aequanus (Aequum), Calpetanus, Norbanus 
(Norba). 

Also nomina in -inus, partly of Latin origin. 
Pomptinus, Crastinus. 

On the analogy of early names in -ius are formed the Greek names 
of similar ending, as Eumachius, Aristius, Nymphidius; and Proper- 
tius of Umbrian origin, also like formations from other languages. 

After the second century a.d., in the provinces, there appear many 
new nomina made from cognomina and other nomina. 

raustinius, Secundinius. 

The nom,en Verres,^ of Eoman origin, stands by itself. 
Nomina appear in the inscriptions, as a rule, in their complete 
form. 

Exceptions. 

1) Nouns in ios or is drop the final s in early inscriptions : 

Cornelio(s), C. /. L. I. 31, about 250 b.c. ; Comeli(s), O. I. L. I. 35, 
about 160 B.C. ; Claudi(s), C. /. L. I. 196, of 196 B.C. ; L. Aiiici(s) V. f., 
C. I. L. I. 75. 

^Bhein. Mus., XV. 1860, p. 172 and 207. Eitschl, Opusc. IV. p. 469. 
Phil., XIX. 1868, p. 110 



92 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

2) Abbreviations of nomina are found at times where the name 
may be readily supplied, as in tomb inscriptions, where 
many of the same women are mentioned.^ So AEL for 
Aelius, CL or CLAVD for Claudius, IVL or I for lulius. 

Cognomen 

The cognomen, although the last addition to the actual Eoman 
name, is identical in its origin with the praenomen, for it was first 
applied as a strictly personal name, and had a meaning as a surname 
or nickname appropriate to the individual. It differed, however, 
from the praenomen in its early use in several respects, for it was 
not an essential part of the name, neither was it given to children, 
but to adults ; it was generally an adjective referring to some 
peculiarity of body^ or mind,' or derived from the name of the 
place of birth. 

As to the time of the introduction of the cognomen, at least of 
the recognition of its use, we can form an idea from the position it 
holds in the name, in that it follows the word indicating the tribe. 
The tribal division of the Eoman people belongs to the days of Ser- 
vius Tullius, hence the inference that the use of the cognomen does 
not date back further than the Servian Constitution. It appears in 
the oldest Scipio inscriptions of the fifth century of the City, also 
on Roman coins from the time of the second Punic war, while in 
the laws of the seventh century of the City of a less formal char- 
acter (Lex Bepetundarum, 631/123) its use is demanded. In im- 
portant decrees, however, where conservative influences are likely to 
prevail, it does not appear before the time of Sulla. It can be said, 
then, that the custom of writing cognomina dates back to the fifth 
century of the City, while its regular use may be assigned to the 
latter part of the seventh century. 

The cognomen, at first a strictly personal name, was soon recog- 

1 See Cagnat Cours-., p. 52. 

2 Alius, Barhatus, Calvus, Glaudus, Longus. 

^ Benignus, Blandus, Catus, Severus, Serenus. 
* Gallus, Ligtts, Sabinus, Siculus, Tuscus. 



THE ROMAN NAME 93 

nized as a family possession, and became an heirloom for succeeding 
generations. Two principles appear to have controlled its use : first, 
it was regarded as the indication of the family (stirps) of the gens, 
so of the gens Cornelii there were the Cethegi, Lentuli, Scipiones, 
and, with a subdivision, the Cornelii Scipiones Nasicae; again, it 
was considered an indication of nobility, though not absolute, for, 
though the patricians and most of the plebeians had cognomina, cer- 
tain families of the plebeians, the Antonii, Duilii, Flaminii, Marii, 
Memmii, Mummii, Sertorii, were without them. The specially 
selected praenomina had once indicated nobility, but later the cog- 
nomen served this purpose, so that the number of these names that 
were not the property of the nobility in early republican times is 
very small. In the later republican period, and in imperial times, 
the cognomen was given to all freeborn citizens, and frequently to 
freedmen. This change dates from about the middle of the seventh 
century of the City. 

The cognomen differed from the praenomen in another respect, 
namely, in that more than one could be attached to the same name. 
In the days of the Republic a second and third cognomen ' might be 
used. Such were 

a) the cognomina ex virtute, as Caudinus, Eidenas, Achaicus. 

Cn. Cornelius Scipio Hispanus. 
P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus. 

b) Names indicating the parentage of the adopted, formed from 
nomina gentilicia by the use of suf&x -anus. 

P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus (son of L. Aemilius PauUus). 

c) Special designations, as nicknames, in many instances retaining 
their meaning. 

Q. Caecilius Metellus Oeler. 

P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica Oorculum. 

1 Among later grammarians, beginning with those of the fourth century a.d., 
the second cognomen was erroneously regarded as an additional element, and 
termed agnomen. 



94 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Names of Women. 

The early names of women probably consisted of an individual 
name, praenomen, followed by the nomen of the father and genitive 
case of his praenomen, or by the nomen of the husband and the 
genitive case of his praenomen. Later the genitive case was followed 
by the word f{ilia) in case of a daughter's name, and uxor in case 
of the wife's. Cf. Maio(r) Anicia C. f., C. I. L. XIV. 3067. The 
changes in this form consisted in the disappearance of the prae- 
nomen and the use of the nomen gentile of father or of husband,' 
either alone or accompanied, when more formal, by the genitive of 
the praenomen of father or husband.^ Other inscriptions show the 
nomen of the husband in the gen. case added to the nomen of the 
wife,' accompanied in the imperial period by a cognomen. 

Old inscriptions, such as those of Praeneste and San Cesareo, 
show isolated instances of cognomina in the names of women. At 
the close of the Republic, however, the evidences ' of the introduction 
of this custom are more numerous, and from the middle of the first 
century a.d. women's names frequently contained cognomina. En- 
tirely exceptional are the instances of triple names of women.' 

Reduplication of Names.^ 

The custom of using more than one cognomen, beginning in the 
period of the republic, became common in the early days of the 
empire, and in the second and third centuries a.d. the number had 

1 Aemilia ; lulia, C. I. L. XIV. 1517, 1176. 

2 Acilia 0. f. ; Brasidia L. f., O. I. L. X. 5146, 721. 

sCurtia Rosci (uxor) C. I. L. XIV. 3115; Helvidia C, f. Priscilla Marcelli 
(uxor) a. I. L. IX. 3019. 

4 Caecilia Metella ; Cornelia Gaetulioa, C /. i. VI. 1274, 1892. 

6 Furia Satinia Tranquillina, C. I. L. VI. 1095. 

6 More than one praenomen, L. Pompeius Vopiscus C. Arruntius Catellius 
Celer. (O. /. £. VI. 2059, 43.) 

More than one nomen, M. Valerius Antonius Antico, Borghesi Annali 1830, 
p. 182. C. Calventius Sittius Magnus, C. I. L. IV. 526. 

Fourteen nomina in one name, that of a Consul of 169 a.d., C. I. L. XIV. 
3609. See page 197, no. 20. 



THE ROMAN NAME 95 

increased in some cases to a ■wonderful degree. This reduplication 
of names was not confined to cognomina; for from the time of Sulla 
several nomina might, for various reasons/ be adopted by the same 
person. At the close of the first century a.d. instances occur of the 
use of several praenomina. These, however, take the position of 
cognomina, and are regarded as such, being regularly written in full. 
This multiplicity of names raises the question as to the manner 
of addressing a person so encumbered. In social intercourse chil- 
dren, clients, and slaves addressed the master of the house by using 
his praenomen, while strangers used the cognomen. In more formal 
address the nomen and cognomen were used. 

The consul of 71 a.d. had as full name G. Galpetanus Rantius 
Quirinalis Valerius P. f. Pomp. Festus, but Tacitus speaks of him as 
C. Valerius Festus or Valerius Festus. 

Signa. 

In consequence of the similarity of names, and their number as 
well, certain persons were designated by nicknames (sobriquets), 
termed signa (vocabulum, Tae. Ann. I. 41). These signa are found 
in the inscriptions, and are, in general, preceded by the words idem, 
idemque, sive, qui et = qui et vocatur, or vocatus, or dictus est, also 
signo ot signum; cf. Gk. 6 xat or <^v(ra 8e. 

L. Cornelius Oato qui et Oaligatus, O. I. L. VIII. 2848; AemUiViS Epio- 
tetus sive Hedonius (Wil. 2483). 

Additional Elements. 

It has already been stated that the complete Roman name did not 
consist alone of the tria nomina, but included certain other elements. 

I. The first of these in importance is the indication of descent, 
which was placed after the nomen and before the cognomen. This 
showed the freedom of the person designated, hence is regularly 
found in the inscriptions. It consisted, as a rule, of the praenomen 
of the father followed by the word f(ilius), but extended, in case of 
nobility, to names of ancestors in order, since in this way aristocracy 
of birth could be declared. The common abbreviations are : for 

1 See names of adopted persons, page 98. 



96 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

filius or Jilia, F, later FIL; for nepos, N or NEP; pronepos, PRON; 
abnepos, ABN; adnepos, ADN. 

C. Aetrius, C. f (ilius), C. n(epos), L. pron(epos), C. abn(epos), Maturus 

C. I. L. IX. 12US. 

Sometimes the cognomen of the father is used in place of the 
praenomen. 

Q. Coelius Laeti f(ilius). C. I. L. VIII. 973. 

At times the name of the mother either takes the place of that of 
the father or stands with it. 

M. Porcius Aegriliae f (ilius). C. I. L. Till. 8996. 

II. Another element was the name indicating the trihus to which 
a person belonged. 

The trihus, a territorial classification of the citizens of Rome for the 
purpose of the census, dates from the time of the Servian reforma- 
tion. The number was at first four, but increased until 513/241, 
when it reached the limit, thirty-five, which was never passed. 
Towards the close of the Republic it lost its early territorial value, 
and became merely a personal and hereditary affair, while under the 
Empire it lost its administrative and political importance, and be- 
came, in the provinces, an evidence of Roman citizenship, while in 
the city it was of advantage as a means by which certain privileges, 
such as the distribution of corn, could be enjoyed by the citizens. 

The word denoting the tribe regularly preceded the cognomen, 
sometimes taking its place. In the inscriptions the names of the 
tribes are, as a rule, abbreviated. When they are written in full, 
they are regularly in the ablative case, rarely in the genitive. 

The following are the names of the thirty-five tribes, with their 
customary abbreviations ' : AEMilia, ANIensis, ARNiensis, CAMilia, 
CLAudia, CLVstumina, COLlina, CORnelia, ESQuilina, FABia, 
EALerna, GALeria, HORatia, LEMonia, MAEcia, MENenia, 
OVFentina (or VE), PALatina, PAPiria, POPlilia (or POB), POLlia 

1 See Cagnat Cours., p. 61, for other abbreviations, also Indices of C. I. L., 
vols. II., III., v., VII., VIII., IX., X., XII., XIV. 



THE ROMAN NAME 97 

(Momm. Ephem. Ep. V., p. 14), POMptina, PVPinia, QVIRina, 
ROMilia, SABbatina, SCAptia, SEEgia, STBLlatina, SVCusana, 
TEEetina, TROmentina, VELina, VOLtinia, VOTuria (or VET).^ 
III. In inscriptions of certain classes, particularly of soldiers, 
there occur names which have words indicating the country, prov- 
ince, city, or town to which the person designated belonged. The 
position of such words is regularly after the cognomen, although at 
times they are placed between the tribe and cognomen. 

L. Cassius L. f. Trom(entina) (tribu) Martialis Aq(uae) Sta(tellae). 

O. I. L. III. 2883. 

C. Cornelius C. f. Poin(ptma) (tribu) Dert(ona) Verus. C. I. L. III. 4057. 

These words assume various forms, and in some instances are made 
more definite by the addition of civis, natione., genere, domo, or natus in. 
The name of the city is in the ablative case, or, if it is singular 
of thj first or second declensions, in the genitive. Ethnic adjectives 
are also found either standing alone or accompanied by the word 
civis or natione. In combination with the word natione the adjective 
either agrees with the name of the person or stands in the nomina- 
tive case. 

If the word domo occurs, it is either followed by a noun in the 
ablative, or, if singular of first or second declension, in the genitive, 
or is used with an adjective agreeing with the name of the person. 
See Wil., vol. II., p. 409. 

M. Valerio M(arci) fil(io) Gal(eria tribu) Aniensl (tribu) Capelliano 
Damanitano. C. I. L. II. 4249. 

Capellianus = Cognomen. Damanitanus = Adj. from Damania. 
M. Liberius Victor oives Nervius. Brambaoh c. i. Rhen. u. 11. 

C. lulio Silvano . . . natione Bithyno. a. I. L. X. 8492. 

L. Valerius L(ucii) f(ilius) Vol(tinia) (tribu) Domo PhUippis. 

a I. L. III. 2717. 

Names of Illegitimate Children. 

Illegitimacy of birth is indicated in the inscriptions by the abbre- 
viations SP • F, standing for S{purii) fiilius).^ In some inscriptions " 

1 Hiibner, in Handbuch der Klassischen AUerlumsvnssenschaft, vol. I^., p. 680. 

2 O. Asinius, 8puri f{ilius) , spurius, O. I. L. IX. 269G ; V. 3804. 

3 a I. L. X. 3790, V. 2009, 4145. 

LAT. INSCRIP. — 7 



98 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

the S P stands for the praenomen Spurius, which belonged to a few old 
patrician families, but in various ways the inscriptions prove that 
S P ■ F was regularly the indication of illegitimacy. In some inscrip- 
tions the father's praenomen is given, and thus shown to be different.^ 

D. Avianus Sp. f. Eufus, D. Aviano Salvio patri. C. I. L. X. 2135. 

Again, SP • F is defined by the expression j^Zi'o naturali, 

C. Mamercio Sp. f. . . . filio Haturali. O. I. L. X. 1188. 

or spurius is used as a designation. 

T. Aretio Proculo spurio Modestae libertae Alio. O. I. L, T. 2628. 

Names of Adopted Persons. 

The usage as regards the names assumed by adopted persons 
varied with different periods. According to the early system, the 
one adopted received the name of the adoptive father, and added 
thereto his own nomen, changed to a cognomen, with termination in 
-anus. The son of L. Aemilius PauUus, adopted by P. Cornelius 
Scipio, became P. Cornelius. Scipio Aemilianus. After Sulla's time 
one of the original names could be used unchanged. The natural 
son of L. Licinius Lucullus became M. Terentius M. f. Varro 
LucuUus, Cos. 681/73. So a famous cognomen of the old family 
could be joined with the entire name of the new, thus.: 

Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio. Cos. 702/52. 

From the time of Augustus two nomina are found in one name, as 
the result of the use of the nomen of the natural father, so, 

P. Sulpioius Quirinius. Cos. 742/12, 
and 

Sex. Papinius C. f. Allenius. Cos. 36 a.d., 

and finally at the close of the first century the entire name of the 
natural father might be added to that of the adoptive father," 

C. Marius Marcellus Octavlus Publius Cluvius Rufus. Cos. 80 a.d. 

C. I. L. III. dipl. XI., p. 854. 

1 Mommsen, Staatsrecht III., p. 72 n. Hiibner, Miillei^ s Sandbuch, vol. I.,p.657. 
MispoTilet, Etudes d^ Institutions Bomaines, p. 253. C. I. L. V., p. 1213j X., p. 1187. 

2 See examples under Reduplication of Names, page 94, 



THE ROMAN NAME 09 

Later on there appears to have been a choice made in the selection 
of the praenomen either of tlie natural or the adoptive father, also 
in the retention of any other part of the original name. 

Antoninus Pius had originally the name T. Aurelius Fulvus 
Boionius Arrius Antoninus, but after his adoption by P. Aelius 
Hadrianus he received the name T. Aelius Hadrianus Amelius 
Antoninus.' 

Names of Slaves. 

The slave did not originally have more than one name, which con- 
sisted of the name of his master in combination with the word puer, 
so Marcipor = Matoi puer, Olipor = Auli puer, Lucipor, Publipor. 
In the republican period the slave was known by an individual 
name, often of foreign origin, derived from the circumstances of 
capture or purchase, followed by the nomen, and afterwards the 
praenomen of his master as well, both in the genitive case. This 
was followed by the word servus, abbreviated S or SER in case of 
male slaves, and s(erva) or ancilla in case of female, so, 

Helenus Hosti Q. s. Date 656/98. O. I. L. X. 8789. 

Felix Popil(li) L(ucii) s(ervus). O. I. L. x. 8790. 

In the time of the Empire the name of the owner is given in full 
in the genitive case, so 

Martialis C. Oli(i) Primi (servus). C. I. L. x. 826. 

When a slave came under a new master, either by purchase or 
inheritance, it was customary to give to him an additional name, 
formed from the cognomen of his former owner with the termination 
-anus, so, 

Epitynchanus Caes(aris) n(ostri) ser(vus) Candidian(us). O. I. L. X. G977. 

This is clearly set forth in the following, from a Spanish inscription : 

[7>]ophimus, C(olononim) C(oloniae) P(atriciae) ser(vus), [e]mptu 
Germanianus. C. I. L. ii. 2229. 

1 See Mommsen, Hermes, TIT., p. 70. 



100 LATIN MSCKIPTlONS 

Names of Freedmen. 

The status of the freedman in early days was similar to that of 
the slave, hence his name differs at first but little from the name 
of the latter. In the early period the freedman received the nomen 
of his patron, but selected his praenomen, which might be his early 
servile name, 

Cratea Caecilius M. l(ibertus). C. I. L. I. 840. 

His former state was indicated by the word servus following the 
genitive case of his patron's praenomen : 

C. Sextio(s) V(ibi) s(ervos). Ann. deW 1st. LII. 1880. 

Servio(s) Gabinio(s) T(iti) s(ervos). O. I. L. x. 8054. 7. 

In the seventh century of the City (150-60 B.C.), however, a freed- 
man received his patron's nomen, a Roman praenomen regularly 
that of his master, and used his former slave-name as a cognomen, 
while he indicated his former status by the word libertus, abbre- 
viated L or LIB. 

Thus the form, in many examples, is P. Helvidius P. 1. Hermes, 
(C. I. L. VI. 976). 

In inscriptions of the earlier part of the seventh century the cog- 
nomina are not always found (Wil. II., p. 404). The cognomen of 
the patron, in some instances, took the place of the nomen. 

When freedmen were liberated by the emperor, the expression 
Augiusti) l{ibertus) or Caes(aris) n(ostri) l{ibertus) took the place of 
the praenomen of the patron. 

In special instances a patron, when naming a freedman, might, 
out of regard for a friend, name him after that friend, so Cicero 
named Dionysius, his son's tutor, M. Pomponius Dionysius. Slaves 
freed by women took the nomen of -their patroness and the prae- 
nomen of her father. 

M. Livius Aug(ustae) l(ibertus) Menophilus. C. I. L. VI. 3939. 

Livius is from the name Livia ; M(arcus) is from name of Livia's father, M. 
Livius Drusus. 

A; Postumius Postumiae l(ibertus) Heraclida. C. I. L. VI. 9861. 



THE ROMAN NAME 101 

The faxjt that a slave has received his freedom from a woman is 
indicated in the inscriptions regularly by an inverted C, thus 0. L 
stands for G(aiae) l(ibertus) or l(iberta), i.e. muUeris libertus or 
liberta. Other methods of indicating this are the word mulieris 
written in full or abbreviated MVL/ also M inverted W/ or placed 
on its side ^/ or "WV = MV inverted.* 

Q. Atisius l(ibertus) luoundus. O. I. L. V. 8600. 

The names of those who have been freed by more than one person 
testify to the fact as follows : 

a) When the nomen is the same, but the praenomina are different, 
the freedman receives the common nomen and the one or the other 
of the praenomina. 

L. Cooceius C. L. M. l(ibertus) Papa. C. I. z. x. 3803. 

b) When the nomina are different, and the praenomina as well, 
the freedman takes the praenomen and nomen of one, or the prae- 
nomen of one and the nomen of the other. 

M. Varenus et M. Laitidi libertus. 0. 1. L. x. 1883. 

Q. Caeoilius Cn. A. Q. Flamini 1. C. i. L. xiv. 2090. 

Freedmen of a colonia or a municipium formed a nomen either out 
of the word publicus, since they had been servi publici, or from the 
name of the colonia or municipium. 

Sextus Publicius Bathyllus. C. I. Z. X. 18S9. 

M. Publicius coloniae l(ibertus) Philodamus. C. I. Z. X. 4984. 

Sex Venafranius coloniae l(ibertus) Primogenius. O. I. z. x. .5012. 

Cf . also Pollentius from Pola, G. I. L. V. 83, Veronius from Verona, C. I. L. 
V. 3470. 

The additional names, which belong to certain towns, supplied 
names to the liberti in some instances. 

Claudia Suavis oolonor(um) lib(erta). Henzen III. 6399. 

Claudius was a cognomen of Lugdunum, where the inscription was found. 

Ti. Claudius Municipii Celeian(i) lib(ertus) Favor. c. I. Z. III. 5327. 

This inscription was found at the Municipium Claudium Celeia, Noricum. 

1 C. I. L. V. 7017. 2 II. 558, 1449. xil. 4364. 3 V. 7107. ■> V. 358. 



102 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

The freedmen of a collegium obtained names from the profession 
of the members of the collegium as the Fabricii Centonii in Brixia, 
named from the fabri centonarii, C. I. L. V. 4422. 

If the slave possessed two cognomina, these were retained after he 
had become a freedman ; cf . the names in -anus referred to above. 

Ti. lulius Aug. l(ibertus) Fuscus Cornifioianus. WU. 890. 

Naturalized Citizens. 

Foreigners who were naturalized, on a similar principle to that 
observed in the naming of freedmen, received their names from the 
one who obtained for them the right of citizenship, or the one 
through whose interposition the favor was granted.' This will 
account for the Cornelii in Sicily, the lulii in Gaul, the Pompeii in 
Spain, and the Claudii and Flavii in the provinces in general. Hence, 
under the Empire, the names of the Emperors were used thus, not 
only for persons so favored, but for towns which were raised to the 
rank of cities. 

Foreign kings, allies of the Roman Empire, frequently adopted 
names of the emperors, so as to show them respect. 

Ti. Claudius Cogldubnus. King of Britain. O. I. L. VII. 11. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



De Gognomine et Agnomine Bomano. F. Ellendt. Konigsberg, 1853. 
Quaestiones Onomatologicae Latinae. Aem. Hubner. Bonn, 1854. Also 

Ephem. Ep., I., pp. 25-92. 
Edmische Forschungen. Article, Die Bomischen Eigennamen. Th. Mommsen. 

Vol. I. Berlin, 1864. 
Das Privatleben der Bomer. 2d ed. J. Makquakdt. Leipzig, 1886. 
Cours d' I^pigraphie Latine. 2d ed. RenS Cagnat. Paris, 1890. 
Handbuch der Klassischen AUertumsieissenschaft. Vol. I. 2d ed. Article, 

Bomisohe Epigraphik. Aem. Hubnek. Munich, 1892. 
Indices of Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. 

Indices of Inscriptiones Latinae. Vol. III. Orelli and Henzen. 
Indices of Exempla Inscriptionum Latinarum. Vol. II. G. Wilmanns. 

1 Ex. — C. Valerius Caburus obtained citizenship from C. Valerius Flaccus. 
Caes. B. G. I. 47. 



THE ROMAN NAME 108 



INSCRIPTIONS IN ILLUSTRATION OF THE FORM OF THE 

ROMAN NAME* 

1. d. m. I D. luni D. f. | D. n. D. pron. | Attiani Agrippini, | vix. 

mens. IIII d. XV, | Probus et Agrippina filio. 

C. I. L. XIV. 1204. On a sarcophagus found at Ostia. The enumeration 
of ancestors in an inscription of so young a child indicates high birth. 
For form of sepulchral Inscription, see page 235. 

2. C. Cuspiiis C. f. Pansa pater d. v. i. d. | IIII quinq.,' praef. i. d. 

ex. d. d.^ lege Petron.* 

C. I. L. X. 858. Insorihed on travertine in the porta of the amphitheatre 
at Pompeii. ' d{uo) v{ir) i(ure) d{icundo) q{uart%m) quinq(uennaUs), 
'■' ex d(ecreto) d{ecurionum). ' Petron(ia). Mommsen conjectures 
the date to he between 68-70 a.d. 

3. C. Cuspio C. f. f.^ Pansae | pontifici, II vir. i. d., | ex. d. d. pec. 

pub. 

C. 7. L. X. 791. Inscribed on a pedestal found at Pompeii in the forum. 
'■fiilio). For date see preceding inscription. 

4. Atilia A. 1. | Lais. 

C /. L. XIV. 3068. On the pedestal of a cone-shaped monument found at 
Praeneste. 

5. Aeiliae Gravmi|ae Frestanae | c. q.,' CI. Acili Cleobolis | fil., M'. 

Acili Faustini | coF.^ nepti, Acili Grla|brionis bis cos.' II vir | 
q q. pronep., Tib. ClaTi|di Cleobolis [s] en.* cos. | nep. 

C. I. L. IX. 2334. Inscribed on a large pedestal found at Allifae (Allife) 
Samnium. i c(larissimae) pQuellae). ^ 210 a.d. ^ 186 a.d. 'sen{ioris). 

* As the following inscriptions are selected for practice in reading, they are 
arranged without consideration of chronology or. development. Such arrange- 
ment and selection should be made as far as is possible by the student. 



104 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

The stem is _ 

M'. AoiliuB Glabrio cos. II (186 a.d.). 
Ti. Claudius Cleoboles sen., cos. M'. Aoilius Faustinus cos. (210 a.d.). 

CI. Acilius Cleoboles. 
Acilia Gavinia Frestana. 

CI. Acilius Cleoboles bad two father^, one natural, one adoptive. 

6. [T. Dojmitio T. f. Vol. Decidio | [///] viro capital! | [eZec«]o ay 

Ti. Claudio Caesare | \^Augus']to (xermanico, qui primu[s] 
[gwaesjtor per triennium citra | [sorJejm praeesset aerario 
Saturni, | praetori. 

C. I. L. VI. 1403. A fragment discovered at Rome preserved in copy. 
Domitius is tie father of Domitia Decidiana, wife of lulius Agrieola, 
Tac. Agr. 6. In the year 44 a.d. Claudius intrusted the aerarium to the 
quaestors. From this the date of the inscription can be approximately 
determined. Note the name Decidius due to adoption. 

7. M. Livius Aug. 1. | Menophilus calc' ollam dat | Liviae Chloe.^ 

1. suae. 

O. I. L. VI. 39.39. Found in the Columbaria of Livia at Rome, ^eal- 
c{iator). '■= Ghlo(a)e l{ibertae). The name of the Ubertus is obtained 
from that of M. Livius Drusus, father of Livia. 

8. d. m., I T. AUio T. f. Profuturo, | vixit ann. VIII | mens. V 

dieb. I V hor. [/], [T] Allius j Admetus et | Aufila Ius|ta 
parentes. 

C /. X. VI. 11484. From Rome. For form of sepulchral inscription see 
page 237. 

9. L. Valeri Laeti | M. Valeri Vetusti | libertus Verna, | M. Valeri 

Vetusti I Prima Vernae ux. | v. s. 1. m. Saluti, | posita' k. 
Mart., I On. Cornelio Gaetulico | C. Calvisio Sabino cos.^ 

C. I. L. II. 209.". On a pedestal found near Granada (Iliberris), Spain. 
Verna is libertus of the two Valerii, L. Laetius and M. Vetustus. He 
and his wife Prima, a slave of M. Valerius Vetustus, have thus paid their 
vow to Salus. 1 So. statua. ^ 26 a.d. 



THE ROMAN NAME 106 

10. dia manibus | T. Elavi Capitolini, | Hermeros Aug. lib. | a libel- 

lis et I Plavia Irene | parentes | filio dulcissimo, | vi. ann. 
VIII m. V. 
G. I. L. VI. 8614. Found at Rome, but now at Florence. 

11. Q. Eulvio Q. I Eulvi Attiani f. | Q Pulyi Eustici n. | Gal. Carisi- 

ano I patrono et | pontifici obme|rita, centuriae^ | Ores.,^ Man- 
ens., I Halos., Erques., | Beres., Arvabores., | Isines., Isurgut., | 
in locum CLuem ordo m. m.^ | P. A. decrevit posuerunt d. d. | 

C I. L. II. 1064. Inscribed in letters of age of Trajan on a pedestal found 
near Arva (Alcolga del Rio), Spain, now in museum at Sevilla. ^een- 
' tuna designates some collegium of owners of property; ^ Ores(_is), 
Manens{is), Halos ■ . . , Erques(is), Beres(is), Arvabores(is), Isine- 
s(is), Isurgut{ana') are the names of the centuriae. ^ m^unicipum) 
m(unicipii) F(lavii) A(_rvensis'). 

12. Sex. Afranius Lautus | Sp.^ f. vix. an. X. mens. VIII | dies 

IIII, I Afrania Prote mater | et Herma pater filio | piissimo. 
C. I. L. VI. 11206. Inscribed on a marble urn found at Rome, now in 
Castle Pawlowsk, near St. Petersburg, i Sp. f . here denotes Illegitimacy 
of birth. » 

13. Sp. Carvilius Sp. 1. Eros, | Carvilia Sp. f. Bassa fecit | sibi et 

suis parentibus, | Carvilia Sp. 1. Agatliemeris. 
G. I. L. VI. 7593. From the Vinea Randanlnia on the Via Appia, Rome. 
8p(^urius) is here a, praenomen. 

14. Dama Pup. Agrippae,^ | Manlianus Luereti,^ | Anteros Stai 

Eufi,' I Princeps Mescini^ | ministri pagi Aug^ Fel. suburban.^ | 
primi posierunt, | Ti. Claudio Nerone iter. | On. Calpurnio 
Pisone. cos.'' 

C. I. L. X. 924. Found at Pompeii, existing only in copy, i So. servus. 
^Aug{usti). Pupus Agrippa is Agrippa Postumus, five years of age. 
^Fel(^icis) suhurhan{i). « 747/7. 

15. L. Manlius L. f. L. n. Acidinus Pulvian., | Q. Eulvius Q. f. M. 

n. Flaccus, | hei fratres germani fuerunt. 
C. I. L. IK p. 25. From the Fasti Capitolini, of the year 575/179. The 
first of these brothers was adopted into the Manlian gens. 



106 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

X6. C. Neratio C. fil. | C. n. C. pron. C. abn. Cor. | Proculo Betitic 
Pio I Maximilliano, | quaestor., II vir. quinq., p. c./ | flamini 
divi Hadriani, | curator! operum publ. | Venusiae dato ab dive 
Hadriani/ curat, kal.^ | Nolanorum data ab imp. | Antouino 
Aug. Pio, I Ephaphroditus et | Conventa lib., 1 1. d. d. d. 

C. I. L. IX. 1160. Found at Mirabella, near Aeolanum, existing now in 
copy. '^p{atrono) c(joloniae). ^Read Hadriano. ^ kal{endarii). The 
father was C. Betitius C. f. Cor. Pietas (IX. 1132), the mother Neratia 
Procilla (IX. 1132). 

17. L. Nonius Quintili|anus L. f. Sex. a. C. Sosi | cos. triumphal. 

pro nep., | augur, salius Palat.^ | vix. ann. XXIIII. 

C. I. L. IX. 4855. Inscribed on a small marble cippus found near Boc- 
chignani, between Forum Novum and Cures, in Sabine territory. Note 
the irregular order. C. Sosius triumphed 720/34, was consul 722/32. 
' Palat{inus). 

18. T. Aretius T. C. L. 1. | Apiolus Innl vir | idem Augustalis | 

sibi et I Aretiae Modes|tae lib. suae et | T. Aretio Proculo 
spurio Modestae | lib. 61., | v. f., | b. 1. s. h. n. s. 

C. I. L. V. 2523. Found at Montagnana, now in museum at Ateste (Este). 
T. Aretius Proculus is spjtrius fllius of Modesta. 

19. menti bonae | d. d. | Surus Tettieui s., | Philonic^ Marciae s., | 

Nicomac. AIM M. s. 

C. I. L. 1. 1168. Found near Celanos, in territory of the Marsi. For form 
of epitaph see page 235. i Philonicius). 

20. Sex. Aemilio PauUo patri, | Aemiliae Q. f. Regillae matri, | Sex. 

Aemil. Paullino fratri, | T. Aemil. Burro fratri, | C. Aemil. 
Vastus I suis. 

C /. L. XII. 537. Engraved on a cippus found at Aquae Sextiae (Aix), 
now in the museum of Aix. It belongs, probably, to 2d century a.d. 

.21. Antoniae M. f. | Tertullae | Valeriae | Asiniae | Sabinianae. 
C. I. L. X. 6704. On a marble altar found at Antium, Latium. 



THE ROMAN NAME 107 

22. [FaZjeriae Mar| [ciae] Hostiliae | Crispinae | Moeciae | Corneliae | 

G. Brutti Pra|eseiitis pro|cos. uxori, | 1. d. d. d. 

C. I. L. VIII. 110. Engraved on a pedestal found at Capsa (Gafsa), 
Africa. Valeria and Bruttius are the parents of Bruttia Crispina, wife 
of Commodus. C. Bruttius Praesens was consul in 153 and 180 a.d. 

23. Secunda BuUatia | P. f. filia, 
Paulla Bullatia | P. f. mater. 

Mater de sua pecunia sibi et filiae fecit. 
G. I. L. VI. 13661. Found at Rome, now in Villa Albani. 

24. M. Briti[Ms] Spuri f. miles | de l.^ VII p./ o. h. s. s. | 

G. I. L. X. 3884. Found at Capua. ^l(_egione). ^The name of legion 
is unknown. 

25. Sextiae | T. fil. | Asiniae PoUae | M. Noni Arri | Muciani,! Col- 

leg. I iuvenum Brixian. | ob merita. 

G. I. L. V. 4355. Found at Brixia (Brescia) in the forum, where it still 
exists. ^ Consul 201 a.d. So. uxori. 

26. L. Catellia | Dionysia | sibi et suis. 

G. I. L. IX. 2710. Found at Aesernia, Samnimn. 

27. a) Curiatia obit a. d. g.id(?) Ap. -y-*^ ^ 
6) Pouria | a. d. Ill k. be. 

G. I. L. VI. 8253. ^6&: On cinerary ollae, from the vineyard near the 
church of San Cesareo, Rome. 

28. d. m. I Gaiae luliae | C. luli Celeris | filiae, vixit | annos XVI 

dies II, I C. lulius Placcus | coniugi pientissimae | ac de se 
bene meren|ti item C. lulius Ge|ler pater filiae pi|entissimae 
feee|runt. 
C. I. L. VIII. 3664. From Lambaesis, Africa. 

29. d. m. I Ostoriae Spu|ri filiae Quar|tae, Calpurnia | Ostoria pia 

ma|tri piissimae be|ne merenti fecit. 
C. I. L. X. 5947. Found at Anagnia, in Marsian territory. 



108 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

30. d. m. s., I Fulvia C. f. Boni|fatia | p.^ t. a. | XLV, | h. s. e. 

C /. L. VIII. 1595. Found at Mustis (Hr. Ain. Gaeliaen) in Africa, ip(ie) . 

31. Maxima Nasia Cn. f . Apoline dat. 

C. I. L. IX. 5803. On the upper surface of a cylindrical block of tufa, 18 
inches in height and diameter, provided with a cavity which indicates 
that it served as a receptacle for money. Found at Cluentum (Civita- 
nuova) in Picenum. Note the dative in e. 

32. a) Curtia Eosci ; b) [JV]umtoriai | M. Opi Albi ^ ; c) Geminia 

C. f . Cn. Vatroni uxor ; d) Luseia M. uxor. 

C. I. L. XIV. 3115, 6) 3178, c) 3143, d) 3156. Sepulchral inscriptions of 
Praeneste. ' Sc. uxori. 

33. L: Cocceius L. | C. Postumi 1. | Auctus arcitect. 

C. /. L. X. 1614. Inscribed on the wall of an ancient temple at Puteoli. 
A freedman of L. Cocceius and C. Postumius. 

34. a) rannia L. f. 6) Lavilia M. f. 

C. I. L. XI. 3653, 3663. Sepulchral inscriptions from Caere. 

35. L. Caesius L. f. | Caiii\ Bassus | domo Pisauri | vet. leg. VII C. 

p. V I an. LIII stip. XXXIII | h. s. e., t. f. i., h. p.,» | in. f. p. 
VI, in a. p. X. ««'^-s-^- '•' 

G. I. L. III. 2014. Found at Salonae in Dalmatia. ^ Cam(ilia) (iri&tt). 
^ G{laudiae) p(iae) f(idelis). ^h(ic) s(itus) e(_st), t{itulum) f(Jeri) 
i(ussit), h{eres) p{osuit). 

36. d. m. I Fabia Sperata, | Sallustis | Acathocles | o cae Kodibs | 

atois epoesan.' 

C. I. L. X. 11. Found at Regium Julium (Reggie di Calabria), Bruttium. 
^ 6 Kal 'PiSios airoTs iitolTiaav. 

37. mur.^ | Columbus | Serenianus XXV " | nat. Aedtis ' | hie adqui- 

escit, I Sperata coniux. 

C. I. L. XII. 3325. Inscribed on a column found at Nemausus (Nismes), 
now in the museum in the same city. ^ mur(millo). ^ {pugnarum) 
XXV. ^ nat{ione:) Aedu(jvi)s. Note the apex. This is an instance of a 
slave possessed of two names. 



THE ROMAN NAME 109 

38. M. Maecio | M. f. Oceano; | Numisiae M.} 1. [Pjrivatae; C. 

Maecio Ingenuo | equiti leg. X. Gem. 
0. I. L. XII. 43G4. Inscribed on n large stone serving as a support for 
cinerary urns, found near Narbonne, where it still exists, i m(^ulieris). 

39. a) Camelia; 6) Opia; c) Eoscia. 

C. I. L. XIV. 3083, 8197, 3227. Sepulchral inscriptions of Praeneste. 

40. Mercuric | Aug.^ sacrum, | L. Cordius C. f. Pap. | Thevestinus | 

T. s. 1. a." 

C. I. L. VIII. 10644. Found at Theveste in Africa. ' Aiig Qusto) . '■' v {otuni) 
siplvit) l(ibens) a{nimo). 

41. Tatilius | Priscianus | Eufinus | matri | piissimae et | unici 

exempli. p*;.. 1L. j , , .. 5" 

C. I. L. XII. 2464. On a tablet found at Grfey-sur-Aix, Gallia Narbonensis. 
The letters are of the first century a.d. For names ending in -anus, see 
page 99. 

42. C. Suestidius M. f. | Ani.' Erege./ | Pola Suestidia sor[or] | sep. 

C. I. L. XIV. 3453. From Treba Augusta (Trevi nel Lazio), Latiun}. 
^ Ani{ensi tribu). ''■ Perhaps Fregenae in Etruria is referred to. 

43. bono I eventui | leg. I. Ital. | M. Maesius | Geminus | Bononia 

p. p.i I d. d.2 M[am]s et Eufo.^ 

C. /. L. III. 6223. Inscribed on a pedestal of uncertain origin, assigned to 
Moesia Inferior, '^pirimus) p{ilus). ''d{onum') d^edit). ^ M\_am{ertino)'\. 
* 182 A.D. Note abl. case of noun denoting the domus. 

44. d. m. s., I T. Aelius Aug. lib. | Libycus adiut. | tabul. ab men^H 

Thisiduensi ^ vix. | ann. LXXVIII, h. s. e. 

C. I. L. VIII. 13188. Found at Carthage, i The officer is adiutor tdbulan 
ab mensa Thisiduensi. ^ Of Thisiduo, a town in Africa. 

45. d. m., I M. Naevio Pri|migeiiio do|mo Naristo^ | ann LXXV; 

fili|a Creusa pa|renti pientissimo | et Naevia con|iunx posuer|unt 
et ceteri sui. 

C. I. L. III. 4500. Found near Camuntum, Pannonia Superior, ^ex 
Naristis, cf. Dio, LXXI. 21. 



110 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

46. M. Holconio M. f . Euf o, N. Curtio Vibio Salasso quinq.* 

G. I. L. IV. 1886. One of the graffiti of Pompeii, i quinq{uennalibus). 
Kufus was quinquennalis in 752/2. Note the second nomen, due prob- 
ably to adoption. 

47. d. m. s., I L. Eufinius Primus | Italicus | d.^ Eeginensis | ann. 

XXXX, I Fabia Campana | uxor | m. m. f./ | h. s. e., s. t. t. 1. 
O. I. L. II. 1038. Assigned to Regina (Eeyna) Baetica, Spain, existing in 
a copy. ^ d(omo). ^ m(arito) m(onumentum') f{ecU). 

48. Festo Serviai * | Eutactiano, | amicus | merenti. 

C. I. L. X. 4134. Found near Capua, now in museum at Naples. ^So. 
servo. For slave names in -anus see page 99. 

49. L. Valerius M. f. Ouf. Giddo/ | L. Calpurnius M. 1. Menophil. | 

Valerianus,^ | Valeria L. 1. Truphera. 

C. I. L. VI. 28021. Found at Eome on the Via Appia, near the Porta 
Capena, where it still exists. The letters belong to the period of Augustus. 
1 Name of patronus. ^ Freedman of father of the patronus, named by 
him from some L. Calpurnius. 

60. dis manibus sac, | Calamus | Ti. Claudii Caesaris | August! Ger- 
manic! ^ I PampMli^nus | vilicus ex horreis | LolMnis | ex d. d., 
d. s. d. d. 
C. I. L. VI. 4226. Found at Rome in the Columbaria of Livia, now in 
the Capitoline Museum. ^ So. serous. 

51. L. Ampudius | L. et 0. 1. | Philomusus | modi.* 

C. I. L. VI. 11595. From Rome, existing in copy. ' modi(us), or modi- 
(anus), regarded as a signum. 

52. d. m. I L. Taurini Aureli | ciyi | Eleusdnsi* | anndr XXIII, | 

parentes. 

C. I. L. XII. 3361. Inscribed in letters of the second century a.d., on a 
cippus found at Nemausus (Nismes), where it still exists. ^ciOT(«) 
Eleusensi^s). 

53. Q. Publicio Tergest^ | 1. Pelici, Septu|mia Sp. f. Sexta | Q. Pub- 

licius Felijcis 1. Ingenuus | t. f. 
G-. I. L. V. 628, Found at Trieste, existing now in a copy. ' Tergest {inoruin). 



THE ROMAN NAME 111 

54. C. Petronius C. f. | harispex | Crispinia natus.' 

C. I. L. I. 1351. On an urn of travertine, now in the Museum at Florence. 
1 This form is found where Etruscan influence prevailed. See p. 9Q 

55. d. m. I Tertii Pompei | Materni | civis Eei./ | lulia Articill.' | 

marito | optimo | et sibi viva | posuit. 

C. I. L. XII. 3360. Pound at Nemausus (Nismes), existing in copy. 
^Bei{ensis). ^ Articillia,). 

56. d. m., I Terentia | Lucidae | nepos | Iuoundu|la v. a. XXVI | li. s. 

e., I C. lulius Mar|tialis coniu. 

O. I. L. VIII. 7804. Found at Cirla, later Constantina, in the Province of 
Numidia, Africa, where it still exists in the museum. 

67. Q. Fabius Q. f. Quirina | Fabianus Ilurconen|sis idem Patrici- 
en|sis ann. XXXXIII pins | in suis h. s. e., s. t. t. 1. 

G. I. L. II. 1200. Found at Sevilla (Hispalis), Spain, where it still exists in 
the museum. 

58. Sex. Venafrani | col. 1. Primogeni | sibi et suis, | Q. Venafranio 

col. 1. I Felici sibi et suis | in fron. p. XII, | in agro p. XII. 
C. I. L. X. 5012. Found at Venafrum, where it still exists. 

59. Luciae | Vitelliae | q.' et Senecill. | L. Vitelli Materni ] V ^ leg. 

X Geminae fil, | [5]empronius Stella, [7 l]eg. X G-eminae, | con- 
iugi piissimae et castissimae. 3i 

C. /. L. V. 950. Found at Aquileia, now at Verona. '■ quae. ''• centuriotiis. 

60. d. m. I Pupi Paterni | fil.,' | Paternus pater. 

C.I. L. XII. 1659. From Xucus Augusti (Luc-en-Diois), Gallia Narbonensis, 
existing in copy. ^fll(ii). 

61. d. m., I Aurelio Fe|lici Aug. lib | qui vixit annis V | diebus 

XXXIII I horis Villi, M. Aur. | Carious Aug. lib. fili|o dul- 
cissimo bene | merenti fecit. 

C. I. L. VI. 7778. On a marble cippus from the Vinea Randaninia on the 
Via Appia. 



112 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

62. Nicomacus Saf.^ L. s., | Paapia Atiedi L. s., | Dorot.^- Tettien. 

[r.] s., I menti bonae | basim don. dant. 

C. I. L. IX. 3910. Found near Alba Fucens, near Lake Fucinus, In terri- 
tory of Marsi. i Unknown nomen, perhaps 8af(J,ni). ^ Dorotheus. 

63. Q. Caesius | Q. P. 1. Setus, | Bajcis | Caesiai.^ 

O. I. L. IX. 4251. FoundatAmiternum, In the Sabine territory. iBac(cft)ig 
Caesiai (Jiberta ?). 

64. d. m. I Aeliae Iidiae | Celsae, | Aelius !Feli|cianus et Va|ria 

Emerita | filia[e] fecer. 

O. I. L. XII. 191. Found at Antipolis, Gallia Narbonensis, existing in copy. 

65. Valeriae Atticae | signo Amantiae, | L Tertinius Sextus | coniugi 

et s. a. d.^ 

C. I. L. XII. 2021. Inscribed in letters of the first or second century a.d. 
upon a sarcophagus found at Vienna (Vienne), where it exists to-day 
in the museum, d. m. are also engraved, one on each side of the 
inscription, i suh ascia dedicavit, see inscription, p. 285, no. 22. 

66. ][^icenis Pupae, | P. Alfi P. 1. Dionysi | Duiliae L. 1. Apiclae | 

delicium vixit annos I sexs. 

G. I. L. X. 5500. From a sepulchral urn of Aquinum preserved only in a 
copy. 

67. d. m. s., I Stabir|ia Mon|]iica qu|i et Gus|ura vix. | annis | XXV 

me. I V. d. IV. 

C /. L. VIII. 4406. Inscribed on an altar found at Seriana, in the province 
of Numidia, where it still exists. 

68. Fl. Anthus Maximia|nus in fas ^ dulcis|simus vix | annis XVI 

mens. Ill | dieb. XVIIII. 

0. I. L. X. 2426. Inscribed on a marble urn found near Puteoli, existing 
in copy. ^infa{n)s. 



THE ROMAN NAME 113 

69. Martialis C. 6li Priini/ | M.' SaMrius Crocus | Primigenius C. 

Oli. Primi [ min. Portunae Aug./ | iussii | Q. Postumi Modesti 
C. Vibi Secundi | d. v. i. d./ | C. Memmi luniani Q. Brutti 
Balbi aedil., | [L. D]uvi6 P. Clodid cos.* 

O. I. L. X. 826. Pound at Pompeii, now in Museum at Naples. ' Sc. 
servus. ^ min(istri)Fortu>iae Augustae. * d(_uo)v(irorum)Hure) 
i(icundo). * a.d. 56. Note the apex. 

70. d. m. I Aeliae Priscianae, | vix. ann.' V mens. II d. II, | P. Aelius 

Priscus et | Manila Cleopatra | filiae dulcissimae. 

C. I. L. VI. 10957. From Rome, i ann(fis) or ann{is), 

71. M. Pinari P. 1. | Marpor. 

C. I. L. I. 1076. Found at Kome on the Via Latina. Note Marpor from 
Marcl puer. 

72. d. m. s., I T. lulio Mauro sive Euzerati,' | v. a. XVIII, | h. s., 

lulius Bassus 7 | leg. XXII Prim.^ liberto optimo. 

C. I. L. VIII. 2888. Found at Lambaesis, in Numidia. i Buzeratis is 
a signufn. ^ Frimiigeniae). 

73. d. m., I Pomponis ^ | Crescenti, | Eheno, Danuvio | nepotibus | et 

Euphrate patri | eorum, filio homini | simplicissimo. Pomp. | 
Ehenus pater fecit | qui me non merentem | procupaverunt.^ 

O. I. L. X. 2872. Found at Naples, existing now only in copy, i Pom- 
ponius Crescens, Pomponius Shenus, Pomponius Danuvius are the 
grandsons. ^ For praeocoupaverunt. 

74. regem Ti. lul. Sau|romaten ami|cum imp. popu|li q. R. prae- 

stan|tissimum, G. I. F. S.,^ [e]x d. d. 

C /. L. III. 783. Inscribed on a column upon which a bust formerly stood, 
found in the town of Kertsch (Panticapaeum), Moesia Inferior, preserved 
to-day at Odessa, i C(oloma) I{uUa) F(eUx) §{inope) ; at. C. I. Gr. 
2123 jSatrtX^a ^affCkeuiv fi^av to[^u Trajj/ris ^offiropov Ti^ipiov 'Ioij\lo[_v 
Soi;/)o/i]<irT);', vl&v jSao-iX^ws 'P7j(rKoi;7ro'pi[5os]. He reigned from 92 to 
124 A.D. 

lAT. INSCKIP. 8 



CHAPTER V 

NAMES AND TITLES OF THE EMPERORS 

The names of the emperors, as they occur in the inscriptions, 
deserve special and individual mention, for although in general plan 
they are similar to the ordinary Eoman name, yet they differ in 
certain marked respects, mainly in the use of titles as additional 
elements, and in the adoption of some of these titles as fixed parts 
of the imperial name. 

The following names of emperors taken from inscriptions will 
illustrate the various forms which they assume : 

Augustus, a I. L. III. 6070. 749/5. 

IMPerator • CAESAR • DIVI ■ Filius • AVGustus • COnSul • XlT • TRibunicia • 
POTestate • XWiT ■ PONTIFEX ■ MAXIMVS ■ 

Tiberius. C. I. L. III. 2972, a.d. 17. 

Tiberius • CAESAR • DIVI | AVGVSTI • Filius ■ AVGVSTVS | PONTifex • MAXimus • 
IMPerator -TRlBlunicia- POTESTate • XVIII • COnSul ■ DESIGnatus • TERTIum| 

Claudius. C. I. L. III. 6024, a.d. 47-8. 

Tiberius • CLAVDIVS ■ CAESAR | AVGustus • GERMANICus • PONT| ifex MAXIMVS • 
TRIBunicia • POTESTate ■ VM | COnSul • iV ■ IMPerator • XV ■ Pater ■ Patriae • 
CENSOR. 

Domitian. C. I. L. III. Diploma XIII, a.d. 86. 

IMP CAESAR DIVI VESPASIANI F DOMITIANVS | 
AVGVSTVS GERMANICUS PONTIFEX MA | 
XIMVS TRIBVNIC POTESTAT- V ■ IMP XT CENSOR | 
PERPETVVS • COS • XlT • P • P ■ 
114 



NAMES AND TITLES OP THE EMPERORS 115 

Hadricm. G. I. L. III. 5733, a.d.' 132. 

IMP • CAESAR . DIVI ■ | TRAIANI • PARThlci • F • | 
DIVI • NERVAE • NEPOS • | TRAIANVS ■ HADRIANVS | 
AVG ■ PONtF . MAX ■ TRB ■ | POT ■ XVI • COS • III • P ■ P • PROCOS • 

We will now consider each of the elements found in these names. 

I. Imperator. IMP {avroKpaxiop). 

A distinction must carefully be made between the use of this word 
as a praenomen and as a title of honor. It regularly appears in 
both uses in the same inscription. 

The original title imperator of republican days was conferred by 
acclamation upon a victorious general. This the Dictator Caesar 
assumed continually during the latter part of his life, and it became 
virtually a cognomen of his name.' In 714/40 Octavianus rejected 
his former praenomen Gaius and substituted IMPerator. Neverthe- 
less the use of the word as an honorary title was still continued, 
and hence it appears again in the latter part of the name. Tiberius, 
Gaius, and Claudius did not use the word as a praenomen, but Nero 
renewed the custom, employing it at times, while his successors used 
it regularly. In some instances, especially among later emperors, 
the word imperator (IMP) occurs in company with the ordinary 
praenome7i. 

Imp. T. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus. 

In the names of Vitellius the word imperator frequently occurs 
among the cognomina. 

II. Nomen. 

It will be noticed that in the names of the early emperors, with 
the exception of Claudius, Nero, and Vitellius, the nomen is omitted. 
This custom continues in use until after the time of Hadrian, when 
the ordinary form is resumed. 

Imp. T. Aelius Caesar Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius. 

O. I. L. III. 8007. 
1 Mommsen, Staatsr. II. 767, note 1. 



116 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

III. Caesar, C, CAES (Kattrap). 

This word was the inherited cognomen of the Julian family, and 
indicated its patrician origin. It belonged, by inheritance, to all 
the agnati of Caesar, but, at the death of Gains Caligula, was trans- 
ferred ^ to the Claudian family, and became the distinguishing mark 
of the reigning house, being used, not only by the emperor, but by 
the sons and grandsons. From the time of Hadrian the name was 
restricted to the emperor and his designated successor. It was 
placed immediately after the praenomen or nomen, if the latter were 
given, a position, however, which was not steadily maintained, as at 
a later period Caesar is found even at the end of the name.^ 

IV. The next element is that which indicates descent. If the 
father were a deified emperor, his name was marked by the addition 
of the adjective divus. The name of Augustus contains the formula 
divi flilius) inasmuch as Caesar was the first to receive apotheosis. 

V. Cognomina. 

The names of the Flavian emperors, as well as of those succeed- 
ing them, show the insertion after the designation of ancestry, or 
after the word Caesar, if the former is omitted, of certain personal 
names, cognomina, such as Vespasianiis, Domitianus, Neroa, Traianus, 
Verus, Severus, Pertinax. 

VI. Augustus, A, AV, AVG (Se/Soo-tos). 

The last word in the name of the emperor, strictly speaking, is 
the honorary title Augustus. It was conferred upon Oetavianus by 
the Senate, Jan. 16, 727/27. 

Being really honorary, and implying that a person was sacred and 
deserving of reverence, it was not legally an heirloom.' Neverthe- 
less it was adopted by the successors * of Augustus after it had been 

1 The last descendant of Augustus on the throne was Nero, but he belonged 
to the cognati, not to Augustus' own family. Momm. Staatsr. II. 770. 

2 Index C. I. L., vol. III. 

8 Mommsen, Staatsr. II. p. 773, note 3. 

* Vitellius at first refused the title. Tac. Hist. II. 90. 



NAMES AND TITLES OF THE EMPERORS 117 

decreed by the Senate, and became a name associated strictly with 
the principate, for it was held by no one but the reigning emperor 
until the middle of the second century, when it appears as a cognomen 
with the united names of Marcus Aurelius and L. Verus, indicating 
that both had a share in the imperial power. After this time the 
title was conferred upon other members of the imperial family, and a 
participation in the powers of the emperor was thus implied. The 
abbreviation AVGG indicated two Augusti, AVGGG, three. 

From the latter part of the second century the word Augustus is 
preceded by additional honorary surnames, such as Pius Felix,^ Pius 
Felix Invictus,' while, from the beginning of the fourth century, it is 
strengthened by the use of perpetuus, semper, victor ac triumphator 
semper. Thus, also, the title optimus was conferred upon Trajan.^ 

The word Augustus really completed the name of the emperor, 
nevertheless there were added in certain instances cognomina, such 
as cognomina ex virtute, either inherited, as in the case of Gaius, 
Claudius, and Nero, who obtained the title Germanicus from Drusus, 
or received, because of some victory, as in the use of the same word 
Germanicus in the names of Vitellius, Nerva, and Trajan. OtTier 
cognomina of this kind are : Dacicus, Parthicus as belonging to 
Trajan, Armeniacus, Medicus, Sarmaticus as belonging to Marcus 
Aurelius. These surnames are of great importance in determining 
the date of an inscription.* 

Titles of Empbroks 

These are given in the order in which they are generally found. 

I. Pontifex Maximus. P • M or PONT • MAX (d/ax'V^s /teyto-ros). 

This title indicated that the emperor, as the president of the 
collegium of pontiffs, was supreme in all matters of religion. It was 
assumed by Augustus after the death of Lepidus, and was thereafter 
held by the emperor, who was always chief pontiff. It regularly 
occupied the first place. 

- 1 From the time of Commodus. 

2 From time of Septimius Severus on coins, from Caracalla in inscriptions. 

3 O. I. L. II. 2054. • 4 See page 123. 



118 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

II. Tribunicia Potestate, or Tribuniciae Potestatis, TRIB • P, POT, 
FT (numeral) {8rifj.apxi-K7Ji e^ouo-uis). 

This formula, derived from the early tribunus, represented the 
supreme civil control, and formed the distinctive title of the princi- 
pate. Augustus, in 731/23, laid aside the consulate and added its 
character as an annual office to the tribunician power which had 
already been conferred upon him for life. Tribunicia Potestate, fol- 
lowed by the numeral of iteration, indicated both a perpetual and an 
annual magistracy, for it was conferred, without limit, and yet 
served to indicate the length of the emperor's reign by measuring it 
off in tribunician years.' 

The form is regularly the ablative case followed by a numeral 
used adverbially, indicating years of tenure. At times the genitive 
case is found, perhaps from Greek influence. 

The position of this title, in time of Augustus, is, with few excep- 
tions, after the consulate, and generally after the title imperator. 
From Tiberius the tribunicia potestate assumes the position after 
the PON • MAX. 

III. Imperator, IM, IMP, IMPER (numeral) (avTOKpdTwp). 

This is the acclamatio imperatoria, and must be distinguished from 
the praenomen imperator referred to above. 

Under the Empire this title was conferred upon the princeps, 
either because of a victory won by himself or under his auspices. 
The number of the imperial salutation was increased by one on the 
occasion of each victory. 

Upon the first victory the title was imperator II., not imperator 
primum, for the first salutation was given at the time of the 
assumption of power. The position,^ in the time of Augustus and 
Tiberius, is generally after the consulate, so COS • IMP • TR • P, 
and where the tribunicia potestate stands directly after the consulate, 
imperator follows that also, so COS • TR • P • IMP. In the inscrip- 

1 This difficult subject of the tribunician year is treated by Mommsen, Staatsr. 
UK p. 796, and Stobbe, Philologus, XXXII. (1873), p. 1-91. See also, pp. 123 fl. 

2 Mommsen, Staatsr. II. , p. 784. 



NAMES AND TITLES OF THE EMPEROES 119 

tions of the City relating to Augustus, however, it stands, as a 
rule, at the head of the titular list, so IMP • COS • TR ■ P. 
From the time of Claudius, imperator comes after tribunicia potestate 
and before the consulate. Caracalla is the last emperor whose monu- 
ments regularly give the imperial salutations. They appear after 
this time only in the inscriptions of certain emperors, as Gordian, 
Gallien, Diocletian. 

IV. Consul, COS (numeral) (vTrartys). 

As a result of the treatment of the consulship by Caesar and 
Augustus, it became a matter entirely within the control of the 
emperor whether he himself should be consul or permit the ofB.ce to 
go to some other of senatorial rank. Thus an emperor could be 
repeatedly elected to the consulship, and this is indicated by the 
numeral of iteration placed after the title. The ofiBce was held by 
the emperor at pleasure,- and so might be laid aside, after a month or 
two, in favor of consules suffecti. The election of the emperor to the 
consulship took place at various times in the year preceding the 
year of oflS.ce. The emperor, as consul elect, was designated by the 
title COS • DESIGN (waros aTro8tSayfj.a>os) followed by a numeral 
one greater than that of his last consulship. The position of this 
title, consul or consul designatus, was at first before the tribunicia 
potestate, where it vied with imperator for first place. In time of 
Tiberius it gave way to the tribunicia potestate, and from the time of 
Claudius it gave way to imperator, and took generally the fourth place. 

V. Censor, CEN, CENS, CES (n/j.rjTij's, dirort/ii;T^s). 

This title was held only by Claudius, Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian. 
The last named received the title censor perpetuus} Its position 
varied, since it stood at times before, and again after the consulate. 

VI. Pater Patriae, P ■ P (iraT-^p irarptSos). 

This title had been conferred by acclamation upon Cicero and 
Julius Caesar, and was accepted by Augustus at the request of all 
the senate, knights, and people (Mon. Ancyr. VI. 35). 

I C. I. L. II. 4721. 



120 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

A similar honor was conferred upon other emperors some time 
after their assumption of power, but was in several instances 
declined/ as in the case of Tiberius/ Nero, Vespasian, and Hadrian. 

It must be remembered that this is simply an honorary title, indi- 
cating no official power. Pertinax was the first emperor to receive 
it upon entrance to office. 

Its position in the time of Augustus is either at the beginning or 
at the end of the list of titles. From Augustus to Titus it stood, as 
a rule, before the consulate, but from Domitian it followed the con- 
sulate, and might conclude the list. 

VII. Proconsul, PROCOS or PROC (dvewVaTos). 

Although the proconsulare imperium was as important as the 
tribunicia potestag, yet it was not represented by its own title until 
the close of the first century. In all probability the word imperator, 
which had become a part of the name, supplied its place, and hence 
an additional title was not given in the official list. In the time of 
Trajan, proconsul is assumed as a title when the emperor is out of 
Italy, and it appears with this restriction until the third century. 

In the diploma of Trajan (a.d. 116), where it first appears, it is 
placed before the consulate. In the time of Hadrian it ends the 
titular list, and regularly occupies this position from that time on. 

Titles of Members of the Imperial Family 

Among the titles that were borne by members of the imperial 
family, the following are of most importance : 

Caesar. 

After the adoption of M. Annius Verus (Marcus Aurelius) by the 
Emperor Hadrian, this title, which had been borne by members of 
the families of Julius Caesar and Augustus, and afterwards by the 
reigning emperors and their sons and grandsons, came to designate 

1 Mommsen, Staatsr. II., p. 779, notes. 

2 Tacitus, Ann. I. 72 ; II. 87. 



NAMES AND TITLES OF THE EMPERORS , 121 

the heir to the throne, and so was conferred upon the monarch and 
his successor as well. 

From the time of the Emperor Geta (209-212 a.d.) the word 
Caesar was accompanied by nohilissimus, and later, as in the name 
of Galerius Maximianus, by perpetuus nohilissimus, and, as in the 
name of Constantius, by nohilissimus ac florentissimus or heatissimus 
ac felix. 

Princeps luventutis, PR • IV, I WEN (irpoKptros t^s veoti^tos). 

At the instance of Augustus, this title was conferred by the 
knights ' upon his grandsons Gains Caesar and Lucius Caesar, 
whom he had adopted. It indicated the entrance of the young men 
to the equestrian order. 

Although it was afterward conferred upon other princes of the 
reigning house who did not sit in the senate, it belonged, naturally 
and originally, to the heir to the throne. 

Augusta. 

This title was first conferred upon Livia by the will of Augustus, 
and probably implied a share in the governing power, though any 
purpose of this kind was thwarted by Tiberius. It was next offered 
as an honorary title to Antonia, the grandmother of Gains, but was 
refused. Agrippina, the last wife of Claudius, accepted it, probably 
with the purpose of sharing in political power.^ After the political 
meaning was lost, it became merely the most exalted title for females 
of the imperial household. After Domitian it became customary 
to confer this name upon the wife of the reigning prince. 

Nevertheless, it was conferred as a title of honor upon other rela^ 
tives of the emperor, as upon the mother, Julia Soaemias, and 
grandmother, Julia Maesa, of Elagabalus, and upon Claudia, the 

1 Mon. Ancyr. III. 5, equites Romani universi principem iuventntis utrumque 
eorum (Gains and Lucius) parmis et hastis argenteis donatum appellaverunt. 
Cf. Tacitus, Ann. I. 3, 2. 

2 Tacitus, Ann. XII. 26. 



122 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

daughter of Nero, and upon Mareiana, the sister of Trajan. It was 
at first conferred by the senate at the suggestion of the emperor, but 
afterwards the senate took the initiative. 

Tacitus (Ann. I. 14) tells us that an attempt vi^as made to confer 
upon Livia the title parens or mater patriae, but the proposition 
came to naught through the opposition of Tiberius. Nevertheless, 
coins of African and Spanish colonies are in existence, giving to 
Augusta the title mater jjatriae and genetrix orhis} 

In like manner the wife of Marcus Aurelius, the younger Faustina, 
is called mater castrorum. From this time similar titles were not 
rarely given to women, so the wife of Severus, the mother of Carar 
calla, Julia Domna, was given the title mater castrorum et senatus et 
patriae, so Julia Mammaea is styled mater castrorum et senatus et 
patriae et universi generis humani, C. J. L. II. 3413. 

Erasures and Substitutions. 

In m,any inscriptions it is evident that names of certain persons 
have been erased, while in others the names of other persons, or 
substitutions of a varied character, have taken the place of what has 
been obliterated. The erasures are due to a decree of the senate 
abolishing the memory of the emperor or member of the imperial 
family. The names of Caligula, Nero, Domitian, Commodus, 
Albinus, Geta, Macrinus, Elagabalus, Severus Alexander, Maximus, 
etc., are thus erased; also of Valeria Messalina wife of Claudius, 
Julia Agrippina mother of Nero, Fulvia Plautilla wife of Carar 
calla, P. Fulvius Plautianus father of Fulvia Plautilla, Julia 
Soaemias mother of Elagabalus, and others.^ 

1 Eckhel. Doct. Num. VI. 154-156 ; VII. 196. 

2 See page 411. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF THE ROMAN EMPERORS 123 

CHEONOLOGICAL LIST OF THE EOMAN EMPEEOES 
The Dating of Imperial Inscriptions 

While the official method of recording dates in Eome was always 
by the names of the eponymous consuls of the year, another method 
grew up under the changes brought about by the assumption of 
imperial power by Augustus and his successors. Its basis was the 
tribunicia potestas. In inscriptions in which the name and titles of 
the emperor occur the indication by a numeral of the annual renewal 
of the tribunician power affords a means of determining the date, 
and, with the aid of certain other elements of the name, it is often 
possible to decide, not only upon the year, but upon the month, or 
part of the month, as well. 

The principal elements by which the date may be determined are : 
(a) the tribunician ' renewal,' (6) the imperial salutations, (c) the 
number of the consulate, and (d) the assumption of such titles, 
or cognomina, as P(ater) P(atriae), P(ontifex) M(aximus), CENS(or), 
PERTINAX, OPTIMVS, GERMANICVS, SARMATICVS, etc. -The 
method to be employed, in connection with the table below, may 
be illustrated by examples : 

(1) 

0. 1. L. II. 4T21. 

IMPERATOR ■ CAESAR • [ DIVl ■ VESPASIANI F • | DOMITIANVS ■ AVG | 
GERMANICVS ■ PONTIFEX | MAXSVMVS • TRIBVNICIAE | POTESTATIS 
VlTTT ■ IMP • XXi I COS • XV CENSOR | PERPETVVS | P • P, etc. 

(a) TRIBVNICIAE POTESTATIS Vml. By reference to the table, p. 130, this 
is found to be September 13, 89. 

(&) IMP. XXI, received, as the table shows, during 89. 

(c) COS. XV, January 1, 90-91. 

(d) GERMANICVS in 84; CENSOR PERPETVVS in 85. 



124 LATIN INSCEIPTIONS 

By the examination of these dates, we find that the inscription 
was set up between January 1 (COS. XV) and September 13 (TR • 
P • VTTM), in the year a.d. 90. • 

(2) 
C /. L. XIV. 106 : A fragmentary inscription of Lucius Verus. 







! 




1 




I. awrel \ 


10 . VERO 


• Av| 


g. armen. 




parthi J 


|C0 . MAX • 


MEi 


\diao 




imp. i \ 

. . . s 


|V- COS. II • 


DES; 

< 

• i 


) Hi procoe 



(a) TR. P. (wanting). 

(6) [IMP. I]V supplied from the data given. 

(c) COS. TT. DES. [TTT]. A.D. 166 (for Verus was COS. ITT in 167. 

(d) PARTHICO MAX. 165; MEDICO 166. 

Hence the inscription dates a.d. 166. 



Augustus (e.g. 23-a.d. 14) 

C. Octavius ; after his adoption, C. Julius Caesar Octavianus. He is designated 

on the monuments, IMP . CAESAR . DIVI • F • AVG. 
Augur, in 717/37 at the latest. 

XV Vir Sacris Faciundis, between 717/37 and 720/34. 
Augustus, on January 16, 727/27. 
VII Vir Epulonum, before 738/16. 

Augustus received the Tribunician Power on June 27, 731/23, and renewed 
it each year in the same month and day. Therefore his Tribunician dates 
extend from TRIB. POT., commencing June 27, 731/23, to TRIB. POT. XXXVll, 
commencing June 27, a.d. 14. 

He was invested with the consulship ten times, and was saluted imperator 
eight times, before his accession. The subsequent consular and imperial dates 
are as follows; 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF THE ROMAN EMPERORS 126 



731/23 

734/20 

739/15 

741/13 

742/12 

743/11 

745/9 

746/8 

747/7 

748/6 

749/5 

752/2 

A.D. 2 

" 6 



January 1. 


COS 

IMP 
IMP 


XI 
Villi 




X 


January 1. 




IMP 
IMP 
IMP 
IMP 


XT PONT. MAX 
Xll 




xiIT 




Xllll 


January 1. 








January 1. 
January 1. 


COS 
COS 
IMP 
IMP 
IMP 
IMP 
IMP 


Xli 

XlIlP(o«er) P(( 
XV 




XVII, (XVIII) 
■ XVIIII 






XX 




XXI 



" 11 

" 14 

" 14 August 19 



Tiberius COS 



Tiberius IMP 
Tiberius IMP • 
Tiberius COS- 
Tiberius TR • 



Tiberius IMP- III, (Mil) 

Tiberius IMP • V 

Tiberius IMP ■ VI 

Tiberius IMP ■ W 



Death of Augustus. 



TiBBKius (14-37) 
Ti. Claudius Nero ; after his adoption : Ti. lulius Caesar ; designated in inscrip- 
tions: Tl • CAESAR • AVG. 
He received the Tribunioian Power on June 27, 748/6, during the reign of 
Augustus, and renewed it always on that month and day ; but whereas his 
TRIB ■ POT • V fell on June 27, 752/2, he did not receive his TRIB • POT ■ Vl 
until June 27, a.d. 4. In reckoning his Tribunioian dates, therefore, one must 
remember that TRIB • POT • V covers the years from June 27, 752/2, to June 27, 
A.D. 4 ; and for any higher number, deduct two from the Tribunioian date, 
Which will give the date Anno Domini. Thus, TRIB ■ POT • XXX = a.d. 28-29. 



A.D 


14 


August 19. 


Princeps. 


«t 


15 


March 10. 


PONT ■ MAX 


(t 


18 


January 1. 


COS ■ TIT 
IMP • VKT 


t( 


21 


January 1. 


cos-TTTT 


(C 


31 


January 1. 


COS. V 


(( 


37 


March 16. 


Death of Tiberius. 



126 



LATIN INSCRIPTIOlSrS 



CAESAR • GERMANICVS 



Caligula (37-41) 

C. lulius Caesar ; designated on the monuments : C 
(^Caligula is a nickname.) 
He received the TRIB ■ POT at his accession, March 18, 37, and renewed it on 
the same month and day of 38, 39, and 40. 

A.D. 37 March 18. IMP • PONT • MAX 

Claudius COS 



" 37 


July 1. 


COS 


" 38 


January. 


P{ater) ■ P(atHae) 


" 39 


January 1. 


COS -IT 


" 40 


JaiUuary 1. 


COS- TIT 


" 41 


January 1. 


cos-IITi 


" 41 


January 24 


. Death of Caligula. 




Claudius I. (41-4 



A.D. 41 January 25. 



42 



Ti. Claudius Nero Drusus Germanicus ; designated on the monuments : Tl • 
CLAVDIVS ■ CAESAR • AVG • GERMANICVS 
Claudius received the TRIB • POT on January 25, 41, and renewed it regularly 
on that date ; so that at his death, October 13, 54, he was in the course of his 

TRIB ■ POT • xirn 

He took the name Britannicus after his victories in Britain, but the title 
seldom appears on the monuments. 

IMP • PONT • MAX 

IMP -11 

COS -IT 

?(fiter) ■ P(ain'oe) 

IMP -TIT 

COS- ilT 

IMP • IV, V 

IMP- VllT 

COS- DESIG - illTi 

IMP -Vim, X, XT 

1 Although Claudius did not enter upon his COS - TFTT until 47, he is called 
COS • DESIG - Mil on inscriptions of 45, and already before January 25, of this 
year. (Cf. O. /. L. V. 3326, Verona : TRIB - POTEST - IITT, COS - TIT, DESIGNATO 
Mil ; and see Momms. Staalsr. I., p. 587.) 



January 1. 
January 5. 



43 January 1. 



44 
45 



before January 25. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF THE ROMAN EMPERORS 127 

A.D. 46 IMP-XIT 

" 47 January 1. COS • ml 

CENSOR ■ (DESIGNATVS),i IMP ■ Ml, XV 

" 48 CENSOR, IMP. XVI 

" 49 •. IMP-XVil, XVlTi 

" 50 IMP-XXT Nero adopted. 

" 51 January 1. COS ■ V 

IMP • XXiT, XXM 

" 52 IMP-XXWi 

" 54 October 13. Death of Claudius. 



Nero (54-68) 

L. Domitius Ahenobarbus ; after bis adoption : Ti. Claudius Drusus Germanicus 
Caesar; designated on the monuments, at first: NERO ■ CLAVDIVS • CAESAR 
AVGVSTVS ■ GERMAN ICVS, and afterwards (65): IMP • NERO • CLAVDIVS 
CAESAR . AVG • GERMANICVS 

The tribunician dates of Nero are very difficult to determine, for the inscrip- 
tions show seeming contradictions. The whole matter may best be simplified as 
follows 2 : Nero ascended the throne October 13, 54, and his TR • P was renewed 
on that date each year until 59, when he appears to have adopted a new system. 
It is supposed that he shortened his TR ■ P ■ VI, and thereafter counted the years 
of his tribunician power from December 10 (the old date under the Republic), 
or December 4 (on which the comitia tribuniciae potestatis were held). It is 
impossible to decide which, for the inscriptions suit both. His TR . P . VI began, 
under the old system, on October 13, 59, coinciding with COS ■ JTl, DES ■ ilTT, I M P ■ VT ; 
but on December 10 (or 4) of the same year 59, he took TR • P • VI I, and renewed 
the tribunician dates regularly on that day ; so that at his death, June 9, 68, he 
was in the course of his TR ■ P ■ XV 

_ » 

1 Cf. G 7. L. IX. 5959 : TR • P • VII, CENSOR ■ DESIGNAT, and C. I. L. V. 8002 : 
TR • P . VI ■ CENSOR 

2 This is the theory of Mommsen {Staatsr. II., p. 798, note). The difficulty is 
that it conflicts with certain coins (Eckhel VI. 264, Cohen No. 29, 30, Argelati 
p. 93), which have TR • P ■ VI, COS . Mil, and that it makes necessary the 
assumption of a TR • P . XV, of which there is apparently no evidence. Stobbe's 
theory (Philologus, XXXII., 1873, pp. 23 sq.), that the tribunician date? of Nero 
begin always on Dec. 4, similarly conflicts with C. I. L. III., p. 845, and VI. 2042, 
which have TR • P • VlT, IMP • Vll, COS ■ Mil 



128 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



A.D. 54 OctolDer 13. IMP • PONT • MAX 

" 55 January 1. COS 

" 55 (late in the year) P(ater') P^atriae). 

" 57 January 1. COS • M 

" 57 iMP-iTT, mr, V 

" 58 Januaiy 1. COS • ITT 

" 58 IMP-Vi 

" 60 January 1. COS • 1111 

" 60 IMP-VM 

" 61 IMP • VIM, ViliT 

" 65 IMP- XI 

" 66 IMP.XF 

" 68 (in course of year) COS ■ V 

" 68 June 9. Death of Nero. 



Galea (June 9, 68-January 15, 69) 
Ser. Sulpicius Galba; designated on the monuments: "SER ■ GALBA • IMPERATOR 
CAESAR, or IMP • SER • SVLPICIVS • GALBA • CAESAR • AVG 



Otho (January 15-April 17 (?), 69) 
M. Salvius Otho ; designated on the monuments : IMP ■ M ■ OTHO • CAESAR • AVG 



ViTELLius (January 2-December 20 (?), 69) 

A. Vitellius ; designated on the monuments : IMP • A • VITELLIVS • CAESAR, or 

A • VITELLIVS • IMPERATOR • GERMANICVS, or VITELLIVS • GERM ■ IMP 

Galba, IMP • CAES • AVG ■ P ■ M - TR ■ P 
Galba, COS ■ M 

Vitellius declared IMP by the army in Germany. 
Death of Galba; Otho, IMP • CAES • AVG • TR • P 
Otho, COS 
Otho, PONT • MAX 
Death of Otho. 

Vitellius, IMP • CAES • GERM • COS • PERP 
Vespasian declared IMP by the soldiers at Alexandria. 
December 20. Death of Vitellius. 



68 


June 9. 


69 


January 1. 


69 


2. 


69 


" 15. 


69 


" 30. 


69 


March 9. 


69 


April 17. 


69 


" 19. 


69 


July 1. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF THE ROMAN EMPERORS 129 



Vespasian (69-79) 
T. riavius Vespasianus ; designated on the monuments : IMP- CAESAR • VESPASI- 
ANVS • AVG, or IMP - VESPASIANVS - CAESAR - AVG 
Although not legally emperor until December 20, 69, Vespasian counted the 
years of his reign from July 1, 69, when he was proclaimed emperor by the 
soldiers. His TR - P was renewed each year on this day. On July 1, 71, Titus 
was made his associate in the empire, and their tribunician dates run parallel, 
Titus being always two years behind his father. Vespasian, at his death, was in 
the course of his TR • P • X, and Titus in the course of his TR • P • VIM 





Vespabian. 


TlTXJS. 


DOMITIAN. 


A.D. 

69 Dec. 20 


IMP- CAES- AVG -PONT- MAX -P-P 








IMP -IT 






70 Jan. 1 


cos-TT 

IMP- V 


COS 




71 Jan. 1 


COS -TIT 








IMP- Vi 




COS 


July 1 


IMP- VIII 


IMP-CAES-PONT-TR-P 




72 Jan. 1 


COS- MM 


COS-M 






IMP- Vlill.X 


IMP - mT, irn, V 




73 Jan. 1 






COS. IT 


July 1 


CENSOR 


CENSOR 




74 Jan. 1 


COS- V 


COS- Ml 






IMP-XI, XII, XIII, Xllll 






75 Jan. 1 


COS- VT 


COS-iTIT 
IMP -X 




76 Jan. 1 


COS- VM 


COS- V 






IMP- XVII, XVlll 


IMP -Xi 




77 Jan. 1 


COS- VIM 


COS- VI 






IMP-XVMM 


COS. V 


78 


IMP -XX 


IMP -xTII 




79 Jan. 1 


COS- Villi 


COS- VlT 








IMP -Xllll, XV 




June 23 


Death of Vespasian. 







LAT. INSCEIP. 



130 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



Titus (79-81) 

T. Flavius Vespasianus; designated on the monuments: IMP • TITVS ■ (orT) 
CAESAR-VESPASIANVS-AVG,andlMP-TITVS.(orT)VESPASIANVS.CAESAR.AVG 
For the tribunician years of Titus, see above, under Vespasian. 

A.D. 79 July 23. Sole Emperor, AVG • PONT ■ MAX 

" 80 January 1. COS ■ VlTI Domitian, COS • Vil 

IMP . XVT, XViT 

" 81 September 13. Death of Titus. 



Domitian (81-96) 

T. Flavius Domitianus ; designated on the monuments: IMP ■ CAESAR • DOMITI- 
ANVS ■ AVG ; more rarely IMP ■ DOMITIANVS • CAESAR • AVG 
The tnbunieian dates of Domitian are regular, from the day of his accession, 
September 13, 81 (TR • P), to his death on September, 18, 96. 



A.D. 81 
82 



September 13. IMP • AVG • PONT • MAX • P • P 

January 1. COS • ViTT 

^ IMP-M-TTT 

83 January 1. COS ■ ViTIT 

IMP-V 

84 January 1. COS • X 

' GERMANICVS ■ IMP ■ ViT 

85 January 1. COS ■ Xl 

IMP • ViTT, ix 

(After September 5). CENSOR PERPETWS • IMP • Xl 



86 January 1. 

87 January 1. 

88 January 1. 

89 

90 January 1. 
92 January 1. 

95 Januarj' 1. 

96 September 18. 



COS-XIT 

IMP-XM, XlTI, XlIIT 
COS- XlTT 

cos-xlm 

IMP-XV, XVl 

IMP • xvIT, xvIiT, xvmT, XX, xxT 

COS. XV 
COS- XVl 
IMP- XXTT 

COS- xvn 

Death of Domitian. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LlST OF THE ROMAN EMPEROES 131 

Nekva (96-98) 

M. Cocceius Nerva ; designated on the monuments : IMP • NERVA ■ CAESAR ■ AVG, 
or IMP • CAESAR ■ NERVA • AVG 

The dates of the monuments of Nerva's short reign are not always in accord. 
His TR ■ P extends from September 18, 96, to September 18, 97, when he 
received TR • P • II. From a few inscriptions it seems that a TR • P • TTF was 
reclcoued from December 10 of the same year, 97. The majority of inscriptions 
fail to compute this TR • P • III, and carry his TR • P • TF down to his death, 
joining^t with COS ■ llll (98). Those in which TR • P ■ TU figures unite it with 
COS -III (97), or COS -1111 (98). For convenience the tribunician dates are 
here included in the table. 

A.D. 96 September 18. I M P • CAES • AVG • PONT • MAX ■ TR • P • P(ater) • P{atriae) 

" 97 January 1. COS • Til 
IMP -TT 

September 18. TR ■ P • IT 
October 27. Trajan, CAES ■ IMP • TR • P 

GERMANICVS " GERMANICVS 

(December 10. TR • P • Ml) 

" 98 January 1. COS ■ Mil " COS • IT 

January 25. Death of Nerva. 



Trajan (98-117) 

M. TJlpius Traianus ; designated on the monuments : IMP-CAESAR-NERVA-TRA- 
lANVS ■ AVGVSTVS 

With Trajan the custom of computing the tribunician years from December 
10 becomes general. Invested with the tribunician power by Nerva on October 
27, 97, he counted his TR • P ■ IT from December 10, 97, or September 18, 98 J ; 
and his TR • P • III on December 10, 98, after which the tribunician year began 
regularly on this day. 
A.D. 98 January 26. AVG • PONT ■ MAX 

P(ato') ■ P(atriae) 

" 100 January 1. COS • TU 

" 101 January 1. COS • ITTT 

— IMP • IT, TiT, mT 

' The former the date of the comitia tribuniciae potestatis ; the latter the 
date from which Nerva counted his tribunician years. Probably the latter. 



132 



J.ATm INSCRIPTIONS 



102 (late in the year) 

103 January 1. 

104 

105 

112 January 1. 

114 

115 

116 (between April and August) 

117 August 11 (?) 



DACICVS 

COS • V 

(IMP • V) 

IMP- VT 

COS. VI 

OPTIMVS (as cognomen) . IMP • ViT 

IMP- vm, vmi 

IMP • X, Xl 
PARTHICVS 

iMP-xil, xin 

Death of Trajan. 



Hadrian (117-138) 

P. AeUus Hadrianus ; designated on the monuments 
HADRIANVS ■ AVG 



IMP- CAESAR. TRAIANVS 



II 



Hadrian received the TR • P at the death of Trajan. He counted his TR • P 
from December 10, 117, and the renewal occurred each year on that day. 

In 136 he adopted L. Ceionius Commodus Verus as his successor, under the 
name L. AELIVS . VERVS . CAESAR ; but Aelius died in 138. 

A.D. 117 August 11(?). IMP- CAES- AVG- PONT- MAX ■TR.P-[P(ater).P(a«nae)] 



118 January 1. 

119 January 1. 
122 — - 
128 April 21 (?) 
1.35 

136 January 1. 

137 January 1. 

138 January 1. 
February 25. 
July 10. 



OPTIMVS, GERMANICVS, DACICVS 

COS-TT 

COS- m 

(IMP-VJ)^ 

P(_ater) • P(o«riae). 

IMP.n 

Aelius, 



COS 

» CAES - TR - P . PONT 

" COS - If 

Death of Aelius. 
Antoninus, CAES - TR . P - IMP 



Death of Hadrian. 



1 Found on C I. L. II. 2014 (Baetica), but certainly a mistake. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF THE KOMAN EMPERORS 133 

Antoninus Pius (138-161) 

T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus ; after his adoption : T. Aelius 
Hadrianus Antoninus Pius; designated on the monuments: IMP ■ CAESAR 
T • AELIVS ■ HADRIANVS • ANTONINVS • AVG • PIVS 

He received the TR ■ P on Febrnary 25, 138, renewed it (TR ■ P • II) on 
December 10 of the same year, and thereafter regularly on that day. He died 
in the course of his TR • P • XXIIII. 

On Febraary 25, 147, he adopted as his successor M. Annius Verus Catilius 
Severus, under the name M ■ AELIVS • AVRELIVS • VERVS. M. Aurelius received 
the TR • P, which he renewed regularly on December 10, so that, at the death of 
Pius, Aurelius was in the course of his TR • P ■ XV. 





Antoninus Pius. 


M. AUBELJUS. 


L. Veeus. 


A.D. 138 


February 25 
July 10 


IMP ■ CAES . AVG • TR • P 
PONT ■ MAX 






" 139 


January 1 


COS . II 










(IMP • l|i)P(ofer)-P(aJriae) 


CAES 




" 140 


January 1 


COS. Ill 


COS 




" 141 




IMP • l|2 






" 145 


January 1 


COS • nil 


COS . IT 




" 147 


February 25 




PONT ■ TR • P 


CAES 


" 154 


January 1 






COS 


" 161 


January 1 
March 7 


Death of Antoninus Pius. 


COS- III 


COS • II 



Makcus AukDlius (161-180). — Lucius Vekus (161-169) 

For the names of M. Aurelius before his accession, and for his tribunician dates, 
see under Antoninus Pius. He is styled on the monuments : IMP • CAESAR 
M ■ AVRELIVS • ANTONINVS • AVG 

Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus reigned jointly. The latter was L. Ceionius 
Commodus, son of L. Aelius Caesar (see p. 132), known after 136, when his 
father was adopted by Hadrian, as L. Ceionius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, and 



1 According to the coins. 



^ According to inscriptions. 



134 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



after 147, when he was adopted by Antoninife Pius, as L. Aelius Aurelius Com- 
modus. After he was given a share in the imperium by his brother Marcus 
Aurelius, he received the cognomen Verus. He is styled on the monuments : 
IMP • CAESAR • L • AVRELIVS ■ VERVS. He received the_TR • P on March 7, 161 ; 
his TR • P • II began December 10, 161, his TR • P •III a year from that day, 
and so on regularly. 

For the names and tribunician dates of Coramodus, see below. 





M. AUBELIUS. 


L. Verus. 


COMMODUS. 


A.D. 








161 March 7 


IMP. AVG- p. M 


IMP-AVG-P-M-TR-P 




163 


IMP. 11 


ARMENIACVS- IMP -TT 




164 


ARMENIACVS 






165 


IMP- m 


PARTH-MAXi.lMP-in 




166 


PARTH-MAXi-MEDICVS 
IMP-iTFT 


MEDICVS-IMP-ITIT 


CAES 


167 Jan. 1 


(>(ater) ■ P(fltriae) i 


COS -ITT 

PCafer) - P(atriae) i 




168 


IMP- V 


IMP- V 




169 Middle of 




Death of Verus 




winter 










IMP- vi 






172 


GERMANICVSi 




GERMANICVS 


174 


IMP- VTT 






176 


SARMATICVS • IMP • VIII 




SARMATICVS 


176 Nov. 27 






IMP-TR-P 


177 Jan. 1 






COS 




IMP- Vim 




IMP-IT-AVG-P-P 


178 






IMP -TIT 


179 Jan. 1 


IMP.X 




COS- IT 


180 






iMP.iiii 


March 17 


Death of M. Aurelius 







1 A title formally bestowed this year, but found on earlier inscriptions and coins. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OP THE ROMAN EMPERORS 135 

CoMMODUs (176-192) 

L. Am-elius Cominodus ; variously designated on the monuments : L • AELIVS 

AVRELIVS ■ COMMODVS at the beginning of his reign; theri L ■ AVRELIVS 

COMMODVS until late in 180 ; then, as sole emperor, M • AVRELIVS • COMMO- 

DVS-ANTONINVS until 191 ; and lastly again L-AELIVS-AVRELIVS-COMMODVS 

His TR • P extends from November 27 to December 10, 176; and yearly 

thereafter. See under Marcus Aurelius. 



A.D. 


180 


March 17. 


Sole Emperor. 


" 


181 


January 1. 


COS •TIT 


u 


182 




IMP -V 


(i 


183 


January 1. 


COS. TUT 

IMP- VI • PIVS- PONT. MAX 


IC 


184 




IMP- VlT- BRITANNICVS 


tt 


186 




FELIX 


14 


186 


January 1. 


COS- V 








IMP .VIII 


tl 


190 


January 1. 


COS • VI 


(t 


192 


January 1. 


COS • VlT Pertinax, COS 






December 31. 


Death of Commodus. 



Pbrtinax (193) 
P. Helvius Pertinax; designated on the monuments: IMP • CAES • P • HELVIVS 
PERTINAX ■ AVG 
A.D. 193 January 1. IMP • CAES • AVG • PONT ■ MAX • TR ■ P • P • P 
March 28. Death of Pertinax. 



DlDIUS JULIANUS (193) 

(Designated, on coins only: IMP ■ CAES • M • DIDIVS • SEVERVS • IVLIANVS • AVG 
He reigned from March 28 to June I, 193). 



Septimius Sbveeus' (193-211). — Caracalla (198-217). — Geta 

(209-212) 

L. Septimius Severus ; styled on the monuments : IMP ■ CAESAR • L • SEPTIMIVS 
SEVERVS ■ AVG 

1 Usurper^ like Clodius Albinus and Pescennius Niger are omitted, as being 
of no epigraphical importance. 



136 



LATIX IXSCRIFTIONS 



TR • P, June 1 to December 10, 193 ; TR • P • II, December 10, 193-194, etc. 
On June 2, 198, Septimius Bassianus (Caracalla) was made joint emperor, under 
the name IMP • CAESAR • M • AVRELIVSi • (SEVERVS) • ANTONJ^NVS • AVG. His 
TR ■ P extends from June 2 to December 10, 198; TR • P • II, December 10, 
198-199, etc. 

In 209 (day uneertaiii) P. Septimius Geta also received the TR • P. He is styled 
on the monuments : IMP • CAESAR • P • SEPTIMIVS ■ GETA • AVG. His TR • P • II 
extends from December 10, 209-210, and is renewed regularly. 





Setekus. 


Caeacalla. 


Geta. 


A.D. 








193 June 1 


IMP . CAES . AVG • PONT • MAX 






(( 


PERTINAX ■ P{ater-) ■ P(atriae) 








IMP -TT 






194 Jan. 1 


COS. IT 








IMP ■ Mi • mT • P(ato-) . P(aJriae) 






195 


PIVS . (PARTHICVS), ARABICVS 
(PARTHICVS) • ADIABENICVS 
IMP- V, VT, VlT 






196 


IMP- VIII 


CAES 




197 


IMP- Vim, X 


PONTIFEX 




198 


PARTHICVS. MAXIMVS - IMP.XI ■ (Xll) 


IMP.AVG.TR.P 


CAES 


201 




PIVS. FELIX -PAR- 
THICVS-MAXIMVS 




202 Jan. 1 


cos.ilT 


COS 




205 Jan. 1 




cos. IT 


COS 


207 




IMP .IT 




208 Jan. 1 




COS -TIT 


COS.TT 




IMP.XJT 


P{ater)-P(,atriae) 




209 


BRITANNICVS.IMP.XV" 




AVG . TR . P 
PIVS 


210 


BRITANNICVS. MAXIMVS 


BRITANNICVS 


BRITANNICVS 


211 Feb. 14 


Death of Severus 







iThe name is often spelt AVRELLIVS in inscriptions. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF THE ROMAN EMPERORS 137 

Caeacalla (198-217). — Gbta (209-212) 

For the names and tribunician dates of Caracalla and Geta, see above, under 
Septimius Severas. 





Caracalla. 


Geta. 


A.D. 211 


Feb. 14 


PONT ■ MAX . BRITANNICVS ■ MAXIMVS 


IMP.P(aJer).P(a«riae) 


" 212 


Feb. 27 




Death of Geta 


« 213 


Jan. 1 


COS-TITl 








GERMANICVS • (MAXIMVS) 








IMP • III • INVICTVS 




" 214 




IMP-TIIT 




" 217 


April 8 


Death of Caracalla 





Maceinus (217-218) 

M. Opellius Macrinus; styled on the monuments: IMP • CAES • M • OPELLIVS 

SEVERVS • MACRINVS ■ P . F • AVG 
M. Opellius Diadumeniauus, his son ; styled on the monuments : M • OPELLIVS 

ANTONINVS- DIADVMENIANVS. NOBILISSIMVS.CAES • TR • P, April 11, 217, to 

early January, 218 (?) ; TR • P • II to June 8, 218. 

A.D. 217 April 11. IMP • CAES -AVG ■ PONT • MAX ■ P(a{er) . P(a«nae) 
(Diadumeniauus, CAES) 
" 218 January 1. COS 

(Diadumenianus, (IMP) • AVG) 
June 8. Death of Macrinus and Diadumenianus. 



Elagabalus (218-222) 

Varius Avitus Bassianus • ; styled on the monuments: IMP • CAES ■ M • AVRELIVS 
ANTONINVS • P ■ F ■ (INVICTVS) • AVG 

TR • P ■ 218 ; TR • P • IT, 219 ; TR • P ■ HI, 220 ; TR • P ■ iTlT, 221 ; TR ■ P • V, 222.2 

1 Elagabalus, a nickname given to him a^s priest of the Syrian sun-god El 
Gabal. 

2 The exact date of renewal is uncertain. 



138 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

A.D. 218 May 16. IMP • CAES • AVG • PONT- MAX • COS- P(o«er) ■ P(a«nae) 

" 219 January 1. COS ■ iT 

" 220 January 1. COS • Ml 

" 221 Severus Alexander, CAES -PONTIF 

" 222 January 1. COS ■ M Severus Alexander, COS 

March 11. Death of Elagabalus. 



Sevebus Alexander (222-235) 

Alexianus Bassianus ; designated on the monuments : IMP '• CAES • M • AVRELIVS 
SEVERVS • ALEXANDER - P - F - AVG 

His TR - P beginning March 11, 222, seems to have been renewed each year 
early in January. 

A.D. 222 March 11. IMP - AVG • PONT ■ MAX ■ TR • P • P(o<er) ■ P(a«ri«e) 

" 226 January 1. COS • M 

" 229 January 1. COS • TTT 

" 235 January, February, or March, Death of Severus Alexander. 



Maximinus (235-238) 

Styled on the monuments: IMP • CAES • C • IVLIVS • VERVS ■ MAXIMINVS ■ P • F 
(INVICTVS) ■ AVG 

The tribunician dates of Maximinus are for convenience included in the table. 
His son, as Caesar, appears on the monuments as C - IVLIVS • VERVS • MAXIMVS 
NOBILISSIMVS • CAESAR 

Maximinus being declared an outlaw by the senate in 238, the following 
emperors ruled, and fell in rapid succession : 

I Gordianus 1: IMP-CAES- M-ANTONIVS-GORDIANVS-AFRICANVS-AVG 

iGordianus II: IMP-CAES - M-ANTONIVS-GORDIANVS-AFRICANVS-AVG 

r Balbinus : IMP - CAES- D • CAELIVS-CALVINVS- BALBINVS-P- F-AVG 

1 Pupienius i Maximus : IMP - CAES- M - CLODIVS- PVPIENIVS- MAXIMVS- P- F-AVG 

1 Spelled PVPIENVS on coins. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF THE ROMAN EMPERORS 139 



A.D. 235 Jan., Feb., or March. Maximinus, IMP ■ CAES ■ AVG ■ P ■ M • TR ■ P- P- P 

Maximus, CAES 



" 236 January 1. 

January 16 (?) 



" 237 January 16 (?) 

" 238 January 16 (?) 
" 238 February. 



" COS 

TR ■ P • IT 
rGERM- MAX, 
SARM • MAX, 
[ DAC • MAX 
" IMP .ill, MM 

" TR . P ■ TIT 

" IMP • V, Vl Maximus, GERM • MAX, 

SARM ■ MAX, 
DAC • MAX 
» TR • P • MM 
IMP- Vil 
Gordianus I., IMP • CAES ■ AVG • P • M ■ TR • P • P ■ P 
Gordianus II., IMP • CAES ■ AVG ■ TR • P ■ PONT 
March. Death of Gordianus I and II. 

Balbinus, IMP • CAES ■ AVG • P • M Gordianus III., CAES 

TR.P-P-P 
Pupienius, IMP-CAES'-AVG.P-M " " AVG 

TR • P • P ■ P TR . P 

Middle of May. Death of Maximinus and Maximus. 
June. Death of Balbinus and Pupienius. 



Gordianus IIL (238-244) 

Designated on the monuments : IMP • CAES • M • ANTONIVS ■ GORDIANVS • P ■ F 
(INVICTVS) • AVG 

He seems to have renewed the TR • P early in January ; the date is uncertain. 



A.D. 238 Middle of June (?) 
" 239 January 1. 

" 240. 

" 241 January 1. 

" 242 

" 244 February or March. 



IMP . PONT ■ MAX • Plater) ■ PCjitriae) 

COS 

IMP- M, Til 

COS-Ii 

IMP ■ Vi 

Death of Gordianus III. 



140 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



Philippus (244-249) 

The elder Philippus appears on the monuments as IMP • CAES • M ■ IVLIVS 
PHILIPPVS • P • F • (INVICTVS) AVG. His son is called IMP • CAES ■ M • IVLIVS 
(SEVERVS) ■ PHILIPPVS ■ P • F • AVG (FILIVS). The elder Philippus received the 
TR ■ P in March, 244, and renewed it early in January (?) each year. For his 
son there are two methods of counting the TR • P : (1) as coinciding with that 
of his father, (2) as commencing in 247, when he became joint emperor. Both 
methods are employed in the inscriptions. 





Philip the Elder. 


Philip the Younger. 


A.D. 

244 March (?) 


IMP -CAES -AVG -PONT- MAX 
P(a«ej-) • ?{atriae) 


NOBILISSIMVS-CAES 




PARTHICVS-MAXIMVS, PERSI- 
CVS • MAXIMVS 




245 January 1 


COS 




246 August (?) 




AVG 


247 January 1 


COS . II 


COS 






IMP.CAES-AVG. PONT- MAX 
P{ater) ■ ?{atriae) 


248 January 1 


COS. HI 


COS . II 




GERMANICVS-MAXIMVS.CARPJ- 
CVS. MAXIMVS 


GERMANICVS ■ CARPICVS 


249 Sept. or Oct. 


Death of Philippus and his son 





Decius (249-251) 

IMP . CAES • C . MESSIVS ■ QVINTVS • TRAIANVS • DECIVS • P • F • (INVICTVS) • AVG 

„. r Q • HERENNIVS • ETRVSCVS ■ MESSIVS ■ DECIVS- NOBILISSIMVS-CAES 

His sons { 

I C-VALENS-HOSTILIANVS-MESSIVS-QVINTVS- NOBILISSIMVS-CAES 

There are two methods of counting the tribunician dates of Decius : (1) from 
248, when he was saluted emperor by the troops, (2) from the death of Philippus, 
September or October, 249. Both methods are found in inscriptions. The sons 
received the TR • P in 250. The date of renewal for this reign was January 1. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OP THE ROMAN JEMPERORS 141 





Decius. 


Herennius Eteuscus. 


HOBTILIANUS. 


A.D. 








249 Oct. (?) 


IMP.CAES-AVG-P-M.P.P 






250 Jan. 1 


COS ■ II 










CAES 


CAES 


251 Jan. 1 


COS. FIT 


COS 






DACICVS MAXIMVS 


AVG 




Nov. 


Death of Decius 


Death of Herennius 


AVG 


Deo. 






Death of Hosti- 

lianus 



Teebonianus GrALLirs (251-253) 

Styled on the monuments : IMP • CAES ■ C • VIBIVS • TREBONIANVS ■ GALLVS • P • 
F- AVG 

His son is styled : IMP ■ CAES ■ C ■ VIBIVS ■ AFINIVS • GALLVS ■ VELDVMNIANVS 
VOLVSIANVS ■ P • F • AVG 

The tribuniclan dates of Gallus and Volusianns are uncertain. TR • P is 

probably November-December, 251 ; TR • P • ll is 252 ; and TR ■ P • Mil (instead 
of TR • P ■ ITT) is 253. 





Gallus. 


VoLUBIANUS. 


A.D. 251 


November (?) 
December (?) 


IMP -CAES. AVG- 


P 


M 


P 


P 


CAES 
IMP-AVG-P.M-P.P 


" 252 


January 1 


COS . II 










COS 


" 253 


January 1 
September (?) 


Death of Gallus 










COS. II 

Death of Volusianus 



Abmilianus (Summer of 253) 
IMP ■ CAES ■ M . AEMILIVS . AEMH.IANVS • P • F ■ INVICTVS . AVG 



142 



LAtm INSCRIPTIONS 



Valebiahus (253-259). — Gallienus (253-268) 

IMP • CAES • P • LICINIVS ■ VALERIANVS • P • F • (INVICTVS) • AVG 

His son Gallienus, who shared the empire, is styled IMP ■ CAES • P . LICINIVS 
(EGNATIVS) ■ GALLIENVS ■ P • F • (INVICTVS) • AVG 

The tribunician date's are the same for both ; TR ■ P, September to December 
10 (?), 253 ; TR • P • IT, December 10 (?), 253-254 ; TR • P • [IT, December 10 (?), 
264-255, etc. 





Valebianub. 


Gallienits. 


A.D. 






253 Sept. (?) 


IMP -CAES. AVG -PONT -MAX 


IMP • CAES ■ AVG • PONT • MAX 




P-P 


p. P 


254 Jan. 1 


COS-Tl 


COS 




IMP • VlT 




255 Jan. 1 


COS- ITT 


COS- IT 


256 


GERMANICVS • MAXIMVS 


GERMANICVS. MAXIMVS,DACICVS 
MAXIMVS 






IMP. ITT 


257 Jan. 1 


COS. flTT 


COS. HI 


259 


Capture of Valerianus by Sapor 





Gallienus (253-268). — Postumus, Emperor in Gaul (258-267) 

For the name and tribunician dates of Gallienus, who died in the middle oi 
March, 268, see under Valerianus. Postumus was never recognized as emperoi 
at Rome, but reigned in Gaul, where he formed a senate and government of hii 
own, and assumed the consulship at pleasure. He is styled on the monuments : 
IMP . CAES • M . CASSIANIVS ■ LATINIVS . POSTVMVS . P . F . (INVICTVS) • AVG 
We know nothing of the tribunician dates of Postumus, which can be assigned 
only to years as follows : TR . P = 258, TR . P • Ti = 259, TR ■ P • ITT = 260 ; and 
so on until TR . P . X = 267. 

Victorinus, who reigned with Postumus in Gaul (265-267), is called IMP ■ CAES 
M . PIAVONIVS • VICTORINVS • P- F. (INVICTVS) • AVG 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF THE ROMAN EMPERORS 143 





Gallienub. 


POSTUMITS. 


A.D, 










268 




Sole emperor (at Rome) 


IMP-CAES. AVG-P-M-TR 
COS-P-P 


•P 


259 






COS. IT 




260 






COS .111 




261 


January 1 


COS-MlT 
IMP -X 






362 


January 1 


COS- V 


GERMANICVS • MAXIMVS 




264 


January 1 


COS • VI 






265 






COS-IIII Victorinus,TR-P 




266 


January 1 


COS . VII 


Victorinus, TR ■ P ■ 


II 


267 






COS • V Victorinus, TR • P • 


Ml 



Claudius II (268-270). — Tbtkicus, Emperor in Gaul (268-273) 
Gallienus at Rome was succeeded by Claudius, who is styled on the monu- 
ments : IMP • CAES • M - AVRELIVS • CLAVDIVS • P • F • (INVICTVS) • AVG 

In Gaul, Tetricus and his son succeeded Postumus ; both appear on the 

monuments as IMP ■ CAES ■ C • PIVS ■ ESVVIVS • TETRICVS • P • F • INVICTVS • AVG 

The tribunician dates can be classified only by years ; for Claudius, TR ■ P 

= 268, TR • P • IT = 269, TR • P •_ITT = 270. (He died before Aug. 20, 270.) For 

Tetricus, TR • P = 268, TR • P • II = 269, etc., until TR • P • VI = 273. 





Claud tu8. 


Tetkicits. 


A.D. 






268 January 




IMP-CAES-AVG-P.M 
COS ■ P • P 


Middle of March 


IMP . CAES . AVG . P . M . P . P 




269 January 1 


COSi 

GERMANICVS • MAXIMVS 




270 


GOTHICVS.MAXIMVS,PARTHICVS 
MAXIMVS 





' Cos II in some inscriptions of Spain and Africa is due to ignorance- 



144 LATIN INSCRIPTIOKS 

QuiNTiLLus (August, 270) 

IMP . CAES • M • AVRELIVS ■ CLAVDIVS • QVINTILLVS ■ INVICTVS -P • F • AVG, son of 
Claudius II., reigned less than a month. 



AuKBLiAN (270-275) 

IMP • CAES ■ L • DOMITIVS • AVRELIANVS . P -F • (INVICTVS;^ • AVG 

The chronology of this reign is most uncertain ; Inscriptions and coins alike 
show the greatest irregularities, especially in the consulates, and are not reliable. 
Each inscription must be dated approximately on its own merits, and a table of 
dates is useless. It is supposed that Aurelian became emperor in August, 270. 
The tribunician dates are usually roughly assigned as follows : TR • P, 270 ; 
TR • P • IT, 271, etc., to TR • P • VT, 275 ; but this is complicated by the appear- 
ance of a TR • P • VII, which is absolutely inexplicable. According to the Fasti, 
Aurelian was COS in 271, COS • IT in 274, COS • IN in 275. The inscriptions 
show the following titles : 

GERMANICVS ■ MAXIMVS (2/0 or 271). 
GOTHICVS- MAXIMVS (272?). 
PARTHICVS • MAXIMVS (271 or 272). 
ARABICVS • MAXIMVS (271 or 272). 
CARPICVS • MAXIMVS (271 or 272). 
PALMYRENICVS • MAXIMVS (272 or 273). ' 
Aurelian died in 275, perhaps in March. 



Tacitus (275-276) 
IMP • CAES • M • CLAVDIVS • TACITVS • P • F • AVG 

A.D. 275 September 25. IMP . CAES • AVG • P • M -TR • P • COS • DES-M- P- P 
" 276 January 1. COS • IT 

TR ■ P . IT . GOTHICVS • MAXIMVS 
April (?) Death of Tacitus. 



Flobianus (276) 
IMP • CAES . M . ANNIVS • FLORIANVS • P • F • INVICTVS • AVG 
Florianus reigned a few monthg, 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF THE ROMAN EMPERORS 146 



Pkobus (276-282) 

IMP . CAES ■ M • AVRELIVS • PROBVS • P • F ■ (INVICTVS) • AVG 

The day on which the TR • P was renewed is uncertain ; but it was not Janu- 
ary 1. We may approximately call TR ■ P 276, TR • P ■ IT 277, etc. 



A.D. 276 April. IMP ■ CAES • AVG • P • M 

" 277 January 1. COS • GERMANICVS (?) 

" 278 " " COS • IT 

" 279 " " COS ■ ITT 

" 281 " " COS-TTTT 

" 282 " " COS • V 

September. Death of Probus. 



p.p. GOTHICVS 



Caeus and his Sons (282-285) 



IMP • CAES • M ■ AVRELIVS • CARVS ■ INVICTVS • P • F ■ AVG 

IMP ■ CAES • M ■ AVRELIVS • CARINVS • INVICTVS • P • F ■ AVG 

IMP . CAES ■ M • AVRELIVS • NVMERIVS • NVMERIANVS • P • F ■ INVICTVS • AVG 





Caeto. 


Cabin us. 


NUMEEIANTTS. 


A.D. 








282 Sept. (?) 


IMP-CAES-AVG-P-M 
TR-P-P-P 


CAES (?) 


CAES (?) 


283 Jan. 1 


COS- IT 


COS 






PERSICVS- MAX -GER- 
MANICVS -MAX 


AVG • TR ■ P 


AVG . TR • P 


Deo. 


Death of Carus 


IMP-P-M-P-P 
GERM -MAX 


IMP- p. P 


284 Jan. 1 




COS-TT 


COS 


Sept. 






Death of Numerianus 


285 Jan. or Feb. 




Death of Carinus 





lAJ. ?NSCRIP, — XO 



146 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



Diocletian and Maximian (284-305) 

IMP • CAES • C • AVRELIVS • VALERIVS • DIOCLETIANVS ■ P • F • INVICTVS • AVG 
IMP • CAES • M • AVRELIVS • VALERIVS ■ MAXIMIANVS ■ P • F • INVICTVS ■ AVG 
FLAVIVS ■ VALERIVS • CONSTANTIVS ■ NOBILISSIMVS • CAES 
GALERIVS • VALERIVS • MAXIMIANVS • NOBILISSIMVS ■ CAES 

Diocletian received the TR ■ P on September 17, 284, and renewed it regularly 
each year (March 1 ? ?) ; at his abdication. May 1, 305, he was in the course of 
his TR ■ P • XXII. Maximian counted his TR • P from 285, so that the renewal 
number was always one less than that of Diocletian.' The tribunician dates of 
the two Caesars are in doubt. 





Diocletian. 


Maximian. 


CONSTANTIUS. 


Galerius. 


A.D. 

284 Sept.l7 


IMP -CAES -AVG, 
etc. 








285 Jan. 1 


COS • II 










BRIT. MAX, GERM 
MAX 


CAES- BRIT-MAX, 
GERM -MAX 






286 April 1 


(GERM -MAX- IT?) 


IMP • AVG, etc. 






287 Jan. 1 


COS- III 


COS 






288 Jan. 1 




COS-TT 








PERS-MAX-GERM 

max.mT,iTm 


PERS-MAX-GERM 
MAX-lTl,rTIT 






289 


SARM • MAX 


SARM - MAX 






290 Jan. 1 


cos-Im 


COS- liT 






291 


SARM ■ MAX ■ n 


SARM • MAX • IT 






292 Jan. 1 






COS 


COS 


Mch.l 






CAES.TR-P(?) 


CAES-TR-P(?) 


293 Jan. 1 


COS- V 


COS- MM 








SARM- MAX •m(?) 


SARM- MAX ■mT(?) 


SARM • MAX 


SARM - MAX 



1 The TR - P of Maximian is counted sometimes from 285, when he became 
CAES ; sometimes from 286, when he was made AVG. (See Dessau, No. 617, 
note 2.) 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF THE ROMAN EMPERORS 147 





DlOOMTIAN. 


Maximian. 


OOHSTANTinB. 


Galerius. 


A.D. 

294 


GERM • MAX . V 
IMP-X 


GERM • MAX • V 
IMP- Vim 


GERM • MAX 


GERM - MAX 


295 


CARP . MAX 


CARP - MAX 


CARP - MAX 


CARP • MAX 


296 Jan. 1 


COS. Vl 




COS- IT 










BRIT ■ MAX 


BRIT - MAX 


297 Jan. 1 




COS- V 




COS- TT 




MED-MAX-ADIAB 


MED-MAX-ADIAB 


MED-MAX-ADIAB 


MED-MAX-ADIAB 




MAX 


MAX 


MAX 


MAX 




PEPS • MAX • TT 
GERM- MAX -Vi 


PERS - MAX - M 
GERM-MAX-Vi 


PERS - MAX • TT 


PERS - MAX . TT 


299 Jan. 1 


COS- vn 


COS- VI 








SARM - MAX - TTIT 


SARM - MAX - Im 


GERM - MAX • TT 
SARM- MAX -TT 


GERM - MAX-TT 
SARM -MAX. IT 


300 Jan. 1 






COS-TTT 


COS-TTT 


301 


IMP -XVIII 


IMP -XVII 






302 Jan. 1 






cos-TTTi 


COS. HIT 


303 Jan. 1 


COS- VJIl 


COS- Vli 






304 Jan. 1 


COS- Vim 


COS ■ VIII 






305 Jan. 1 






COS- V 


COS. V 


Mayl 


Abdication 


Abdication 


IMP - AVG, etc. 


IMP ■ AVG, etc. 



148 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

INSCRIPTIONS OF THE EMPERORS AND THEIR FAMILIES 

1. [C Iur\io Caesari im[p]., dictat. iteru[m, | pont]u&oi inax[Mmo, | 

aug., c]os., patrono mulnicipi], \ d. c. 
C. I. L. I. 620 ; JX. 2563. From Bovianum in Samnium. Caesar was 
made dictator iterum in tlie autumn of 706/48, and entered upon his 
third dictatorship on the kalends of Jan. 709/45. These dates form the 
limits in the age of the inscription. 

2. C. lulio C. f. Caesari | imp., triumviro r. p. c, | patrono, | d. d. 

G. I. L. IX. 2142. From the town of S. Agata de' Goti (Saticula) in Sam- 
nium. Caesar (Augustus) was made triumvir rei publicae constituendae 
by the Lex Titia, Nov. 27, 711/43. He was called imp. Caesar in 714/40. 

3. imp. Caesar divi f. | Augustus cos.^ XI, trib. | potestate ^ dedit, | 

M. Appuleius Sex. f. leg. | iussu eius fac. curavit. 

C. I. L. V. 5027. Found at Tridentum, where it exists to-day In the church 
of S. ApoUinaris. ^ Determine the date from those of Cos. XI and Cos. 
XII given in table, page 125. ^ Tribunieia potestate was first counted, 
as some (Eckhel) believe, June 27, according to Hirschfeld, June 25, 
731/23, according to Mommsen, on the kalends of July, the day on 
which he resigned his eleventh consulship, 731/23. The number of 
the tribunieia potestate may have been omitted, although this is rare. 

4. imp. Caesar divi f. | Augustus | pontifex maximus, | imp. XII, 

COS. XI, trib. pot.' XIV, | Aegupto in potestatem | populi Eo- 
mani reddlcta, | S61i ddnum dedit. 

C J. L. VI. 701. At Rome on an obelisk in Piazza del Popolo. A similar 
inscription (VI. 702) appears on another obelisk standing in Piazza di 
Monte Citorio. These were erected by Augustus in the Campus Martins, 
and are described by Pliny, H. JV. XXXVI. 71.i Determine date from 
table, page 125. 

5. imp. Caes[arj divi f. August. | pontif. maximus, cos. XI, | tribu- 

nieia potest. XIIII, I ex stipe, quam populus Eomanus | k. 
lanuariis apsenti ei contulit,' | lullo Antonio ^ Ai ricano Fabio 
cos.,' I Mercurio sacrum. 
Bull. Com. 1888, p. 228. On an altar found among the remains of a chapel 
on the Esquiline. i Cf. Suet. Aug. 57. Kal. Jan. strenam in CapitoUo, 
etiam ahsenti, ex qua summa pretiosissima deorum simulacra mercatvs, 
vicatim dedicabat. ^ The son of the Triumvir. " 744/10. 



INSCRIPTIONS OF EMPERORS AND THEIR FAMILIES 149 



6. imp. Caesari Augusto divi f. | pontufici max., trib. potest. XIIX, | 
COS. XI, patri patriae, d. d. 

C. I. L. II. 2107. On a stone which supports the arch of an Arabian cistern 
in Arjona (Urgavo), in Baetioa, Spain. This inscription is one of those 
in which Augustus was termed jjaJcr patriae before tlie year 752/2, when 
the title was formally conferred upon him a senatu populoque Romano. 
Cf . C. I. L. I. p. 386. 



7. imp. Caesari 
divi f. Augusto 
ponti&c. maximo 

patri patriae, aug., XV vir. s. f., VII vir. epulon. 
cos. XIII, imp. XVII, tribunic. potest. XXX ^ 

4 
Ti. Caesari 
Augusti f . 
divi nepot., pont. 
COS. [i]ter.,^ imp. ter, augurique* 
tribuniciae pot. VIII \T\ ^ 

3 

Germanieo 
lulio [r]i. f. 
Augusti nepot. 
divi pron. Caesari* 



D[rMso hiUo Ti\ f. 
Augusti nepoti 
divi pron. Caesari 
pontifici ' 

1 
Neroni Julio 
Germanici [/] 
Aug. pronepot. 
Caesari 



6 

Livia[e] 
Drusi f. 
uxori Caesaris Aug. 



[O.] Caesari 
Augusti f. 
divi nepot. 
pontiiic, cos. 
imperatori* 

8 
[i.] Caesari 
Augusd f. 
divi nepot. 
auguri cos. design.'' 
principi iuventutis 

9 
Druso Julio 
Germanici f. 
Aug. pronepot. 
Germanieo. 

10 
Ti Claudio 
Drusi Germanici f. 
Neroni Germanieo 



150 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

C. /. L. V. 6416 ; VI. p. XV. These inscriptions of Augustus arid his family 
were placed beneath their statues, which adorned the triumphal arch at 
Ticinum (Pavia). They exist in the MS. of the tenth century, known as 
Anonymus Einsiedlensis of the Abbey of Einsiedeln, and are from a copy 
made between 750-850 a.d., by the compiler of the original of the MS. 

There appear here inscriptions of Augustus (5), his wife (6), his grandsons, 
recently adopted, C. and L. Caesar (7 and 8), of Tiberius (4), adopted 
son of Augustus, together with the former's sons (3 and 2) and grand- 
sons (1 and 9). Claudius, the brother of Germanicus, is also named 
(10). Julia and Agrippa Postumus do not appear, since at the time 
■when the arch was completed they were in banishment. 1 760-1 (7-8 
A.D.). 2Xi. Nero was adopted by Augustus, June 26, 757 (4 a.d.), and 
was called Ti. Caesar, and was made the associate of his adoptive father 
in the tribunicid potestate at the same time, a title which he had held, 
however, for five years. His tribunicia potestate should therefore be 
numbered Villi, and his title of consul should also be numbered iterum, 
not ter. ^'phe que may be due to error in copying for qu[indecemviro 
s. /.]. *C. Caesar was styled imperator 756 (3 a.d.) at capture of 
Artagiri. He probably laid aside his equestrian title princeps inventutis 
when he became consul. ^ L. Caesar died 755 (2 a.d.) as consul desigiia- 
tus. 8 Germanicus had not held any office save the quaestorship. He 
was adopted by Tiberius 4 a.d. ' Drusus had not held any office when the 
inscription was set up. The date of the completion of the arch is deter- 
mined from the tribunicia potestate XXX of Augustus, 7-8 a.d., June 
27. Tiberius is here shown by the imperium and tribunicia potestate to 
be the successor of Augustus, and the other inscriptions, save that of 
Claudius, are of those connected with him regularly or by adoption. 

8. lunoni Liviae August! sacrum, | L. Passieno Euf o ^ imperatore | 

Africam obtinente, | Cn. Cornelius Cn. f. Cor. Eufus | et Maria 
C. f. Galla Cti.} \ eonservati | vota 1. m. solvont.. 
Ephem. Ep. V. 640. On a stone set in the wall of a building at El-Lehs, in 
the province of Africa, i Consul 750/4, proconsul of Africa 756 (3 a.d.). 
^Gn{aei') {uxor.). 

9. Cereri luliae Augustae | divi Augusti, matri | Ti. Caesaris Au- 

gust!, I Lutatia C. f. sacerdos Augustae | (imp. perpet.),^ | uxor | 
M. Livi M. I f. Qui. Optati fiaminis G[a]ul. | luliae Augusti 
(imp. perpet.),^ cum V ^ | liberis s. p. consacravit. 
C. I. L. X. 7501. Found in Insula Gaulus (Gozzo), now at Malta, where it 
may still be seen, i These words, imp(jeratoris') perpet(ui), have been 



INSCRIPTIftNS OF EMPERORS AND THEIR FAMILIES 151 

inserted in place of others erased. 2 gj^^ quinque liberis or cum v[iro eJ] 
Uberis. Livia is called Ceres, according to Greek custom. 

10. Ti. Claudius Ti. f. Nero pont., cos. II, limp IJL, trib. potest. V, | 

Nero Claudius Ti. f. Drusus Germ [anicws] augur, c[os], imp. 
... I murum portas turris d. [s. p.] f. c. 

C. I. L. IX. 2443. Found in fragments at Saepinum (Altilia, near Sepino), 
in Samnium, where it still exists. In 4 a.d. Tiberius was adopted by- 
Augustus, and ceased to be called Claudius Nero. Determine the date 
from table, page 125. 

11. pleps urbana quinque et | triginta tribuum | Druse Caesari Ti. 

Aug. f. I divi August! n. | diyi lulii pronepoti | pontiiici, 
auguri, sodal. Augustal.,^ | cos. iterum, tribunic. potest, iter.,^ | 
aere conlato. 

C. I. L. VI. 910. One of two marble tablets of same size found at Rome, 
near the Tiber, still in existence. 1 Cf. Tac. Ann. I. 54. ^ Drusus was 
consul iterum 21 a.d., received tribunicia potestate in 22 (Tac. Ann. III. 
56). This inscription was set up in 23 a.d., just before or just after the 
death of Drusus. 

12. ossa I Agrippinae M. Agrippae [/] divi Aug. neptis, uxoris | 

Germanici Caesaris, | matris C. Caesaris Aug. | Germanici 
principis. 

O. I. L. VI. 886. On a large marble urn now in the Palazzo dei Conser- 
vatori at Rome. "When Caligula, son of Agrippina, became emperor, 
37 A. D., he brought the ashes of his mother from the island of Panda- 
teria, and placed them in the mausoleum of Augustus (Suet. Cal. 15). 

13. Neroni Caesari | Germanici Caesaris f. | Ti. Caesaris Augusti n. | 

divi Augusti pron. | fl^mini August^li, | sodd,li Augustdlli, j 
sod^li Titio, fr^tri Arv^li, feti^li, quaestori, | ex s. c. 

C /. L. VI. 913. Engraved in large letters on a marble tablet found at 
Rome, near the Flavian amphitheatre, now in Capitolme Museum. The 
date of the inscription lies between his quaestorship, 27 a.d. (Tac. Ann. 
III. 29), and the decree of banishment, 29 a.d. (Tac. Ann. V. 3). 
Although Tac. {Ann. III. 29) says that he was made pontifex maximus 
in 20 A.D., there is no evidence of this in the inscriptions. 



152 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS » 

14. C. Caesar Grerma|iiicus Germanici | Caesaris f. Ti. Aug. n. | divi 

Aug. pron. divi | luli abn. Aug. pat. patr./ | cos. 11/ imp., 
trib. potejstate 11/ pontif. max., | a Baete et Jano Augusto | 
ad Oceanum | 

C. I. L. II. 4716. On a milestone found at Cordova (Corduba), Spain, still 
in existence, ^pat. pair, is in somewhat larger letters, and was probably 
a later addition (Hiibner) . According to Eckliel, Doct. Num. VI. 223, 
Caligula seems to have taken this title in the early months of 38 a.d. 
Dio LIX. 12 relates that he assumed all the honores of former emperors 
except this one, which he received somewhat later. 2 Determine these 
dates from page 126. 

15. [Ti. Gjlaudio Drusi f. Caesari Augu[sto | 6?]ermanico pontif. 

maximo, tribu[mic] | potest.^ Ill, cos. Ill, imp. V, patri 
patri[ae, | socW] publici XX libertatis et XXV veiial[mm]. 

O. I. L. VI. 915. Found at Rome, existing only in copy. ^ See table, 
page 126. The inscription was set up by the farmers of the two taxes, 
vicesima libertatis (5% of the value of a manumitted slave) and quinta 
et vicesima venalium mancipiorum. 

16. pro salute | Ti. Claudi Caesaris Aug. Germanici pont. max., trib. 

pot. VlT,' COS. nil, I imp. XV, p. p., censoris .' / .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' 
.' .' .' .' .' .' .' ^ liberorumque .' .' .' .' !^\ ex voto suscepto C. Julius 
Sex. f. Cor. Postumtis, praef. Aeg|-pti ) Ti. Claudi Caesaris 
Aug. Germanici, ex auri p. XVI. 

G. I. L. VI. 918. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Rome. 1 See page 
126. 2 Probably the words et Valeriae Messalinae Aug. and eorum have 
been erased. According to Tacitus (^Ann. XI. 38) the name of Messalina 
was erased from public and private monuments. 

17. Nero Claudius | divi Claudi f. | Germarmanici (?) Cae[s]. | n. 

Ti. Caesaris Aug. pro | nep. divi Aug. abnepos | Caesar Aug. | 
Germanicus pontif. | max., tr. pot. IIII,^ imp. HIT, cos. | III, 
p. p. restituit. 

O. I. L. XTI. 5471. Inscribed on a milestone of the road leading from 
Forum Tuli to Aquae Sextiae, in Narbonensis. ' See page 127. 



INSCRIPTIONS OF EMPERORS AND THEIR FAMILIES 153 

18. Nero Claudius | Caesar Aug. Germanicus | imp., pont. max., trib. 

pot. XI,' I COS. IIII, imp. Vim, pat. p., | Cn. Domitio Corbu- 
lone '' I leg. Aug. pro pr., | T. Aurelio Fulvo ' leg. Aug., | leg. 
m Gal." 

C I. L. III. Suppl. 6741. Inscribed on a pedestal found at Ziata (Charput), 
Armenia Maior, witli two others similar to it. ' See page 127. ^ For the 
account of Corbulo's occupation of Armenia, see Tacitus, Ann. XV. 25-26. 
2 Aurelius Fulvus, grandfather of Antoninus Pius (Tac. Hist. I. 79). 
* legione tertia Gallica, or perhaps gen. or nom. forms. The name of 
the emperor is in the nom. case, subject of fecit, to be supplied. Impe- 
rator after the cognomina is extraordinary, and probably an error. 

19. a) imp. Neroni Claudio divi Claudi f. Germ. | Caesaris n. Ti. 

Caesaris Aug. pro n. divi Aug. ab ii. | Caesari Aug. Germ. p. m., 
tr. pot. Xm,' imp. XI, cos. im, | L. Titinius L. f. Gal. 
Glaucus Lucretianus flam. Eomae et Aug., II vir ^ | IIII, p. c, 
sevir eq. E., curio, praef. fabr. cos.,' tr. mil. leg. XXII Primig., 
praef. pro legato | insular. Baliarum, tr. mil. l[e]g. VI Vic- 
tricis, ex v6t6 suscepto pro salute imp. | Neronis quod Baliari- 
bus voverat anno A. Licinio Nerva cos.,* II viris L. Saufe[«]o | 
Vegeto et Q. Aburio Nepote, ub[i] velle[<] poneret, voto com- 
pos posit lovi Iuno[ni] | Minervae Felicitati Eomae divo 
Augusto. 
b) divae Poppaeae Augustae | imp. Neronis Caesaris August., | 
L. Titinius L. f. Gal. Glaucus Lucretianus | (for the remainder 
see a). 

C I. L. XI. 1331. This inscription is on a marble tablet found in the 
neighborhood of Luna, now at Rome, in Capitoline Museum, i See page 
127. ^ duovir quartum, p{atronus) c{ploniae) (Lunensis). " praefectus 
fabrum consularis. * 65 a . d. The colleague of Licinius Nerva, M. Vestinus 
Atticus, is not mentioned, because he was killed by command of the empe- 
ror during his consulship. Tacitus, Ann. XV. 68, 69. Sueton. Nero 35. 

20. Sergio I Sulpicio | Galbae | imp. Caesar. 

Ephem. Ep. II. 522. From a portion of a cippus found at Spalato, near 
Salonae, in Dalmatia, where it exists in the museum, dating 68-69 a.d. 
The diplomata given to veterans of the legio prima Adiutrix show that 
the emperor preferred the form Ser. Q-alba imp. Caesar Augustus. Note 
Sergius for Senius, probably the earliest instance of this spelling. 



154 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

21. A. Vitellius L. f. | imperator, | cos. perp. 

C. /. L. VI. 929. The only known inscription relating to Vitellius from 
the city of Rome, now existing in a copy. It was originally engraved on 
a pedestal which was afterwards hollowed out so as to serve as a sepul- 
chral urn. Cf. Suet. Vitellius, 11, {Vitellius) comitia in decern annos 
ordinavit seque perpetuum consulem. 

22. imp. Caesari | Vespasiano Aug. | pont. max., tr. pot. III,^ | imp. 

IIX, p. p., COS. in, des. nil, I g. c.,2 quod vias urbis [ negle- 
gentia | superior, tempor. | corruptas iii|peiisa sua restituit. 

C /. L. VI. 9.31. Found at Rome, existing now in copy, i Determine date 
from table, page 129. '■'s^enatus) a(j>nsuUo). 



23. imp. Caesar Vespasia|nus Aug. ponti[/] max., trib. pot. | VIIII,^ 

imp. XIIX, p. p., cos. IIX, design. Villi ; | imp.' T. Cq,esar 
Aug. f. COS. VI, desig. V[II]; Domitianus Caesar Aug. f. j cos. 
V, desig. VI,* vias | a novo munierunt ] per L. Antonium 
Nasonem | proe.'' eorum. 

C. I. L. III. Suppl. 6993. Found at Prusa (Brussa), Bithynia. ' See page 
129. 2 A coin with the head of Vespasian gives the name of the same 
procurator (Eckhel, II., p. 404). ' Note the praenomen imp(erator) 
possessed by Titus before having the name Augustus (Mommsen, Wiener 
Numism. Zeitschr. III., p. 458 fi., 1871. T. imp. Caes. Any. f. appears in 
another inscription {Arch. Ep. Mitth. V., p. 216) and on some coins. * The 
date of the sixth consulship of Domitian is uncertain. The coincidence' 
of three coss. designati is remarkable. 

24. senatus populusq. Eomanus | imp. Tito Caesari divi Vespasiani 

f. Vespasian[o] Augusto | pontif. max., trib. pot. X,' imp; 
XVII, [c]os. VIII,^ p. p. principi suo, | quod praeceptis patr[is] 
consiliisq. et auspiciis gentem | ludaeorum domuit et iirbem 
Hierusolymam, omnibus ante | se ducibus regibus gentibus aut 
frustra petitam aut | omnino intem[p]tatam, delevit. 

C /. L. VI. 944. From an arch in the Circus Maximus at Rome. It is 
preserved in a copy, the original of which was made before the ninth 
century, and is given in the Codex Einsiedlensis. i See page 129. 



mSCKIPTIONS OF EMPERORS AND THEIR FAMILIES 155 

25. imperator Caesar | divi Vespasiani f. | Domitianus Aug. | Ger- 

manicus, pontifex | maxsumus, tribuniciae | potestatis Villi, 
imp. XXI, I COS. XV, censor | perpetuus, p. p., ab arcu, | unde 
incipit Baetica, | viam Aug.^ [restituW] | 

C I. L. II. 4721. A miliarium now at Cordova (Corduba), in Spain, i See 
page liJO. '^Augusta via as made by Augustus. 

26. Domitiae Cn. f. | Domitiani Caesaris | d. d. 

G. I. L. X. 1422. Found at Herculaneum in the theatre, now in museum 
at Naples. Domitia was the daughter of Cn. Domitius Corbulo, and 
married Domitian in 70 a.d. The inscription dates between 70 a.d. and 
the time of the destruction of the city, 79 a.d. 

27. imp. Caesar | N"erva Aug. Germ. | pontif . max., trib. | potest. Ill, 

cos. IIII, p. p., I viam a Tripontio ad | Forum Appi ex glarea | 
silice sternendam | sua pecunia incobavit ; | imp. Caes. | Nerva 
divi Nerv[ae/.] Trai[a]nus Aug. | Germ. p[owi. m]ax., | trib. 
potest., COS. Ill, p. [p.], consummavit. 

C. I. L. X. 6824. A milianum of the Via Appia, near Forum Appii, 
where it still exists. Determine date from page 131. 

28. senatus popiilusque Eomanus | imp. Caesari divi Nervae f; Ner- 

vae ( Traiano Aug. Germ. Dacico pontif. | maximo, trib. pot. 
XVII, imp. VI, cos, VI, p. p., I ad declarandum quantae alti- 
tudinis | mons et locus tant[«s opejribus ^ sit egestus. 

C. I. L. VI. 960. On the pedestal of Trajan's Column in the Forum of 
Trajan, in Rome, still in existence, i Another reading is tantis viribus. 
Dio, LXVIII. 16. See also Jordan, Topog. I. 2, p. 454. Middleton's 
Bemains of Ancient Borne, vol. II. 30 ff. 

29. s. p. q. E. I imp. Caesari divi Traiani | Parthici f. divi Nervae 

nepoti I Traiano Hadriano Aug. pont. | max., tr[i&.J pot. II, 
cos. II, I qui primus omnium principum et | solus remittendo 
sestertium. novies | milies centena milia n. debitum fiscis | non 
praesentes tantum cives suos sed | et posteros eorum praestitit 
hac I liberalitate securos. 

C. I. L. VI. 967. From the Forum of Trajan in Rome. The letters were 
once formed of bronze set in the stone. Only a small portion exists 



156 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

to-day, the remainder being obtained from a copy made before the 
ninth century, preserved in the Codex Einsiedlensis. 

30. imp. Caes. divi Traiani | Part. f. divi Nervae n. | Traianus 

Hadriauus Aug. | pont. max., trib. pot. XX, cos. Ill, p. p., | I. 
S. m. r.^ statuam ex donis aureis | et arg. vetustate corruptis | 
fieri et coiisecrari iussit | ex auri p. Ill ~ ^ et arg. p. CCVI ~ 

C /. L. XIV. 2088. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Lanuvium, now 
at Rome, in the Capltoline Museum. ^lunoni Sospiti matri reginae. 
'■'ex auri pondo.Qibris) tribus uncia una. 

31. Matidiae | divae Marcianae | [^]ug.^ nepti divae | Matidiae 

Aug.^ f. divae | Sabinae Aug. sorori | imp. Antdnini Aug. Pii | 
^.•i,»K<A*><4- materterae,^ bule et ci vitas | Efesi<5rum, | c. a.^ Successd lib.^ 

C. I. L. III. Suppl. 712.3. Found at .Ephesus among the ruins of the temple 
of Diana. ^ Sister of Trajan. ^ Mother-in-law of Hadrian. ^ Matidia is 
called the aunt of Antoninus, inasmuch as she was the sister of his 
adoptive father's wife, Sabina. * c{uram) a{gente). ^ lib{erto) pro- 
o(uratore). 

32. imp. Caesar divi Hadriani fil. divi Traiani Parthici nep. divi 

'[Nervae] | pronepos T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Aug. Pius 

• i„rJ^ pontif. max., trib. potes[i. IT, cos. H,^^ \ thermas, in quarum 

"^ exstructionem divos pater suus +iS |XX|^ polli[ciiMS erat], | 

adiecta peounia, quanta amplius desiderabatur, item marmori- 

bus ad omnem o[rnatum perfecit]. 

O. I. L. XIV. 98. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Ostia, now in the 
Vatican Museum. ' Mommsen assigns this inscription to 139 a.d., since 
there is no room for imp. II, which belongs to Antoninus Pius from 143 
A.D., nor p. p., the use of which dates from the middle of 139 a.d. 
2 Sestertium vicies {centena milia). Cf. Minucius Felix, Octavius 4. 

33. M. Aurelio Vero | Caesari imp. Cae|saris Titi Aelii Ha|driani 

Antoni|ni Aug. Pii p. p. filio, | cos. II, | scaphari qui Eomulae | 
negotiantur | d. s. p. d. d. 
O. I. L. II. 1169. Found at Sevilla (Hispalis), Spain, preserved only in copy. 
It was probably set up in company with a similar inscription of Antoninus 
Pius, II. 1168, and dates with that in tribunicia potestate Villi, 146 a.d. 



INSCRIPTIONS OP EMPERORS AND THEIR FAMILIES 157 

34. L. Aelio Aurelio | Commodo | imperatoris Caesa|ris T. Aeli 

Hadri|aiii Antonini | Aug. Pii p. p. f., | d. d. p. p. 

O. I. L. VIII. 50. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found at El Djem 
(Thysdrus), in Africa. Tlais is the form of the name of Lucius Verus, 
afterwards emperor, after his adoption by Antoninus Pius, and before 
his brother Marcus Aurelius had conferred upon him the cognomen 
Verus and a share in the imperial power. 

35. imp. Caes. divi An|tomni Pii fiL divi | Hadriani nep. di|vi 

Traiani Partlii|ci pronep. divi Ner|vae abnepoti | L. Aurelio 
Vero Aug. |, Armeniaco pont. | maximo, trib. pot. Ill, [imp. II, 
c\os. II, d. d. 
C. [.L.'X..n. Found at Locri (Torre di Gerace), Bnitium, where it still exists. 

36. Concordiae | Augustor. | imp. Caes. M. Aureli Anto|nini Arme- 

niac. Medic. Par|tliic. maximi p. p.^ at | imp. Caes. L. Aureli 
Veri Armeniaci | Medici Parthici maximi p. p.,^ | L. Gargilius 
Q. fil. Pap. Augustalis aed. | statuam, quam ob honorem | aed.^ 
super legitim.^ ex f|-& IIII mil. | num. poUicitus est, ampli- 
[aifa] pec* anno suo posuit dedicavitq. 

C I. i. VIII. 8.300. Found at Cuicul in Province of Numidia. i Marcus 
and Verus appear to have been termed patres patriae in 166 a.d. after 
the month of March. ^ aed(iUtatis) . ^ legitm(am).. * pec(_unia). 

37. imp. Caesar M. Aurelius | Antoninus Aug. | Germanicus Sarmat. 

et I imp. Caesar L. Aurelius | Commodus Aug. | Germanicus 
Sarmatic. | bos lapides constitui iusserunt | propter contro- 
versias quae | inter mercatores et mancipes | ortae erant, uti 
finem | demonstrarent vectigali | foriculari' et ansarii | pro- 
mercalium secundum | veterem legem semel dum|taxat exi- 
gundo. 

C. I. L. VI. 1016 a. Found at Rome, where it exists to-day in Villa Albani. 
A simHg,r inscription, somewhat imperfect, was found near the walls of 
the city, back of the Lateran Basilica {Ephem. Ep. IV. 787). Two 
others are given in the Einsiedlensis MS., which are there assigned, the 
one to the via Solaria, the other to the via Flaminia, so that it is prob- 
able that other stones were placed on other roads about the city. These 
stones were set up between 177 a.d. in the year in which Commodus was 



168 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

called Augustus, and the year in which Marcus Aurelius died, 180 a.d. 
^foriculari for foricularii; nothing is known as to the character of this 
tax, but the ansarium is mentioned in another inscription, VI. 8594, 
thus : quidquid usuarium (i.e. intended for the use of the purchaser) 
invehitm; ansarium non debet. (Dessau.) 

38. raustin[a]e Aug. | imp. Caes. M. Aureli | Aiitomn[i] Aug. Ger- 

ma|niei tr. [po]t. XXVII/ | cos. I [/J], p. p., | C. Laberiu[s 
Q]uartinus | cos., VII [yi]\: epul. 
G. I. L. X. 5824. Inscribed on a pedestal found at Perentinum, a town 
of the Hernici, where it exists to-day in the museum. 

39. imp. Caes. ] M. Aurelius | Commodus ^ | Antoninus | Aug. Pius 

Sarm. | Germ, maximus | JBrittannicus | ^ pont. max., trib. | pot. 
VIIH imp. VI, I COS. nil, p. p. I pontem Hippi flumilnis 
vetustate cor|ruptum restituit, | sumptum et operas | submini- 
strantibus | Kovensibus Delmi|nensibus Eiditis, cu|rante et 
dedicante ] L. lunio Rufino Procu|liano leg. pr. pr. 
C /. L. III. 3202. Found at Tiigl in Dalmatia, now in the museum at Spa^ 
lato. 1 This word has been partially erased, but is still legible. ^ Com- 
modus seems to have been called Britannicus in 184 a.d. (Eckhel VII. 112.) 

40. imp. Caes. Lucio Septimio M. fil. Severe Pio Pertinaci Aug. 

patri patriae Partbieo Arabico et | Partbico Adiabenico ponti- 
fic. maximo, tribunic. potest. XI, imp. XI, cos. Ill, procos. et | 
imp. Caes. M. Aurelio L. fil. Antonino Aug. Pio Pelici tribunic. 
potest. VI, cos. procos., (p. p., | optimis fortissimisque principi- 
bus), I ob rem publicam restitutam imperiumque populi Eomani 
propagatum | insignibus virtutibus eorum domi forisque, s. p. 
q. E. 

O. I. L. VI. 1033. Inscribed on both sides of the famous arch of Seyerus 
in the Forum Eomanum, in large letters, which were originally filled 
with bronze. When Caraoalla had murdered his brother Geta, he ordered 
his name to be erased from all inscriptions, hence the words in angular 
brackets have been cut over the erased name P. SeptirMo L. fil. Oetae 
nobiliss. Caesari. For date see page 136. It is curious that in a public 
inscription the praenomen is written in full ; also that Marcus Aurelius 
is not termed divus, and that Parthici maximi does not appear with name 
of Severus. (Dessau.) 



INSCRIPTIONS OF EMPERORS AND THEIR FAMILIES 159 

41. imp. Caes. L. Septimio Severe Pio Pertinaci Aug. Arabic. Adia- 

benic. Parth. max. fortissimo felicissimo | pontif. max., trib. 
potest. XII, imp. XI, cos. Ill, patri patriae, et | imp. Caes. M. 
Aurelio Antonino Pio Pelici Aug. trib. potest. VII, cos. (Ill, 
p. p., procos. fortissimo felicissimoque principi) et | luliae 

'"i Aug. matri Aug. (n) et castrorum et (senatus et patriae et) 
imp. Caes. M. Aureli Antonini Pii Felicis Aug. | (Parthici 
maximi Brittannici maximi), | argentari et negotiantes boari 
huius (loci qui invehent),^ devoti numini eorum. 

C. /. L. VI. 1035. On the Arch of Severus in the Forum Boarium. The 
bracketed portions are substitutes for erasures, probably of the follow- 
ing: COS. .et P. Septimio Qetae Caesari, et luliae Aug. matri Augg. et 
castrorum, et Fulviae Plautillae Aug. imp. Caes. M. Aureli Antonini 
Pii Felicis Aug. iixori, filiae P. Fulvii Plautiani. ^ Substituted for 
simply loci. 

V. 

42. Concordiae | Augg[g'] | dominorum | nn[?i] ' | impp. L. Septimi | 

Severi et M. Au|reli Antonini | (Pi(i) Fel. Aug. Parth. max. | 
Brit. max. Ger.)^ Augg[gf]' | et luliae Aug. | L. Licinius Optar 
tia|nus ob honorem | fl. pp.' statuas, quas | ex SS XX m. n. 
cum I basib. praeter le|gitiin.^ pollicitu s_Les t, ampliata pec. | ex 
■&S XXXV m. n. | posuit easque | s^^pli^ecuri. | datis et 
epul. curi|is, et ludis scae|nicis editis, ae|mcam. ._,,,,«£«u<(, 

Ephem. Ep. VII. 757. Inscribed on a pedestal found at Timghad (Thamu- 
gadi), in Africa, i The third g and third n are erased as referring to 
Geta. 2 Substitution for name of Geta. 'Jlaminii perpetui. * legitimam 
summam, i.e. the amount allowed by law ob honorem flaminii. 

43. M. Aurelio Antonino Caesari imperatori destinato ^ imperatoris 

Caes. I L. Septimi Severi Pii Pertinacis Aug. Arabici Adiabe- 
nici vindicis et conditoris | Eoraanae disciplinae filio divi M. 
Antonini Pii Ger. Sarm. nepoti | divi Antonini Pii pronepoti 
divi Hadriani abnepoti divi Traiani Parjthici et divi Nervae 
adnepoti, decreto decurioninn pecunia public, | Q. Anicius 
Faustus leg. Augustorum ^ pro praetore patr. col. dedicavit. 
Ephem. Ep. VII. 353. Inscribed on a tablet found at TimghM (Thamu- 
gadi), in Africa. ^ 197 a.d. ^ As Caracalla did not receive the title 
Augustus until 198, we would not expect Faustus to be termed legatus 
Augustorum in the previous year. 



160 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

44. [P. Septimio Qetae nobilis\simo Caesari] \ imp. Caes. L. 

Septimi Severi | Pii Pertinacis Aug. | Arab. | Adiab. Part. max. 
fortissi|mi felicissimi pont. max., | trib. potest. VII, imp. XI, 
COS. II, I p. p., procos. f[«l] I imp. Caes. M. Aureli Antonini 

Aug. I trib. potest. II, procos. [fratri'] | divi M. Antonini Pii 
Ger. Sarm. | [nep']. divi Antonini Pii pr[onep] | divi Hadriani 
a[&n.ep.] divi Traia|ni Part, et divi Nervae aldnep], col. Ae|lia 
Aurelia Mactaris, d. d. p. p. 
Ephem. Ep. V. 1174. Inscription on a pedestal found at Mactaris in Africa. 
The name of Geta and words referring to him have been erased. 

45. imp. Caes. | M. Opellius Severus | Macrinus Pius Felix | Aug. 

pont. max., trib. p. II,' | p. p., cos., procos. et M. | Opellius 
Antoninus | Diaduminianus | nobiliss. Caes. | prine. iuventut., | 
providentissimi | Augg., fecer. | ab Ag. m. p.^ | LVI. 

C. /. L. III. 5708. A miliarium found at S. Lorenzen (Tyrol), on a road 
leading from Aguontum (Lienz) into Ehaetia. i See page 137. ^ ^6 
Aguonto milia pasuum. 

46. [Aon]ori im[j3. | M.^ Aureip]i' Anto|[w]ini Pii Pelicis Aug., | 
'i^ [sa]cerd. amp[Z.] invic|ti Solis Elagaba|[Zi, pjont. max., trib. 

pot. I . . . , cos. III,^ p. p., I [s.] p. q. P.^ 
C I. L. X. 5827. A marble tablet found at Ferentinum, existing in copy. 
^ Aurelii. ^ See page 137. ' Senatus populusque Ferentinas. 

47. pro salute domini | nostri imperator. | Severi Alexandria Pii 

Augusti et I luliae Maesae' et | luliae Avitae Mameae' sanctissi- 

marum Augustarum, | G-enio sancto castror. | peregrinorum | T. 
Plavius Domitianus | domo Nicomedia, quod | speculator leg. 
Ill Parth. I Severianae vovit, lias|tatus leg. X Fretensis | 
princeps peregrinorum | reddedit. 

Bull. delV 1st. 4884, p. 27. Found in the Atrium of Vesta at Rome. 
1 These names are partially erased, but are still legible. 

48. imp. Caes. | C. lulius | Verus | Maxi[mmMS P. -F.] invictus Aug., | 

Aquileiensium | restitutor | et conditor, | viam quoque | gemi- 



INSCRIPTIONS OF EMPERORS AND THEIR FAMILIES 161 

nam | a porta usque | ad pontem' | per tirones | iuventut. 
novae | Italicae suae | dilectus posterior., | longi temporis | labs 
corruptam, | munivit ac | restituit. 

G. I. L. v. 7989. Inscribed on stone found at Aquileia, Venetia, where it 
still exists in Museum of Cassis, i Mommsen considers this the bridge 
over the Sontius, distant about fifteen miles from Aquileia, which is 
referred to by authors ; cf . Herodianus, 8. 4. 

49. [«m]p. Caesari | \_M. A'nf\amo Grordian6 | \_Pio] Pelici invicto | 

Augusto I pontif. max., trib. pot. II, | c6s., procds., p. p. ; | 
Numisius Quintianus v. p.,^ | ab epistulis Latinis, | devotus 
numini | maiestatique eius. 

C I. L. VI. 1088. Found at Rome in the baths of Caracalla, existing now 
in copy. ^ v{ir) p^erfectissimus). 

50. Furiae Sabiniae | Tranquillinae | sanctissimae Aug. | coniugi 

domini n. ( imp. Caes. M. Antoni | Gordiani Pii | Felicis invicti 
Aug., I decuriales geruli ^ et h. u.,^ devoti numini maiestatiq. eor. 

G. I. L. TI. 1096. On a marble pedestal found at Rome, where a part is 
still to be seen in the Vatican, i The carriers of letters and documents 
who belonged to the Apparitores of Borne, and formed a decuria. 
^h^onore) u(si). 

51. Victoriae reducis dd. nn. | [imp. Caes. M. lulii Philippi ^] | Pii 

Felicis Aug. et [Otaci\liae Se['yerae] Aug. [ccm.]|iugi d. n., 
milites leg. II | Parth. \_PhUippianae] p. f. f. | aet.,^ q. m. c.^ 

Oclatin[i]o Ad|vento cos.,^ quorum nomi|na cum tribus" et 
patri|is inserta sunt, devo|ti numini maiestati|que eorum d. X 
k. Aug. Pere|grino et Aemiliano,* in his | et evok.' Augg. nn., 
cura age|[?t]te Pompon. luliano E.* leg. eius. 
C. I. L. XIV. 2258. Found at Rome, to which place it was probably brought 
from the camp of the legion at Alba, existing in copy. ^ The name of 
Philippus and his wife are wanting, probably because erased. 2 p(j,ae) 
/(idelis) f{elicis) aet(ernae'). ' q(ui) m(ilitare) c{oeperunt'). * 218 a.d. 
^ Read tribu(bu)s. ^ eonsulibus, July 23, 244 a.d. '' In his {centuriones) 
et evolc(atus) AugCustorum) n{ostrorum) . ^ Not understood. 

52. imp. Caes. C. Vibio Treboniano Gallo Pio Pelici A[Mg'] | pontif. 

max., trib. potest. IIII,^ cos. II, p. p., procos., [ei] | imp. Caes. 

l-AT. INSCEIP. — IX 



162 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

C. Vibio Afinio G-allo Veldumniano Y[^olusiano'\ | Pio Pelici 
Aug. pontif. max., trib. potest. IIII/ cos. II, p. p., ]^[rocos^, ( 

tribus Palatina corp. iuniorum iuvenal. hon ^ | 

client:, devoti nuinini maiestatique eor[Mm}, | homines num. 
DCCCCLXVIII.8 
G. I. L. VI. 1104. Cf. p. 844. Found at Rome. 1 253 a.d. 2 honorati to 
which oUentes is opposed. ^ j-or this nutober see Mommsen, Staatsr. III. 
265 n. 3. 

63. imp. Caes. P. Licinius | Valerianus Pius Fel. Aug. pen. | max. 
Germ, max., trib. pot. VII,' cos. IIII, | p. p., procos. et imp. 
Caes. P. Licinius | Gallienus Germ. Pius Pel. Aug. pont. max., 
trib. I pot. VII, cos. Ill, p. p., procos. et P. Cornelius Saloni- 
nus I Valerianus nobiliss. Caes., pont. Secul.^ vi ignis consumpt. 
indulg. I sua restitui curaverunt. 

C /. L. XI. 826. Inscribed on a tablet of granite found near Modena 
(Mutina), now in the museum of that place. ^ See page 142. ^pont{ern) 
Secul(ae), where the Via Aemilia crossed the river, a place now'oalled 
Secohia. 

54. Gallieno clementissimo principi, cuius invicta virtus sola pietate 

superata est, et Saloninae sanctissimae Aug., | Aurelius Victor 
V. e. dicatissimus numini maiestatique eorum. 

C. J. L. VI. 1106. On the Arch of Gallienus, which stands on the Esquiline 
near the church of S. Vito, Rome. Cf. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, Ch. X. 

55. • imp. Caes. | L. Domitio Au|reliano Pio Pe. | invicto Aug. | Ara^ 

bico max. | Gotbico max. | Carpico max., | trib. p. Ill, cos. Ill, | 
procos. Ill, princi|pi n., ordo Bare. | numini maiestatiq. eius. 

C. I. L. II. 4506. Found at Barcelona (Barcino, Tarraoonensis), Spain, 
existing in copy. For date see page 144. 

56. providentissimo | principi, rectori | orbis ac domino, | fundatori 

pacis I aeternae | Diocletiano P. P. | invicto Aug. pont. | max., 
Ger. max., Pers. | max., trib. pot. VII,' | cos. IIII, patri pat., | 
procos., Sept. | [ Fafe]ntio v. p., p. p. E., | d. n. m. que eius d.^ d. 

C /. L. III. 5810. Found at Augsburg (Augusta Vindelicorum), where it 
exists to-day. 1 See page 146. ^ vir perfectissimus, praeses provinciae 
J?(feWcfe, devoftis numini maiestatique eius dedit dedicavit,. 



INSCRIPTIONS OF EMPERORS AND THEIR FAMILIES 163 

57. dd. im. Diocletianus et Maximianus invicti | seniores Augg.,-" 

patres impp. et Caess., et | dd. nn. Constantius et Maximianus 
invicti Augg., et | Severus et Maximinus nobilissimi Caesares | 
thermas felices [£)io]cletianas, quas [Jf]axiniianus Aug. re- 
[diens'] ex Africa sub | [pj-Jaesentia m.a,ie\_statis'] disposuit ac 
[/jieri iussit et Diocletiani Aug. fratris sui | nomini consecra- 
vit, coemptis aedificiis | pro tanti operis magnitudine omni 
cultu I perfectas Eomanis suis dedicaverunt. 
C. I. L. VI. 1130. Dessau 646. Inscription on a tablet from the baths of 
Diocletian In Rome. It was seen in complete form by the author of the 
MS. Anonymus Einsiedlensis, ■while authors of the sixteenth century 
described two pieces of the same. Portions of another stone with simi- 
lar inscription have since appeared ( C. I. L. VI. p. 845 ; Ephem. Ep. IV. 794 ; 
Notizie, 1890, p. 185) . i Diocletian and Maximian, after their abdication 
on the kalends of May, 305, were termed seniores Augusti before the 
news was received of the death of Constantius at Eboracum a. d. VIII 
kal. Aug. 306. 

1 

58. imp. Caes. M. Constantino maximo 
P. P. Augusto s. p. q. E., 

quod instinctu divinitatis, mentis 
magnitudine, cum exercitu suo 
tarn de tyranno ' quam de omni eius 
factions uno tempore iustis 
rem publicam ultus est armis, 
arcum triumphis insignem dicavit. 
2 3 

liberatori urbis (/^,„) CK*,.) fundatori quietis 

_4 _ 6 

sic X sic XX {°%T) {°fZ'') votis X votis XX 

C. I. L. VI. 1139. On the celebrated Arch of Constantine, Rome. Some 
have lield that these words instinctu divinitatis were insertions in place 
of an erasure of some other words nutu lovis o. m. ; de Ross, Bull, di 
Ardh. Crist. 1863, p. 58, refutes this, i The tyrant Maxentius was con- 
quered in 312 A.n. The arch probably dates 315 a.d., as is indicated by 
reference to the ten years of his reign, sic X sic XX apparently means 
"as he has reigned ten, so may he reign twenty," while votis may refer 
to the decennalia or vicennalia. 



CHAPTER VI 

OFFICIAL TITLES 

CURSUS HONORUM 

CoBKiESPONDiNG to the titles given with the names of the emperors, 
there appear also in the inscriptions, after the names of those who 
have taken part in public life, the designations of of&cial positions 
which have been held, arranged regularly in an order determined by 
their importance and grade. This collection of titles sets forth what 
is known as the cursus honorum, which may be defined as the suc- 
cession of official stations through which a person must pass in order 
to obtain the position of the highest rank. 

In the early Eoman Republic the principle of official promotion, 
whereby eligibility for the various magistracies depended upon the 
previous tenure of those of lower grade, and the intervention of a 
certain period of time, was held in an informal way until b.o. 180, 
when a certus ordo magistratuum was definitely established by the Lex 
Villia Annalis. This consisted of the quaestorship, curule aedileship, 
praetorship, consulship, with a preliminary military service of ten 
years, and. an interval of at least two years between the various 
magistracies. The time of Sulla and the later days of the Republic 
witnessed various modifications in the regulations governing this 
cursus honorum. Under the Empire, however, it found its fullest 
development and most important application. 

Eoman society, at the close of the Republic, may be classified in 
three divisions : the senatorial order, the equestrian order, the plebs. 
This classification and partition of citizens on the basis of rank 
already determined under the Republic was employed by Augustus 
and his successors in establishing and developing the imperial 
government. 

164 



OFFICIAL TITLES _ 165 

To those of senatorial rank were assigned the old republican 
magistracies, while to the members of a select body of the knights 
were given the important praefecturae, such as that of Egypt, and 
by degrees other ofB.ces of administration which were closely related 
to the princeps. 

Subordinate ofiBcers, both civil and military, also officials of the 
various collegia, were selected from the plebs. Thus in the imperial 
period there were in existence three careers of official service (cursus 
honorum), open respectively to those of senatorial and equestrian 
rank and to the commonalty. 

The cursus honorum appears in the inscriptions arranged on the 
generally applied principle of an ascending or descending series. 
In the ascending series, the direct order, the lowest position is men- 
tioned first, and the highest last, while in the descending series, the 
inverse order, the highest is mentioned first and the lowest last.' 

This principle is found applied in various ways, as, for example, 
when in the same inscription honores ordinarii are given in descend- 
ing order, while others, extra ordinem, appear in ascending order.^ 

SENATOEIAL CURSUS HONORUM 

This career was open to senators and all of senatorial rank, namely, 
those who possessed the requisite property of one million sesterces, 
and were either the sons of senators or had been raised to the sena- 
torial rank by the emperor. 

Before a candidate was qualified to stand for the quaestorship, 
which was the key to the senatorial cursus, two preliminary forms 
of service were demanded : 

1st. The holding of one of a group of minor offices of annual 
tenure, known as 

Vigintiviri. XX VIBI 

a) Triumvir capUalis, III V ■ CAP, KAPIT. Function, — Execution of 
capital sentences. 

iBorghesi, CEuvres, IV., p. 103. As to the consulship and the sacerdotium, 
see page 168. 

^ See inscriptions, p. 170. 



166 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

6) Triumvir monetalis, III V • MON, — auro argento aere flando ferir 
undo — III V-A-A-A- F- F. Function, r- Coinage of copper money 
struck by the senate. 

c) Quattuorvir viarum curandarum, Mil V ■ V, VI AR • CVR, CVRANDAR. 

Function, — Supervision of city streets and roads. 

d) Decemvir stlUibus iudieaiidis, XV • STL, STLIT • IVD, IVDIC. Func- 

tion, — Member of court having cognizance in civil cases. 

The vigintivirate disappeared during the third century. 

2d. The serving at least a year as 

Tribunus {xMapxos) militum latiolavius,^ TR, TRIB ■ M, MIL • L, LAT, 
LATIC, LATICL. 

This office could be held either before or after the vigintivirate. 
After the Flavian emperors, however, it regularly followed the pre- 
liminary magistracies. In the time of the Empire the tribunate of 
the soldiers had importance mainly as a tirocinium for young nobles, 
and as introductory to the quaestorship. The appointment to this 
position came from the emperor. Only in rare instances was this 
service disregarded, but after the early part of the third century it 
was no longer required. 

The magistracies which followed were the quaestorship, tribunate 
of the plebs or aedileship, praetorship, consulship. The age required 
for the quaestorship was twenty-five years; for the praetorship, 
thirty years. A period of at least a year must intervene between 
the first three of these, and of two years between the last two. 

As a patrician was ineligible to the tribunate of the plebs or the 
plebeian aedileship, he coul|i pass directly from the quaestorship to 
the praetorship. Both the tribunate of the plebs and the aedileship 
disappeared during the third century. 

The four magistracies were nominally of annual tenure, although 
the consulship was no longer, as a rule, held through the year. 
Consuls were either ordinarii, entering upon their duties on the first 

^ Augustus at times made prospective senators praefecti alae, as well as tribuni 
militum, although later on the former position was held almost exclusively by 
those of the equestrian order. Suetonius, Aug. 38. Veil. Pat. XI. 104. C. I. L. 
XIV. 2105. 



OFFICIAL TITLES 167 

of January, and giving their names to the year,' or suffecti, from 
whose number were selected the groups of two who should hold 
office for portions of the year. 

Table of Senatorial Magistracies 
(in ascending order). 

I. Quaestor (to^u^os, Kvalariap) Q, QVAE, QVAES, QVAESIT 

" pro praetore = provinciae . . . PRO, PR • PR 

" urbanus VRB 

" candidatus K, CAND, KANDID 

" Augusti, Caesaris AVG, CAES 

" designatus DES 

II. Aedilis {iyopdvoiuis) AED, AEDIL, AID 

" curulis {KovpoiXijs) CVR 

" plebis (^8riiuyriK6s) PL 

" cerealis CER 

n. Tribunus plebis TR, TRIB • PL 

candidatus K, CAND, KANDID 

III. Praetor (o-rpoTTjyis, irpalTwp) PR 

" candidatus K, CAND, KANDID 

" peregrinus PER 

" urbanus • VRB 

" tutelarius . . . , TVTEL 

" aerarii or ad aerarium .... AER 

IV. Consul (fl-TpaT7)7As waros) C, COS, CON, CONS 

Adlectio. 

This was an act of the emperor by which elevation to a certain 
rank might be granted through assignment to the performance of 
the functions of one of the senatorial magistracies. The forms com- 
monly found are adlectus inter tribunicios and inter praetorios, rarely 
inter quaestorios. After the third century adlectus inter consulares 
appears. 

' Although for a long time before the close of the second century the names 
of consules ordinarii had been ' commonly substituted for those of the suffecti, 
yet in the acta publica populi Bomani the custom prevailed of naming the con- 
suls actually holding ofifice. After Caracalla the names of the consules ordinarii 
are given. Mommsen, Ephem. Ep.J., p. 136. Ordinarius appears first in an 
inscription of the year 155 (C. /. L. VI. 2120), and again in one dating 214. 



168 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Priesthoods of the Senatorial Order. 

Certain religious offices which were held by those of senatorial, 
rank are given in inscriptions in connection with the cursus honorum. 
The ordinary position of these titles is either at the very beginning 
or at the close of the indications of oflflce. 

The consulship is regularly placed immediately after the name, so 
that if the sacerdotium and consulship are both given, the general 
order is : name, consulship, sacerdotium ; rarely name, sacerdotium, 
consulship. 

Table of Senatorial Pkiesthoods.-' 

Augur (aXryovp) AVG 

" publious populi Romani Quiritium . . PVB • P • R • Q 

Fetialis (^ijTiaXis) F 

Flamen Dialis FL, FLAM ■ DIAL 

" Quirinalis " " QVIR 

" Augustalis " " AVG 

'* Claudialis " " CLAVD 

Prater Arvalis FR • ARV 

Lupercus^ LVPERC 

Pontifex (d/axie/ieiis) PONT, PONTIF 

" Maximus PONT, P • M, MAX 

Quindecimvir sacris faciundis XV VIR • S • F 

Salius SAL 

Septemvir epulo or epulonum VII VIR • EPVL 

Sodalis Augustalis SOD • AVG, AVGVST 

" Augustalis Claudialis " " CL, CLAVDIAL 

" Hadrianalis 
" Flavialis 
" Titius 
Virgo Vestalis V • V 

Titles, of Honor. 

Towards the close of the first ' century, titles of honor were given 
to those of senatorial rank. These are found in the inscriptions in 

1 Cagnat, Cours d'' Bpigraphie Lat., p. 99. Wil. Index, ii., p. 480. C. I. L. 
Indices. 

a Wil. 1193, n. 1. 

'From time of Marcus and Verus, 161-180, Momm. Staatsr. III. 1, 471. 
"Im Laufe des 1. Jahrhunderts wurde vir clarissimus allmahlich ein officielles 



OFFICIAL TITLES 169 

abbreviated form immediately after the personal name. They are 
as follows : 

vir claiissimus (aviip XafiirpSraTos), V • C ; clarissimae memoriae vir, C • M ■ V; 
clarissimus puer, C ■ P ; clarissimus iuvenis, C • I ; clarissima puella, C • P, S ; 
clarissima femina, C • F 

In addition to the four magistracies which form the senatorial 
cursus honorum the inscriptions also show the official functions which 
were performed by those of senatorial rank. These functions, vary- 
ing in importance, were arranged in grades corresponding to the 
several magistracies, and hence were exercised, according to their 
relative value, by those who had been either quaestors, quaestoricii, 
praetors, praetorii, or consuls, consulares. 

The following table contains the principal senatorial functions, 
and the rank of the different officials by whom they were generally 
performed. 

Function. 

Censitor = legatus Augusti censibus acoipiendis, LEG • AVG • CENS • ACC ; 

assigned to consulares or praetorii. 
Comes Augusti, COM • AVG ; praetorii (generally), but also consulares, aedilicii, 

quaestoricii. 
Corrector, CORR ; consulares ov praetorii. 
Curator (^Tri/neXTjTiJs) actorum senatus or ab actis senatus, C, .CVR, CVRAT • AC- 

TORVM • SENATVS ; AB • ACT • SENAT ; quaestoricii. 
Curator rei publicae, C, CVR, CVRAT • R • P (see logistae). 
Curator alvei Tiberis et riparum et cloacarum urbis, C, CVR • ALV • TIB • RIPA- 

RVM ■ ET • CLOAC • VRB ; consulares. 

Curator operum publicorum, OPER ■ PVB, PVBL ; consulares ox praetorii. 

Curator aquarum et Miniciae, AQV, AQVAR • ET • MIN, MINIC, or 

Minioiae, MIN; consulares. 

Curator viarum, CVR • VIAR ; praetorii or consulares. 

ludex quaestioriip ; aedilicii or quaestoricii. 

luridicus per Italiam regionis . . ., IVR, IVRID; consulares. 

und fest stehendes Pradicat der Manner von senatorischem Stande." — "Im 
Zeitalter der Antonine war die Anwendung des Titels vir clarissimus offenbar 
allgemeiner Gebrauch, wie'man aus Gellius sieht : I. 2, 1 ; I. 2 J, ; XV III, 10, 1." 
Friedlauder, SMengeschichte, I., p. 398. 



170 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

luridicus or legatus iuridicus provinciae . . . , per proYJiiciain . . ., LEG • IVR, 
IVRID : consulares or praetorii. 

Legatus (Trpeo-^SeuTiJs) Augusti pro praetore provinciae . . ., LEG • AVG • PR • PR ; 
consulares or praetorii, according to province. 

Legatus legionis ' (Tpea-^evT-ris, TiyeftQiv \eyiCivos), LEG • LEG ; praetorii. 

Legatus pro praetore provinciae (prooonsulum), LEG • PR • PR • PROV, or 
legatus proconsulis, LEG • PROCOS ; quaestoricii? 

Logista, or curator liberarum civitatium ; praetorii, also quaestoricii. 

Praefectus (^Trapx"") aerarii militaris, PR, PRAE, PRAEF • AER -MIL; praetorii. 

Praefectus aerarii Saturni, AER ■ SAT ; praetorii. 

Prael'eotus alimentorum ; praetorii or consulares. 

Praefectus frumenti dandi ex senatus consulto, PRAEF • F • D • EX • S • C ; 
praetorii or aedilicii. 

Praefectus urbi (urbis), VRB ; consulares. 

Proconsul {irr parity bs wtotos), PRO, PROC, PROCO, PROCOS, PROCOSS ; con- 
sulares (of Asia and Atviaa,), praetorii (of other senatorial provinces). 

Quaesitor index ; see iudex quaestionis. 

Ex.So.1. L • N E R A T I ■ C ■ F 

VOL • PROCVLO 

XVIR • STLITIBVS • IVDICAN 

TRIB ■ MILITV'M • LEGION 

V ■ n • GEMIN • FELIC • ET • LEG 

VIII • AVG • QVAEST • AEDIL 

PLEB • CERIAL ■ PRAET ■ LEG 

LEG • XVi • FLAVI AE • FIDEL 

ITEM • MISSO • AB • IMP 

ANTONINO ■ AVG • PIO • AD ■ DEDVCEN 

. dAS • VEXiLLATIONES • IN • SYRIAM • OB 

bELLVM parTHICVM • PRAEF • AERARI 

MILITARIS 

COS 

MVNICIPES SAEPINAT 

L. Neratio C. /(ilio) Volt(inia tribu) Proculo (decern) vir(o) stlitibus iudi- 
can{dis), trib(uno) militum legion(is) {septimae) Gemin{ae) felic(J.s) et 
leg(ionis) {octavae) Aug(ustae), quaest(^ori), aedil(J) pleb(is) cereal(i), 

1 For names of legions, see page 408. 

•^ Also those of higher rank, but this must not exceed the rank of the pro- 
consul. 



OFFICIAL TITLES 171 

praetor(i), leg{ato) leg{ionis) {se.xtae decimae) Flaviae fidel(is) itemmisso 
ab imp{eratore) Antonino Aug{usto) Pio ad deducendas vexillationes in 
Syriam ob bellum Parthicum, praef(ecto') aerarHi) militaris, co{n)s(uli') ; 
Municipes 8aepinat{es) . 
C. I. L. IX. 2457. Found at Saepinum, Italy. 

The cursus honorum is in the ascending order. All designations between 
praetori and consult indicate praetorian functions. 

Mo.So.fi. L • D A S V M I • P . F 

STEL • TVLLIO 
T V S C . COS 1°^^ 
AVG VRI ■ SODAL • HADRIA 
MALI • SODALl • ANTONI 
NIANO • CVRAT • OPERVM 

PVBLICORVM 
LEGATO . PR . PR . PR0V1NCIAR 
GERMANIAE • SVPERIOR 
ET • PANNONIAE • SVPERIOR 
PRAEFECTO • AER • SATVRNl 
PRAETORI • TRIBVN • PLEB 
LEG • PROVING • AFRICAE 
QVAEST. IMP. ANTONINl -AVG ■ Pll 
TRIB • MILIT • LEG • ITIT • FLAVIAE 

TRIVMVIRO- A- A- A. F- F- 

P . rVLLIVS ■ CALLISTIO 

POSV I T 

L. Dasumio, P. f(iUo) 8tel(J,aUna tribu) Tullio Tusco co{n)s(^uli), comiti 

August {i). 
Priestly functions : — auguri, sodal(i) Hadrianali, sodal{i) Antoniniano. 
Consular functions : — curat(ori) operum publicorum, legato pr(o) pr{aetore) 

promnciar{uin) Qermaniae iSuperior(is) et Pannoniae Superior{is) . 
Praetorian function : — praefecto aer{arii) Saturni, praetori, tribun(o) pleb(is). 
Quaestorian functions: — leg(_ato) proj)JBc(iae) Africae, quaest{ori) imp{era- 

toris) Antonini Aug^usti) Pii. 
Preliminary service: — trib{uno') milit{um) leg(ionis) IIII Flaviae, triumviro 

a{uro') a(rgento) a(ere) f(lando) f(eriundo). 

C. I. L. XI. 3365. Found at Tarquinium. 



172 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

The cursus honorum is in the descending order. The consulship was held 
between the tenure of the praefecture aerarii Saturni and the provincial adminis- 
tration, but is placed first in the list of honores. 

When the word indicating the nature of two successive functions is the same 
for both, it is usual to find it repeated, but here the title legato p(ro) p(raetore) 
serves for both, being omitted with the second. The word item is used, as a rule, 
to denote a succession of functions, while et commonly indicates the tenure of 
two functions at the same time. This rule is violated here, since Dasumius 
governed these provinces separately. 

EQUESTRIAN CUKSUS HONORUM 

In the reorganization of the equites in the imperial period, the 
most important feature, from an administrative point of view, was 
the restoration and elevation of the old body of eighteen centuries, 
known as the equites equo publico (EQ • P, PVBL).-' Admission to 
this corps not only depended upon the original qualifications of free- 
birth, and the possession of the requisite property of 400,000 sesterces, 
but also upon the presentation by the emperor of the knight's horse, 
which was in reality the investiture of a suitably qualified person 
with membership in the equestrian troop. It was to this body that 
Augustus and his successors looked for officials who were to serve 
as superintendents (praefecti) and agents (procuratores) possessing 
authority only as representatives of the emperor. 

Consistently with the early theories of the Romans, and in imitation 
of the senatorial career, the equestrian civil service was preceded by 
a military apprenticeship. After the initial military service the can- 
didate for the equestrian honores was eligible for one of the procura- 
torships, which in themselves varied in dignity and importance ; then 
followed the praefectures, which were the highest offices attainable. 

The equestrian cursus Jionorum may be considered under thres 
divisions. 

I. Preliminary service, 
a) military, b) civil. 

II. Procuratores. 

III. Praefecti. 

^ Eques Sovianus = iinreiis j>wimtos, tinrip SrinoaLif ri/iriSels. 



OFFICIAL TITLES 173 

I. a) Preliminary military service. 

Under Augustus no set form of military service appears to have 
3n assigned to the knights, and it was not until the time of Clau- 
is that the militiae equestres were in any way clearly defined. 
According to Suetonius,^ Claudius determined upon three forms of 
■vice : 1st, praefectura cohortis; 2d, praefectura alae ; 3d, trihunatus 
ionis. The inscriptions, however, testify that these tres militiae 
'lestres did not become the usual course of preliminary training 
til the beginning of the second century, but that omissions, such 
of the praefectura alae and substitutions of one or more tribunates 
the army, or of the three tribunates ^ in the city, were common.' 
In inscriptions dating from the time of Septimius Severus the old 
ier of promotion from praefectura cohortis to praefectura alae rarely 
pears, and other military positions form part of the preliminary 
reer. This now in reality loses its preliminary or introductory 
ture, and becomes the main service for which the procuratorship 
the far-distant reward. The centurionate ^ is now the first eques- 
an military ofiice,' and the primipilate uni the praefectura legionis, 
e old praefectura castrorum, are stepping stones to the procurator- 

'■ Claudius, 25 '^equestres militias ita ordinavit ut post cohortem alam, post 

im tribunatum legionis daret." The order given is shown by the inscriptions 

be either incorrect or of short duration, for in the inscriptions the praefectura 

le regularly has the highest rank. Hirschfeld, Bomischen Verwaltungsge- 

lichte, pp. 247 ff. 

2 tribunus cohortis vigilum, tribunus cohortis urbanae, tribunus cohortis 

aetoriae. 

2 See Hirschfeld's Verwaltungsgeschichte, p. 248, note 2. 

* The expression " militiae equestres " used above is first referred to by Pliny 

! Younger, and afterward appears in inscriptions of the third century. So 

nibus equestribus militiis perfunctus, functus, or exornatus, or militiis eques- 

')us perfunctus ; again, militia prima, secunda, quarta ; more commonly, a 

litiis tribus, or tribus militiis perfunctus, a quattuor militiis, or quattuor 

litiariim. The expression a militiis has aroused much discussion. Momm- 

I, Slaatsr. III. 549, n. 2, believes there is an ellipsis of tribus or quattuor. 

:schfeld (p. 250) explains it as merely an honorary title, given to those who 

re not actually performed military service. 

' Hirschfeld, Verwaltungsgeschichte, p. 249. 



174 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

ship, while the higher positions filled by procuratores fall to those 
■who have held the three city tribunates.^ 

6) Preliminary civil service. 

Notwithstanding the gradually increasing importance of military 
afCairs and of service in the army from the beginning of the second 
century, there was, nevertheless, established at that time a civil 
career parallel to the military service as preliminary to the position 
of procurator. This was accomplished by the reforms of Hadrian, 
who recognized and emphasized legal education and training in state 
affairs as equivalent to service in the army. Thus those who had 
served as advocati fisci, or sexagenarii a consiliis sacris,^ or consiliarii 
Augustorum," or ab commentariis praefecti praetorio* also in the lower 
of&ces of administration, such as of alimentation, of the roads, of 
taxation, were eligible for the procuratorship and praefectures with- 
out military service. 

II. Procuratores CETrtr/ooTrot). 

This title, procurator, was applied to the imperial agents who per- 
fornied the lesser administrative duties throughout the Empire. It 
was originally used in connection with the employees of the empe- 
ror's household, who were generally freedmen, but spread afterwards 
to the of&ces of government closely related to the emperor, which, 
becoming of great importance, were finally filled entirely from mem- 
bers of the equestrian order. Thus the ofB.ce of procurator became 
the patent of equestrian nobility, and hence was not conferred upon 
men of senatorial rank. 

Any satisfactory classification of the various offices of the eques- 
trian career is difflcult, as it was not established upon such strict 
lines as the senatorial cursus, and its restrictions were often violated 
because of the nearness to the emperor, and his readiness to grant 

1 See article by the author, "The Preliminary Military Service of the Eques- 
trian Cursus Honorum," in Classical Studies in Honour of Henry Dnsler. 
New York, 1894. 

2 C. I. L. VI. 1704. Mommsen, Staatsr. III., p. 561. Hirschfeld, Verwalt- 
ungsgeschichte, p. 255, notes. 

3 O. I. L. VI. 1634. 4 C. I. L. VI. 1564. 



OFFICIAL TITLES 175 

special favors in promoting from low positions to those of high 
degree. From the time of Hadrian, however, it is possible to deter- 
mine the rank of the various procuratorships by means of the salary 
attached to each. 

Thus there are four classes : 

Trecenarii, CCC or AD • H-S CCC, 300000 sesterces. 
Ducenarii, CC or AD • H-S CC, 200000 " 
Centenarii, C or AD ■ H-S C, 100000 " 
irii, AD . H-S LX, 60000 " 



The following may be classed as 

Teecenarii.^ 

Procurator a rationibus or rationalis, P, PRO, PROC • A • RATIONIB, RAT, or 
Procurator rationis privatae, - — RAT ■ PRIV 

Procurator a censibus, A • CENS, a cognitionibus, ab epistuUs 

latinis, —- — AB • EPISTVL • LATIN, a libellis, a memoria, a 

studiis; magister summarum rationum, M, MAGIST • SVM • RAT 

All but the first are ducenarii until the third century, at which period the title 
magister takes the place of procurator. 

DUOENAKII. 

Praeses or procurator provinciae (of certain provinces), procurator vice prae- 

sidis, procurator stationis hereditatium, summarum rationum, ab 

epistuUs Graecis, idiologus ad Aegyptum ; and in the later period, 

procurator XX hereditatium. 

Centeitaeii. 

Among those of the third class may be mentioned the procuratores alimentnrum, 

aquariim, bibliothecarum (in the earlier period), ■ hereditatium 

patrimonii privati, ludi magni, monetae, operum publicorum, 

patrimonii, -partus, summi choragii (later logista thymelae) ; the 

subpraefecti annonae and vigilum, praefeotus vehiculorum, consiliarius, magister 

XX, procurator ferrariarum, aurariarum, procurator rationis privatae 

(regionis privatae) ; procuratores Aegypti as iuridicus Alexandreae, pro- 
curator Pelusii, Neaspoleos et Mausolaei ; also the praefectus classis (in 

Italy) in the first two centuries. 

1 Obtained mainly from Hirschfeld's Verwaltungsgeschichte, pp. 259-265. 



176 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Sexagenarii. 

Among those in the last class may be mentioned the advocatus fisci, subprae- 
fectus classis (in Italy), subprocuratores (in the provinces), praefectus vehicu- 
lorum (in the provinces), procurator ad Miniciam, adiutor praefecti annonae, 
procurator ad annonam Ostiis, adiutores studioruvi, ajso the lower offices of the 
ratio privata, such as procurator ad bona damnatorum, and of the XX heredi- 
tatium, the promagister hereditatium at Kome, and in the second century the 
procurator bibliothecarum. 

III. Praefecti ('Ejrapxot). 

The history of this title is similar to that of procurator in that 
it originated in the imperial household, and then extended to the 
important oflcials of state who discharged certain functions by 
the delegation of the emperor. The important praefectures were 
the highest official positions of the equestrian career. 

These in ascending order are : 

Praefectus classis (stationed at Ravenna and Misenum), P, PF, PR, PRAEF • 

CL, CLASS 
Praefectus vigilum, P, PF etc. VIG, VIGIL 
Praefectus annonae, P, PF etc. ANN 
Praefectus Aegypti, P, PF etc. AEG 
Praefectus praetorio, P, PF etc. PR, PRAET 

Priestly Functions. 

The inscriptions give also the priestly functions exercised by 
members of the equestrian order. 

Haruspex, HAR 

Lupercus, LVPERC 

(Sacerdos) Laurens Lavinas, L • L; LAVR • LAV, LAVIN 

i'ubicen sacrorum popuU Bomani Quiritium, TVB • SAC ■ P • R • Q 

Titles of Honor. 

!^rom the beginning of the third century the title vir egregius 
{avrjp Kparto-Tos), V • E, which had earlier been in general use, became 
the official designation ^ of honor of the procurator. It diilered from 
the senatorial clarissimus in that it was given only in exceptional 

1 Wjl. n. 667. Hirschfeld, Verwaltungsgeschichte, pp. 272-273, notes. 



OFFICIAL TITLES 177 

instances to women and children. Note also egregiae memoriae vir, 
E • M • V. Tlie title vir perfectissimus (avrjp 8iaa-r]fi6TaTOi), V • P, was 
also ofB.cially recognized about the same time, as the title of the pro- 
curatores of the highest grade, also of the praefecti, from the praefectMs 
classis to the praefectus annonae. Vir eminentissimus (ivrip iioxuiTaroi), 
V • EM, was limited to the praefectus praetorio. The title splendi- 
dus eques Momanus which appears in some inscriptions of Italy 
seems to have been given to those equites who, not being magistrates, 
could not receive the titles mentioned above.-' 

^.sro.i. M . P E T R N I o • m . / 

a I. L. Vl. 1625b. QVIR • HONORATO 

PRAEF-COH-I-RA ETorum 
TRIB ■ MIL • LEG • I • MINER^iae 
p.p. PRAEF . ALAE • AVG • P • F ■ thrac 
PROC • MONET • PROC • XX • hered 
PROC • PROV ■ BELG ■ ET • DVAR 
GERMANIAR ■ PROC ■ ARATlOre 
AVG • PRAEF • ANNON • PRAEF 
AEGYPTI ■ PONTIF • MINOR} 
NEGOTIATORES • OLEari 
EX BAETICA • PATRONo 

CVRATORIBVS 

CASSIO FAVSTO 

CAECILIO ■ HOnurato 

M. Fetroni[o M. f(j,lio)'\ Quir(ina tribu) Honorato. 

Preliminary military service: — praef(ecto) cohCortis) (pritnae) Baetlorum}, 

trn){uno) mil{Uum) leg{ionis) I Miner{viae\ p(iae) /{(delis'), praef(ecto) 

alae Aug(ustae) p{iae) f(idelis) [Thrac(iae}^. 

Procuratorship : — proc{nratori) monet(ae) , prociuratori) XX [hered(ita- 

Mum)], proc{uratori) prov{inciae) Belgi{cae) etduar{um) G-ermaniar^um), 

proc(uratori) a ration (ibus) Aug{usti). 
Praef ectures : — praef(ecto) annon(ae), praef(ecto) Aegypti. 
Priestly function : — pontifiici) minorli]. 

1 Mommsen, Staatsr. 111., p. 565. C. /. L. IX. 1006, 2232 ; X. 22, 22.3. 

LAT. INSCRIP. — 12 



178 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Elevation of Equites to the Senatorial Bank. 

By an act of the emperor (adlectio, see page 167) procuratores of a 
certain grade were raised to the senatorial rank, and filled vacancies 
in the senate. This change was not made, as a rule, after the 
important praefectures had been reached, for these were as high in 
rank as the curule magistracies ; also adlectio inter praetorios is more 
common in the inscriptions than adlectio inter tribunicios} There is 
no evidence of any change to the lower order on the part of those 
who had held curule offtces. The title equites inlustres was applied to 
those who, although of senatorial census, preferred to remain within 
the equestrian order. 

^.No.2. T I • C L A V D I O 

<7.ZZ.T.867. Tl • Fl L • PAL 

SECVNDINO 
L- STATIC -MACEDO 
P • P • LEG • mi • F . F • TRIB • COH 
PRIM • VIG • TRIB • COH • T\ 




VRBAN • TRIB • CCH • Villi • PR 
P • P • ITERVM PRAEF • LEG • M • TRA 
PRCC • XX . HER . PROC • PRCVN 
LVGDVNENS • ET • AQVITAN 
ARATICNIB • AVG • PRAEF • AN 
L . SAVFEIVS • IVLIANV/s 
AMICO • CPTIM 

Ti. Olaudio Ti.fil(io) PaKjatina) (Jtrlhu) Secundino L. Statio Macedon[i]. 
Preliminary military service : — p(rimi)p(ilo) leg(ionis) IIII FQaviae) /(elieis), 

trib(uno) coh(ortis) prim{ae) vig{ilum), trib^uno) coh(ortis) XI urban{ae), 

trib(uno) coh(^ortis) Villi pr{aetoriae), pQiimo) p(J,lo) iterum, praef(ecto) 

legiionia) II Tra{ianae) [/(ortis)]. 
Procuratorships : — prhc(uratori) XX her(^editatium), proc(uratori) pro- 

Bire[c(jaj'«m)] Lugdunensis et AquUan\icae\, a rationi(bus) Aug(usti). 
Praefecture : — praef{ecto) a?i[mom(ae)]. 

Mommsen states that primipilatus iteratus, after other military service of a 
higher grade, gave certain advantages which followed immediately upon the 
primipilate. 

1 C. J. L. 11. 4114. In this inscription two cursus konorum are combined. 



OFFICIAL TITLES 1Y9 

CUESUS HONOEUM AFTEE CONSTANTINB 

The elaborate systems described above were not maintained after 
tlie beginning of the fourth century. Evidences of disintegration 
show themselves in the course of the third century in the abandon- 
ment, after Caracalla, of the required military service preliminary 
to the quaestorship, in the disappearance of the vigintivirate, and 
from the time of Gallien in the final exclusion of members of the 
senatorial order from the army. After Constantine the equestrian 
career disappeared entirely, and many of the former restrictions 
of the senatorial cursus were disregarded. 

The cursus honorum, as it existed after the early part of the fourth. 
century, was confined to members of the senatorial order known as 
the clarissimi. To these were allotted the official positions and 
functions which, arranged in grades according to their importance, 
were assigned on the basis of a threefold classification of those 
eligible for ofB.ce. These three classes, representing grades of pro- 
motion, were: 

1. Clarissimi, C, XafnrpSTaToi. 

2. Clarissimi et spectabiles, C • ET • S, SP, irepJ/SXeTrroi. 

3. Clarissimi et inlustres, C • ET • I, IN, INL, ei/Sofoi. 

The general class of the clarissimi consisted of those who were 
sons of senators, and so held their rank by birth, and again those 
who were admitted to the senate through the operation of adlectio. 

The former were expected to begin their senatorial career by serving 
as quaestors and then praetors, but, as the quaestorship was often 
disregarded, the praetorship became in reality the initial position 
admitting to the senate. 

The latter, those honored by adlectio, were made senators by the 
conferring of the honorary consulship by the emperor sometimes 
upon the vote of the senate. This was known as adlectio in consu- 
lares, a. phrase which, when strictly used, referred to the honorary 
consulship, but was applied at this period to elevation to the rank 
either of clarissimi consulares, clarissimi et spectabiles, or darissimi et 
inlustres. The word consularis no longer has the signification of 
ex-consul, but merely means an active member of the senate, and 



180 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

one so entitled might be very far from the attainment of the consul- 
ship, indeed might never reach this goal of the senatorial career. 

Examples of the two forms of the cursus honorum are here 
given. 

Ms.l. c. /. X. VI. 1789. H O N O R I 

MEMMIO-VITRASIO-ORFITO.V.C 
NOBILITATE- ET- ACTIBVS- PRAECIPVO 
PRAEFECTO • VRBI • ET • ITERVM • PRAE 
FECTO- VRBI • PROCONSVLI • AFRICAE 
ET • TERTIO • SACRARVM • COGNITIONVM 
IVDICI • COMITI • ORDINIS • PRIMI ■ ITERVM 
INTRA • CONSISTORIVM • LEGATO • SECVN 
DO • DIFFICILLIMIS • TEMPORIBVS • PETI 
TV • SENATVS • ET • P • R • COMITI ■ ORDINIS 
SECVNDI • EXPEDITIONES ■ BELLICAS 
GVBERNANTI ■ CONSVLARI ■ PROVINCIAE 
SICILIAE • PONTIF • DEAE • VESTAE ■ XV 
VIRO . S ■ F . PONTIF • DEI ■ SOUS • CONSVLI 

PRAETOR! • Q • k 
CORPVS . PISTORVM • MAGNARIORVM 
ET • CASTRENSARIORVM • STATVAM 
SVB • AERE • CONSTITVIT 

Memmio Vitrasio Orflto v{iro) cQarissimo) q(uaestori) k(andidato), praetori, 

consuli. 
Priestly functions: — pontifi(_ci) dei solis, quindecemviro s(acris) f{aciundis), 

pontifl(ci) deae Vestae. 
Functions as clarissimus: — consulari provinciae Siciliae, expeditiones bellicas 

gubernanti. 
Functions as spectabilis : — comiti ordinis secundi, legato secundo difflcilUmis 

temporibus petitu senatus et p(opuli) IKfimani), comiti ordinis primi iterum 

intra consistorium, proconsuli Africae et tertio sacrarum cognitionum 

iudici. 
Functions as inlustris: — praefecto urbi et iterum praefecto urbi. 

The consulship was held either before or after the praefecture of the City. 
Orfltus was praefectus urbi 353-5 and iterum 356-9. 



OFFICIAL TITLES 181 

M).2. C. /. Z. TI. 1717. 

FABIO-TITIANO.V-C 
CORRECTORI . FLAMINIAE 
ET • PICENI ■ CONSVLARI 
SICILIAE ■ PROCONSVLI 
PROVINCIAE . ASIAE 
IVDICI-SACRARVM-COG 
NITIONVM ■ COM ITI • PRIMI 
ORDINIS • CONSVLI . ORDI 
NARIO ■ PRAEF • VRBIS 

PEREGRINVS 
SERBVS . DOMINO • PRESTANTISSIMO 

Fabio titiano v(_iro) cQarissimo) . 

Functions as clarissimus : — correetori Flaininiae et Piceni, consulari Siciliae. 

Functions as spectaftiVis ; — proconsuli provinciae Asiae, iudici sacrarum cogni- 

tionuni, comiti primi ordinis. 
Functions as inlustris: — consult ordinario (337 a.d.), praef{ecto) urbis (339- 

341 A.D.). 

Note that the general title, V • C, is given, even in cases where the 
highest rank has been attained. This custom is observed in the 
fourth century and in the first part of the fifth. 

OFFICIAL POSITIONS OF THE THIRD CLASS 

The inscriptions show us that the official positions open to men of 
the third class of society were of great number and variety. The 
enumeration of these various functions follows in general the same 
principle of an ascending or descending series which regulates the 
order of designations of the senatorial and equestrian cursus. It is 
impossible, however, to obtain a knowledge of the exact grade of the 
individual offices or to lay down the line of promotion, since, as 
may be seen in the military cursus, there must have been different 
starting points and different paths of advancement where apparently 
subordinate and intermediate positions are disregarded. These omis- 
sions may be due to unusual promotion on account of peculiar fitness 



182 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

or through special favor, influences which would have more power 
in a cursus of the lowest grade. These inferior positions are classi- 
fied in the Indices of the Corpus Inscriptionum as follows : 

I. Apparitores et Ofiiciales Magistratuum et Imperatoris et 
Vectigalium. 
II. Officia Militaria et Classiaria. 

III. Honorati et Principales Coloniarum et Municipiorum. 

IV. Principales Collegiorum. 

I. The first class includes the apparitores and other aides of 
magistrates and public ofB.cials ; also, subordinate officers of the 
imperial administration in Eome and in the provinces. 

The most common in the inscriptions are : 



Apparitores 



f Scriba deourialis,^ SCR, SCRI, SCRIB • DEC 

Lictor (^a/35oCxos). 

Viator decurialis, VIAT • DEC 

Fraeco decurialis, PRAEC • DEC 

Accensus consulis -i, ACCENS • COS 
[ Accensus patroni -o, ACCENS • PAT 

Arcarius, ARK, — provinciae, — PROV, — vigesimae hereditatium, XX HER 

Gommentariensis, COM, COMM, or a commentariis, A • COMMENT 

Oontrasmptor, 0(7), 0SC(7SC). 

Dispensator, DIS, DISP, DISPES, — annonae, — flsci castrensis. 

Tabellarius, TABELL, TABELLAR _ 

Tabularius, TAB, TABVL, — rationis fisoi, — vigesimae hereditatium, — XX HER 

II. Subordinate officers of the army and navy. 
A. The principal titles of subordinate officers of the Roman army 
are: 

Actarius, A, ACT I Adiutor officii corniculariorum, ratio- 

^gTO7i/er, AQVIL, AQVILIF | jiwm, ejc, ADI • OFF ■ CORN, RAT 

1 The word decurialis indicates that these oiBoers were members of decuriae, 
the subdivisions of the organized corporations of scribae, etc. The terms 
quaestorius, tribunicius, aedilicins might also be added to indicate assignment to 
particular officials. Tlie scribae were held in the highest honor, the lictoref 
were next, then the viatores, and finally the praecones. Mommsen, De Appari- 
toribus Magistratuum Bomanorum, Rh. Mus. VI. 1848, pp. 1-54. 



OFFICIAL TITLES 



183 



Armorum custos, C ■ A, ARM ; CVS ■ 

ARMO 
Beneficiarius, B, B • F, BF 

consularis COS 

■ legati LEG 

procuratoria PROC 

praefecti PRAEF 

Centurio, 0, y, >, Z, CENT 
Cornicularius, COR • CORN 
Curator fisci, F, FIS, FISC • C, CVR 
Evocatus, EVOC, EVOK 
Frumentarius, FR, FRVM 
Imaginifer, IM, IMA, IMAG 
Immunis, I MM, IMMV 

Librarius, LIB 
Medicu^, MED 
Miles, M, MIL 



Optio, OP, OPT 

principis PR! 

cohortis COH 

equitum EQ 

Princeps, PR, PRI, PRINC 
Secutor tribuni, S, BE, SEC • T, TR 
Signifer, SIG, SIGN, SIGNF 
Singularis consularis, S, SING ■ COS 

praefecti PRAEF 

Speculator, SP, SPEC, SPECVL 
Strator, STR, STRAT 

Tesserarius, T, TES, TESS 
Tubicen, TVB 
Veteranus, VET 

honesta missione, VET ■ 



missus, — 

Vexillariiis, \/EX ■ VEX ILL 



•H-M 
H-M-M 



Although no complete cursus militaris can be drawn up, yet the 
inscriptions give evidence of an order of promotion of the principcdes, 
which can be seen from the following series ' : 



I. 


Secutor tribuni. 




7. 


Curator fisci. 


!2. 


Singularis. 




8. 


Cornicularius. 


;3. 


Beneficiarius tribuni. 




9. 


Beneficiarius {praef. praet.). 


■i. 


Tesserarius. 




10. 


Cornicularius praefecti annonae 


5. 


Optio. 




11. 


Evocatus Augusti. 


6. 


Signifer or Vexillarius 


{Coh.Vig.). 


12. 


Centurio. 



B. The principal titles associated with the Roman naval forces are : 

Optio, OP, OPT 

Praefectus classis, PR, PRAE, PRAEF • 

CL, CLAS, CLASS 
Praepositus classi, PRAEP • CL, CLAS 
Principalis, PR, PRIN 
Signifer, SIG, SIGN 
Trierarchus, TR, TRI 

— — classis CL, CLAS 

Velarius, VEL 
Veteranus, VET, VETE 



Architectus, ARCHIT 

Armorum custos, ARM ■ CVST 

Beneficiarius, B, 6, B • F 

Centurio, 0, y 

Duplarius, or Duplicarius, or Dupli 

ciarius. 
Oubernator, GVBER 
Librarius, LIB 
Medicus, MED, MEDIC 
Miles, M 
Navarchus, N 

ip. Cauer, De Muneribus Militaribus, Epheiu. Ep. IV., p. '355. 



184 Latin inscriptions 

III. The magistrates of the coloniae and the municipia form a 
third class of subordinate ofiicials. 

The internal administration of the coloniae and municipia was 
similar to that of the superior government at Rome. 

We may arrange the municipes or Roman citizens of the municipia 
in three classes or orders : 1) ordo decurionum, 2) ordo Augustalium, 
3) plebs (populy,s, municipes). 

The ordo decurionum ^ was the municipal senate composed of life 
members, generally one hundred in number/ who were either ex- 
magistrates or persons selected from the people through the exercise 
of adlectio by magistrates similar to the censor at Rome, termed 
// viri or IIII viri quinquennales. The persons selected were at 
least twenty-five years of age, and possessed a certain amount of 
property, generally 100000 sesterces. There were four grades of 
senators which were indicated in the list of decuriones (album decuri- 
onum) : 1) the quinquennalicii, 2) the II virales or // viralicii, 3) the 
aedilicii, 4) the quaestoricii. 

The magistrates generally found in the municipalities were the 
II viri or IIII viri iure dicundo, the aediles, and the quaestores. Their 
tenure was annual, and they were elected by the comitia. As in 
Rome, these magistracies formed a cursus honorum, which was open 
to those of the senatorial order. The II viri or //// viri quinquen- 
nales elected every five years with special censorial powers were 
considered of the highest rank. In certain places in Italy the highest 
magistrates were termed dictator, praetor, magister, orpraefectus i(ure) 
d(icundo). 

The titles duovir or quattuorvir, found respectively in the coloniae 
and municipia, implied either that the two magistrates known as 
aediles and the two iure dicundo formed separate organizations, or, 
on the other hand, were united in one body of four members. 
The form IIII viri iure dicundo is generally found in the Italian 
municipia, while II viri iure dicundo is seen in inscriptions of the 
coloniae and of the provinces. 

'Also entitled senatus, ordo, decuriones D, DEC, DECC, curia, patres et 
conscripti, conscripti, ordo splendidissimus or sanctissimns or honestissimus. 
2 Cf. the centumviri of Veli and Perusia. 



OFFICIAL TITLES 185 

The ordo Augustalium, like the equestrian order at Borne, held a 
position midway between the decuriones and the plebs. It dates 
from the reign of Augustus, and prevailed especially in the western 
provinces of the Empire. The Augustales seem to have had a semi- 
ofl&cial standing, and to have performed certain functions different 
from those assigned to other magistrates. The municipal senate 
named annually a college of six members, seviri Augustales, to whom 
was entrusted the giving of public games and festivals. 

Municipal Magistracies and Civil Functions 

Quaestor, Q, QVAE, QVAES 

aerarii, AER 

aroae publioae, ARK ■ P, PVB 

alimentorum, A, AL, ALIM 

or pecuniae alimentariae, P • A, ALIM 

or pecuniae alimentorum publicorum, P, PEC • A, ALIM • P 

sacrae pecuniae alimentariae, SAC • P • ALIM 

. rei publioae, REI • P 

Aedilis, AED, AEDIL 

curulis, CVR (Ariminum, Ostia). 

habens iuris dictionem quaestoris pro praetore, HAB • IVR • DIC • 

Q • PRO PRAET (Cirta). 

pro quaestore, PRO ■ Q (Grumentum, Saporana). 

v(iis) a(edibus) sa(cris) p(ublieis) p(roourandis), V ■ A • S • P • P ■ 

(Pompeii). 

iure dioundo, I ■ IVR • D, DIC 

- — - quaestoriae potestatis (Colonies of Cirta). 

quinquennalis, Q ■ Q, QQ 

Tribunus plebis, TR, TRIB • PL (Teanum, Venusia). 

Praetor, PR, PRAET (in certain towns of the Latin Confederation, also in 
Gaul, Spain). 

• iure dicundo, I ■ D, IVR ■ DIC 

Censor, CEN, CENS (in certain towns of the Latin Confederation). 
Dictator, DIC, DICT (in certain towns of the Latin Confederation). 



Duovir (Duumvir), II • V, D • V, II • VIR, D • VIR 

iure dicundo, \ ■ D, IVR • DIC 

aedilis, AED, AEDIL (Aeclanum). 



186 

Duovir 



LATIN msciiiPTioNS 



aerarii, AER (Vienna). 

ab aeratio (Lugdunum). 

quinquennalis, Q Q 

iure dicundo quinquennalis, I • D • QQ, or at times QQ • 1 • D 

viis aedibus sacris publicis procurandis, V • A • S • P ■ P (Pompeii). 

Triumvir [17 V, VI R (common in Africa). 

aedilioia potestate, AED • POT (Arimiuum). 

praefectus iure dicundo, PR • I • D (Colonies of Cirta). 

locorum publicorum persequendorum, LOC • PVBL • PERSEQ, or 

L • P • P (Vienna). 

quinquennalis,, Q Q (Tiddis, Mactar, in Africa). 

Quattuorvir [TIT VI R 

aedilis, AED 

aedilicia potestate, AED • POT, POTEST 

aerarii 

ad aerarium ■ AER (Vienna, Nemausus, Antipolis). 

ab aerario 

lure dicundo, I, IVR • D • DIG 

viarum curandarum, VIAR • CVR (Verona). 

quinquennalis, or iure dicundo qiiinquennalis, I • D • QQ, at times 

_QQ.|.D 
Quinquevir, V • VIR (in certain parts of Italy). 
Octovir, Vm ■ VIR 

Decemvir, X • VIR (Ferentinum, Ostippo, Aquincum). 
Undecimvir, XI • VIR (Nemausus). 

Quinquennales, Q, QQ, Q • Q, QVIN, QVINQ ; see IT vir, TFT vir, HIT vlr, aedilis, 
praetor. 

perpetuus, PER, P • P 

censoria potestate, C ■ P 



Actor, ACT 

publicus, PVB, PVBL 

Adlectus aerario, ADL • AER, AERA 
Advocatus publicus, ADVOC • PVB 
Agnotheta, AGNOTH (Alexandria, 

Ephesus). 
Alimentarius, ALIMENT 
Arcarius, ARK 

Centumvir, C • VIR (Cures, Veil, etc.). 
Commentariensis, COMM 



Curator, CVR 

aedium 

■ aerarii, AER 

annonae, ANN 

kalendarii, KAL 

operum publicorum, 

OPER • PVBL 

frumenti comparandi, 

FRVMEN ■ COMPAR 
Decurio, DEC 



OFFICIAL TITLES 



187 



Dissignator, DISSIGN (Pompeii). 
Horrearius, HORR 
Legatus, LEG 
Librarius, LIB, LI BR 
Magister, MAG 
Minister (pagi), MIN 
Munerarius, MVNER 
Patronus, P, PAT, PAIR 

coloniae, C, COL 

municipii, M, MVN 

Praefeclus, PRAEF 

iure dicundo, I • D 



Praefeotus aedilicia potestate, 

AEDIL- POT (Brixia). 

propraetore iure dicundo, 

PRO • PR • I • D 

vigilum et armorum, VIGIL- 

ET ■ ARM (Nemausus). 

raurorum (Tarraco). 

Princeps, PRI, PRINC 
Suffetes (Africa). 

Scribae, S, SCR ■ SCRI 
Viatores, VIAT (Narbo, Ostia). 



AuGUSTALES 



Augustales,, AVG, AVGVSTAL 

perpetuus, P • P, PERP 

bisellarius, BIS 

Curator Angustalium, C, CVR • AVG 
Patronus Augustalium, P, PAT, PATR ■ 

AVG 
Quaestor Augustalium, Q, QVAE • AVG 
Quinquennales Augustalium, Q, QQ, 

QVIN • AVG 



Triumvir Augustalis, III • VIR • AVG 
Scvir, VI • V, VIR 

iunior, IVN 

senior, SEN 

Augustalis, AVG 

Augustalis perpetuus, — 

P- P 

Octovir Augustalis, VIII • VIR • AVG 



Religious Officials 

Aedilis lustralis, AED ■ LVSTR (Tusou- 

lum). 
Aedilis sacris Volcano faciundis, AtU • 

SAC ■ VOLK • FAC 
Aedilis et praetor saoris Volcano f acj- 

undis, AED ■ ET ■ PR ■ SAC - 

VOLK • FAC (OBtia> 
Aedituus, AEDIT 
Augur, AVG 
Curator, CVR 
riamen, FL, FLAM 

perpetuus, ■ P • P, PERP 

sacrorum publicumm muni- 

cipii, SAC . PVB 

Haruspex, HAR 

Note. — For titles of particular cults. 



OF Municipalities 

Magister, MAG 

Larum Augustorum, etc., 

LAR- AVG 
Minister, MIN 
Monitor sacrorum, MON • SAC (Tus- 

oulum). 
Pontifex, PONT 

maximus, MAX (Vibo). 

• perpetuus, PERPET 

Eex sacrorum, REX • SAC 
Sacerdos, SAC, SACER 

coloniae, C, COL 

Sacerdotes Deorum, Divorum et Diva- 
rum 

Salii. 

see Indices of C /. L. 



188 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



IV. The official positions of the various Collegia whose organiza- 
tion was similar to that of a strictly political body, form another 
class of subordinate offtces. 



Titles of Civil and Religious Offices of the Collegia 



Actor, ACT 

Aedilis, AEDIL 

Aedituus, AEDIT 

Aroarius, ARC, ARK 

Biseliarius, BIS 

Centurio veteranorum, • VET 

Curator, CVR 

Decurio, D, DEC 

Dispensator, DISP 

Flamen, FL, FLAM 

Haruspex, HAR 

Honoratus, HON, HONOR 

Immunis, IMM 

Magister, MAG 

Mater, MAT 



Medicos, MED 
Mensor, MES 
Minister, MIN 
Patronus, P, PAT^ PATR 
Praefeotus, P, PR, PRAEF 
Praepositus, P P, PRAEP 
Pi;inceps, PR I, PR INC 
Quaestor, Q, QVAE, QVAES 
Quinquennales, Q, QQ, QVINQ 
Saoerdos, SAC, SACER 
Scriba, S, SCR, SCR I 
Tribunus, TRIB 
Triumvir, ITT. VI R 
Viator, VIAT 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bomische Staatsverwaltung. 3 vols. J. Marquardt. Leipzig, 1876. 
Untersuchungen auf dem Gehiete der Bomischen Verwaltungsgeschichte. Otto 

HiRSCHFELD. Berlin, 1877. 
Les Institutions PoUtiques des Bomains. 2 vols. J. B. Mispoulet. Paris, 

1882-83. 
Geschichte und System der Bom. Staatsverfassung. B. Herzog. Vol. I. 1884, 

Vol. II. 1887 and 1891. 
Manuel des Institutions Bomaines. A. Bouche-Lkclbecq. Paris, 1886. 
Bomische Staatsrecht. 3d ed. 3 vols. Th. Mommsen. Leipzig, 1887. 
Le Droit Public Bomain. 6tli ed. P. Willems. Paris, 1888. 
Darstellungen aus der Sittengesohichte Boms. 6tli ed. 3 vols. L. Pkiedlandbe. 

Leipzig, 1888-90. 
Cours d^ lipigraphie Latine. 2d. ed. Rene Cagnat. Paris, 1890. 
Indices of Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, and of the Inscriptiones Latinae 

of Orelli and Exempla Inscriptionum of Wilmanns. 



INSCRIPTIONS OF THE SENATORIAL ORDER 189 



INSCRIPTIONS OF THE SENATORIAL ORDER 

1. L. Caecilio L. f. Eufo q., tr. pL, pr. pro oos.^ 

(^On another side) dis manibus sacruHi L. Caecili Rufi. 
O. I. L. I. 639, XIV. 2464. Found at Marino in ancient Latium, existing 
to-day in a copy. L. Caecilius Rufus seems to iiave been tlie brotlier of 
P.Sulla tribunus plebis, 691/63, praetor, 697/57, frequently mentioned 
by Cicero. ^ See note in following inscription. 

2. M. Coelio M. f. Viniciano | pr. pro cos./ tr. pL, q., | Opsilia uxor 

fecit. 
C. I. L. I. 641, XIV. 2602. An inscription on a tomb at Tusculum in 
Latium. Coelius was tribunus plebis 701/53, and in 707/47 he was 
placed by Caesar in charge of Pontus with two legions (Cic. Ad. Fam. 
8, 4, 3). ^ It is Mommsen's theory that not two separate honores, the 
praetura and the proconsulatus, are referred to here, but merely the 
honor praetoris provincialis, with added appellation of prooonsul. 

•3. L. Munatius L. f. L. n. L. pron. | Plancus cos., cens./ imp. iter., 
VII vir I epulon., triump. ex Eaetis,^ aedem Saturni | fecit de 
manibis/ agros divisit in Italia | BeneTenti, in Gallia colonias 
deduxit I Lugdunum et Kauricam.* 
C.I. L. X. 6087. On a mausoleum near Formia (Formiae), Italy, i He 
was consul 712/42 and censor 732/22. 2 Deo. 29, 711/43. Beneventum 
was among the towns assigned to the soldiers in 712/42 by the triumviri 
rei publicae constituendae. ^i.e. manubiis, c£. C. I. L. VI. 1316. *In 
710/44 or 711/43, when as proconsul he was governing Transalpine Gaul. 
On the founding of Lugdunum, see Dio. XLVI. 50. 

4. L. Memmius C. f. Gal.^ q., tr. p[Z.], | frumenti curator ex s. c./ | 
praefectus leg. XXVI et VII | Lucae ad agros dividundos,' | 
j» pontifex Albanus. | Memmia filia testamento suo fieri iussit. 

C. I. L. VI. 1460, XIV. 2264. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Alba, 
now in Rome. ^ The name of a man of senatorial order without cogno- 
men, but with the tribus, — Galeria tribu ; so on coins Z. Memmi Gal. 
and L. C. Memies L. f. Gal. (Momm. Rom. Mum., pp. 575, 597). 2 -phis 
office was held before the year 732/22, for at that time Augustus took 
into his own hands the cura annonae. ' After the battle of Philippi or 
Actium. 



190 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

5. Cn. Baebio Cn. [/.] | Tampilo V^lae | Numoniano | q., pr. pro 

COS., I III vir. a. a. a. f. f., | viro. 

O. I. L. VI. 1360. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found between the Via 
Appia and Via Latina, near Rome, now on the Via Appla. The function 
of the vigintivirate is here held after the praetorship. 

6. Gives Eomani qui | Mytileneis negotiantur | M. Titio ^ L. f. pro 

COS., I praef. classis, | cos. desig., patrono, | honoris causa. 

C /. L. III. 455 ; Suppl. 7160. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found at 
Mytilene, preserved only in copy, i consul suffectus, 723/31. 

7. P. Paquius, Scaevae et Flaviae filius, Consi et Didiae nepos, 

Barbi et Dirutiae pronepos, | Scaeva, quaestor, decemvir stliti- 
bus iudicandis ex s. c. post quaesturam, quattuorvir | capitalis 
ex s. c.' post quaesturam et decemviratum stlitium iudicanda- 
rum, tribunus plebis, | aedilis curulis, | iudex quaestionis,^ | 
praetor aerarii,' pro consule provinciam Cyprum optinuit, | 
viar. cur. extra u. E. ex s. c. in quinq.,* pro cos. iterum extra 
sortem auctoritate Aug. Caesaris | et s. c. misso" ad compo- 
nendum statum in reliquum provinciae Cypri, fetialis, | conso- 
brinus idemque vir Flaviae Consi filiae, | Scapulae neptis, | 
Barbi proneptis, simul cum ei, conditus. 
Plavia, Consi et Sinniae filia, | Scapulae et Sinniae neptis, | Barbi 
et Dirutiae | proneptis, consobrina eademque uxor P. Paquii 
Scaevae, filii Scaevae, Consi | nepotis, Barbi pronepotis, | simiil 
cum e6 condita. 

C. I. L. IX. 2845-6. Found at II Vasto d'Airaone (Histonium') on a large 
double sarcophagus, i ex s. c. gives the authority for the irregularity in 
the holding this ofEce post quaesturam. ^ iudex quaestionis is somewhat 
inferior in grade to the praetor, and hence in the cursus lionorum stands 
regularly between the aedileship and praetorship. ^ Not before 731/23, 
when Augustus placed the aerarium Batumi in the care of two praetors. 
^viar{uni) cur(ator) extra u(rbem) B^omam) ex s{enalus) c{onsulto) in 
quinq{uennium) . Momm. ySftoafsi-. 11.,^ p. 669. ^missus. 

8. Q. Vdirio Q. f. | Gemino | leg. divi Aug. II,' | pro cos., pr., tr. pi., ( 

q., quaesit. iudic.,^ | praef. friim. dand., | X vir. stl. iiidic, | 
curatori aedium sacr. | monumentor. que public. | tuendorum.' | 



INSCRIPTIONS OF THE SENATOKIAL ORDER 191 

Is primus omnium Paelign. senator | factus est et eos honores 
gessit. I Superaequani publice, patrono. 

C.I. L. IX. 3306. Found at Castelvecchio Subrego (Superaequum), where 
it is still preserved. Varius Geminus, mentioned frequently by Seneca, 
is probably the same person, i The names of the two provinces of which 
Geminus was legatus are not given. 2 Quaesitori iudici is denoted in other 
inscriptions by quaesitor and index quaestionis. See preceding inscrip- 
tion and Momm. Staatsr. 11.,^ p. 586. Geminus probably held this 
office between the tribunate and the praetorship. ^ jt is noticeable that 
the honores ordinarii are giyen in a descending order, and the honores 
extraordinarii follow in ascending order. Quaesitores indices were 
aedilicii or quaestorii. Praefecti frumenti dandi were praetorii or 
aedilicii, while the ciiratores operum pnblicorum were praetorii or 
consulares. Decemviratns litibus indicandis was undertaken generally 
before the quaestorship ; nevertheless, in the time of Augustus, it was 
sometimes given to those of senatorial order extra ordinem. 

9. P. Cornelio Dolabellae eos.^ | VII viro epuloni, | sodali Titiensi, | 
leg. pro. pr. divi Augusti ^ | et Ti. Caesaris Augusti | civitates 
superioris | provinciae Hillyrici.^ 

C. I. L. III. 1741. Found at Ragusa, in Dalmatia, where a fragment still 
remains, ^consul ord., 10 a.d. ^ 14 a.d. and subsequent years. The 
consnlatns and the priestly functions may thus assume the first place, out 
of their chronological position, and in the order consul, saeerdotinm, 
rather than in the reverse. The remaining honores may, however, imme- 
diately follow the consnlatns, and the saeerdotinm be placed at the end. 
If the honores ordinarii are given together, and in like manner the extra- 
ordinarii, or if the important state magistracies appear by themselves, 
and then those of a municipality, the priestly offices of the state may 
be inserted between the two series of honores. This is true also of 
municipal priestly offices. ^ This is the province which was afterwards 
called Dalmatia, termed maritima pars Illyrici, by Velleius II. 125. 

10. Q. Caerellius Q. f. | Qui., Ill vir cap., quae. | pro pr., tr. pi., 
legato ' I pro pr. ter, pr., praef. | frum. ex s. c. s.,^ | leg. Ti. 
Caesaris Aug., | procos., | ex testamento. 
Q. Caerellio M. f. | Qui. patri, tr. milit., | quae., tr. pi., praetori, | 
leg. M. Antoni, procos. 



192 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

C. I. L. VI. 1364. Inscribed on a marble tablet found in a cemetery on the 

Via Ardeatina, Rome, i legatus. ^ This letter is unnecessary. The name 

of M. Antonius, although erased from the Fasti Capitolini and elsewhere, 

nevertheless was afterwards restored in the same. It was given in the 

fasti of 20 A.D., according to Tacitus, Annales, III. 18. 

11. P. Plautius I Pulcher | triuin.ph.alis ^ filius | augur, III vir a. a. a. 

f. f., q. I Ti. Caesaris Aug. V consulis,^ | tr. pi., pr. ad aerar., 
comes Drusi fill | Germanici, avonculus Drusi | Ti. Claudi 
Caesaris August! fill | et ab eo censore inter patricios | lectus, 
curator viarmn sternendar. | a vicinis lectus ex auctoritate | 
Ti. Claudi Caesaris Augusti Germanici, | procos. provinciae 
Siciliae. | Vibia Marsi f ., | Laelia ' nata, | Pulchri. 
C. I. L. XIV. 3607. Inscribed on a marble tablet found near Tibur, 
existing only in a copy. It refers to the son of M. Plautius Silvanus 
consul 752/2. i Silvanus, the father of Pulcher, is termed trlumphalis 
because of his receiving triumphalia ornamenta. ^ 31 a.d. ' Laelia', 
the ablative case of the name of the mother is given in addition to that 
of the father, according to the Etruscan custom (Bormann). 

12. C. Ummidio C. f. Ter. Durmio | Quadrato cos., XV vir. s. f., ] 

leg. Ti. Caesaris Aug. prov. Lusit.,i | leg. diri Claudi in lUyrico, 
eiusd. et | Neronis Caesaris Aiig. in Syria,^' procos. | provinc. 
Cypri, q. divi Aug.^ et Ti. Caesaris | Aug., aed. cur., pr. aer.,^ 
X vir. stlit. iud., curat. | tabular, publicar., praef. frum. dandi 
ex s. c. 

C. I. L. X. 5182. Found at S. Germane (Casinum, a Sabine town), where 
it exists to-day. 1 37 a.d. " 51 a.d. and the years following (Tac. Ann. 
XII. 45 ; XIV. 26). a 14 a.d. < 18 a.d. (C. I. L. VI. 1496). Here the 
consulship and saeerdotium are given first by themselves, then follow 
the legationes provinciarum imperatoriarum and the proconsulship, next 
the honore.s, urbani ordinarii, and then the honores urbani extraordi- 
narii, the various series being in ascending order. 

13. a. Cn. Domitio Sex. f. Volt. | Afro Titio Marcello | Curvio Lucano | 

COS., procos. provinciae Africae,' | legato eiusdem provinciae 
Tul[M] I fratris sui,^ septemviro epulonum, i[fem?] praetorio 
legato provinciae Afr[i]c[ae] | imp. Caesar.Aug.,^ praef. auxili- 
orum omnium | ad versus Germanos,* donate ab imp. Vespasiano 
Aug. et T. Caesar. Aug. f.^ coronis | murali vallari aureis* hastis 



INSCRIPTIONS OF THE SENATORIAL ORDER 193 

puris III I vexillis III, adlecto inter patricios, praetori, tr. pi., | 
quaest. propraetore provinciae Afric[ae, | tr.] mil. leg. V Alaud., 
IIII vir. viarum cuiandar., patrono | optimo | d. d. 
6. [On. Domitio Sex. f. Cunio Tullo cos., procos. pro- 
vinciae Africae^J, fetiali, praef. au[a;i7ior. omnium'] adversus 
Germanos* — qui cum esset candidatus Caesar, pr. desig., 
missus est ab | imp. Vespasiano Aug. legatus pro praetore ad | 
exercitum qui est in Africa " et apsens* inter | praetorios rela- 

tus , donate ab [m]p. Vespasiano Aug. et Tito Caesare 

Aug. f .' coronis | murali vallari aureis ^ hastis puris III vexillis 
III, I adlecto inter patricios, tr. pL, quaest. Caesar. Aug., | [(]r. 
mil. leg. V Aland., X vir. stlitib. iudicandis, patrpno optimo | d. d. 

C. I. L. XI. 5210, 5211. Found at Fulginia, in Umbria. These inscrip- 
tions refer to two brothers, known from the Letters of Pliny, VIII. 18, 5, 
Martial V. 28, 3, and from lateres of the gens Domitia (C /. L. XV., 
p. 266). 'They were eonsules suffecti in the last years of Vespasian or 
Titus, or in early part of reign of Domitian, proconsuls of Africa under 
Domitian, before 94 a.d. ^Lmjanus was probably legatus provinciae 
Africae in the proconsulship of his brother TuUus in the year following 
his own proconsulship. ^ The legatio exercitus Africani was commonly 
given to praetorii, but TuUus received it as praetor designatus. * They 
were the praef ecti of the auxiliarii of the army in Germany, nbt, how- 
ever, before 73 a.d., after they had been placed among the patricii by 
Vespasian, in 73 or 74 a.d. (Mom. Staatsr. II.,^ 1101, note 4). ^xhey 
were presented with the dona militaria after the German campaign. 
Kence praefecto auxiliorum, etc., and donato, etc., must be read together, 
for all the other honores are given in the descending order, save this 
portion. ^ Aureis appears In both inscriptions where we would expect 
aurea. The dona militaria for soldiers, under-officers, and officers to and 
including the grade of centurion, were armillae, torques, SinApJialerae, and 
for the higher officers, coronae, hastae purae, and vexilla. Centurions 
of a higher grade had a right to one corona and one hasta piira, the 
tribunes and prefects to one corona, one Jiasta pura, one vexillum, or to 
two insignia of the same kind. The legatus of the legion of praetorian 
rank received three of each kind, while the legatus of consular rank 
received four. The mention of the armillae, torques, and phalerae does 
not occur after Hadrian. We then find only donis militaribns donatus. 
The mention of military insignia does not appear at all in the inscriptions 
after the time of Caraoalla. 

t,AX. INSCEJF. — 1-S 



194 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

14. C. Plinius L. f. Ouf. Caecilius ISecundus cos.,^^ augur,' legat. pro 

pr. provinciae Pon[ti et Bithyniae] consulari potesta[<.] in earn 
provinciam e\x s. c. missus a6] imp. Caesar. Nerva Traiano 
Aug. German[ico Dacico p. j9.,'] curator* alvei Ti[6]eris et 
riparum e[( cloacar. urb.,'] praef.' aerari Satu[r]ni, praef." 
aerari inil[«Y., pr.,' trib. pi-,''] quaestor imp./ sevir equitum 
\_Bomanorum'], trib. milit.* leg. [///] Galliea[e, X vir stli\iih. 

iudicand., ther[mas ex hfS] adiectis in ornatum hhS 

CCC .... [ef CO ampjlius in tutela[m] H-S CC, t. f. i.,' \item 
in alimenta] libertor. suorum homin. C H-S IXVIIII LXVI 
^CLXVP" rei \_p. legavit, quorum mjcrement. postea ad epu- 
lum[pZ]ej3. urban, voluit pertin[ere] .... [item vivu'Ja 
dedit in aliment, pueror. et puellar. pleb. urban. l-hS[Z>," item 
hyhliothecam ^ ef] in tutelam bybliotbecae H-S C. 

C. I. L. V. 5262. Inscribed on four fragments of a large stone brought 
originally from Comum to Mediolanum, where it was found. Only one 
of these now remains, the portion of the inscription on the others exist- 
ing only in copies. The inscription refers to the baths established by the 
will of Pliny at Comum, where he was born. Pliny, named P. Caecilius 
Secundus, became C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus after adoption through 
his uncle's will (Mommsen, Herm. III., p. 60). ^consul suffectus, 100 
A.D. (Momm., I.e., p. 91). ^ According to Epist. 3, 8, this was shortly 
after 103 or 104 a.d. ^xhe mission to Bithynia dates 111. * 105, and 
years following (Momm., I.e., p. 47). '' In Epist. ad Traian. 3, Pliny 
refers to the praefeetiira aerarii, which he held in 98-101. He held the 
praefectura aerarii militaris 94 or 95. spuny appears to have been 
praetor in 98, tribunus plebis 92. ' In Epist. 7, 16, 2, Pliny says that he 
has been quaestor imperatoris. He was quaestor Domitiani, as it appears, 
in 89-90. » Pliny says in Epist. 1, 10, 3; 3, 11, 5, that he had been 
tribunus militum in Syria. ^ t{estamento) f{ieri) i{ussit). '" decies 
oeties centena et sexaginta sex milia cum sexcentis sexaginta sex (the 
number 1866666.) ; Mommsen, Herm. Ill, p. 102, suggests that the sign of 
bessis (2/3) has disappeared. " This numeral is supplied from Epist. 7, 
18, 2. 12 Pliny had dedicated a library for his fellow-townsmen in 97, or 
a little earlier {Epist. 1, 8, 2). For the life of Pliny, see Momm. Hermes, 
III., p. 59. 

15. L. Min[iciM.s L. fil. Gal JVa]talis cos.,' procos. | provinc. [Africae, 

sodcUis Augus'^talis, leg. Aug. pr. pr. divi Traid,|ni Par[tAid et 



mSCRlPTlOlfS OP THE SENATORIAL ORDER 195 

imp. Traiani Hajiiiam Aug.^ provinc. Pan|nonia[e . . . . , 
curator a]lvei Tiberis et ripiirum et | cloacar[Mm urbis, leg. divi 
Trajidni PartHci leg. Ill Aug./ leg. di|vi Traia[nj Parthid 

leg donf\s donatus expeditidne Dacic[a] | prima 

a[6 eodeTn imperatore^ cordna v^ll&i mur^li aurea | has [fis 
puris III vexillis III, Z]eg. pr. pr. provinc. Africae, pr., | trib. 

pL, q. -p\j-ov , IIII ■yijr. vi^rum eurandarum, 

et L. Minicius L. f. [^Natcdis Qwadrojmus Verus f.,^ augur, 
trib. plebis | desig., q. Aug. et [eodem tempore leg. p']r. pr. patris 
provinc. Africae, tr. | mil. leg. I adiut. p. f., l[eg. XI CI. p. /., 
leg. XIIII Jfa]rt. Vic, III vir monetalis a. a. a. f. f., | balineum 
c[Mwi^ort]icibus solo suo et | du[ciMs aquae'] fecerunt. 

O. I. L. II. 4509 ; Suppl. 6145. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at 
Barcelona (Barcino, Tarraoonensis), Spain. ^ consul suffectus, 106 a.d. 
2 117 A.D. 8 104 or 105 a.d. ^fllius, cf. G. I. L. XIV. 3599. 

16. P. Manilio P. f . | Gal. Vopisco | Vicinmian[o] | L. Elufrio Severe 

Iul[?'o] I Quadrato Basso cos.,^ | pontif., flamin.,^ praet.,' | 
quaestori divi Traiani | Parthici, trib. mil. leg. | IIII Scythic, 
III vir a. a. a. | f. f., salio Collino, curat. | fani Here. Vict., | 
N. Prosius Platanu[s] | cum Manilia Eutycli[m] | uxore et 
Vibia Vicinill[a] | et Mamlis | Vopisciano et Attico libe[ns] | 
suis. 

O. I. L. XIV. 4242. Inscribed on a large marble pedestal found at Tivoll 
(Tibur) in 1887. ^ consul ordinarius, 114 a.d. 2 j)ialis, Mariialis, or 
Quirinalis is omitted. ^ Vopiscus as a patrician passed directly from the 
quaestorship to the praetorship. 

17. L. Burbuleio L. f. Quir. | Optato Ligariano | cos.,^ sodal. Aug., 

leg. imperat. | Antonini Aug. Pii pro pr. prov. | Syriae in quo 
bonor. decessit, leg. | eiusdem et divi Hadriani pro pr. prov. | 
Cappad., cur. oper. locor. q. publ., praef. | aerar. Saturn., pro- 
cos. Sicil., logiste | Syriae, legat. leg. XVI PI. Firm., cur. rei p. | 
Narbon. item Anconitanor.item | Tarricin., curat, viar. Clodiae 
Cassiae | Ciminae, pr., aed. pi., q. Ponti et Bithyn., | trib. laticl. 



196 LATIN INSCRIPTION'S 

leg. IX Hispan., Ill vir kapit., | patr. col., | Easinia Pietas 
nutr.^ filiar. eius | s. p. p., 1. d. d. d.' 

G. I. L. X. 6006. Inscribed on a pedestal found in the ruins of Minturnae, 
now at Naples. It is this inscription which formed the basis of Borghesi's 
work on the cursus honorum, Oeuv. IV., p. 104-178. i Before 138, in 
which year as consularis he was in charge of Cappadocia, probably 
about 130, or the years immediately following. ^nutr{ix). 'sua 
p(ecunia) p^osuit), l(j)co) d{ato) cl(ecreto) d{ecurionum). 

18. L. Novio Crispino | Martiali Saturnino | cos. desig., leg. Aug. pr. 

pr. I provinciae Africae,^ procos. Galliae | Narbonensis, leg. 
Aug. leg. I Italicae, | leg. Aug. iuridico Astyriae et Gallaeciae, | 
praetori, trib. pleb., quaestori pro praet. | provinciae Mace- 
doniae, trib. mil. [ leg. Villi Hisp., IIII viro viarum | curan- 
darum, seviro eq. Eomanorum, | veterani (leg. III)^ | Aug., | 
qui militare coeperunt Glabrione | et Torquato,' item Asiatico 
. II et Aquiline cos.* 

O. I. L. VIII. 2747. Inscribed on a pedestal found at Lambaesis, in Africa. 
1 It is known that this legatus governed Numidia in 147 and 148 ( C. I. L. 
VIII. 2542, 2652). ^ igg_ /// has been engraved ovei" an erasure. ' 124 
A.D. * 125 A.D. Since milites veterani commonly received dimissio after 
twenty-five years of service, Wilmanns places the date of the inscription 
as 150 A.D. The cursus honorum is given in inverse or descending order. 
The functions between cos. design, and praetori were assigned to Cris- 
pinus as being of praetorian rank. 

19. L. Aemilio L. f. Cam. Karo ' co[s.], | leg. Aug. pr. pr. provinciae 

Cappadociae, | leg. Aug. pr. pr. censitori provinciae Lugdu 
nensis, | leg. Aug. pr. pr. provinciae Arabiae, | curatori viae 
Flaminiae, leg. leg. XXX U. V.,^ | praet., trib. pleb., quaest. 
Aug., I trib. militum leg. VIII Aug., | trib. militum leg. Villi 
Hispanae, | X viro stlitib. iudic, | sodali Flaviali, XV viro s. f., | 
C. lulius Erucianus Crispus praef. | alae primae Ulpiae Daco- 
rum I amico optimo. 

C. I. L. VI. 1333. Inscribed on a large marble tablet found at Rome, now 
in the Capitoline Museum, i He appears to have lived under Antoninus 
Pius (Borghesi, Oeuv. IV., p. 159). ^ legatus legionis tricesimae Ulpiae 
Victricis. 



INSCRIPTIONS OF THE SENATORIAL ORDER 197 

20. Q. Pompeio Q. f. Quir. Senecioni | Eoscio Murenae Coelio Sex. | 

lulio Froutino Silio Deciano | C. lulio Eurycli Herculaneo L. | 
Vibullio Pio Augustano Alpino | Bellicio Sollerti lulio Apro | 
Ducenio Proculo Eiitiliano | Eufino Silio Valenti Valerio | 
Nigro CI. Fusco Saxae [J.m]yntiano ^ | Sosio Prisco pontifici, 
sodali I Hadriaiiali, sodali Antoniniani (sic) \ Veriani (sic), 
salio Collino, quaestori | candidate Augg., legato pr. pr. Asiae, | 
praetori, consuli,^ pro consuli Asi|ae sortito, praefecto alimen- 
tor., I XX viro monetali, seviro, praef. | feriamm Latinarum ; 
q. q., patrono | municipii, salio, curatori fani H. V.^ | s. p. q. T.* 

C. I. L. XIV. 3609. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found at Tivoli (Tibur). 
1 Uryntiano is the reading of Borghesi, but the Pamphylian inscription 
in Bull, de Corr. BelUn. 14 (1890), p. 643, gives authority for Amyntiano. 
The name in other inscriptions appears as Q. Fompeius Q. f. Senecio So- 
sius Priscus, or Q. Sosius Priscus. The portion of his name, Q. Pompeius 
Roscius . . . to . . Vibullius Pius he received from his father ; Senecio 
and Sosius from his maternal grandfather; Sex. lulius Frontinus 
from his great-grandfather ; Augustamis Alpinus Bellicius SoUers from 
Bellicius SoUers, consul in time of Trajan, ^consul ordinarius, 169 a.d. 
^ II(erculis) V(ictoris). * senatus populusque Tiburs. The arrangement 
of the cursus honorum is as follows : first, the priestly functions, then 
quaestor candidatiis, followed by legatus pro praetore, a quaestorian 
function, then praetor, consul, proconsul Asiae, a consular function, 
hence in ascending series. The functions performed in Italy follow 
in inverse order, and finally the municipal honores and the municipal 
priesthoods are given. 

21. [.Her]cul[i] | Victor! | P. Plotius Eomanus ' cos., sod. Aug. CI., | 

leg. Aug. pr. pr. prov. Arab, item Gal., | praef. aer. Sat., leg. 
Aug. cens. ace. Hisp. cit.,^ | iur.' per Aem. Lig., cur. viae Labic.,* 
cur. Verc.,*' | pr. urb., trib. pi., q. kand., VI vir eq. E. tur. II, | 
trib. mil. legg. I Min. et II Adiut., IIII v. v. cur., | aedem 
cum omni cultu consecravit. 

C. I. L. VI. 332. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Rome, outside of 
the Porta Portuensis. ' Plotius Bomanus was consul suffectus in an un- 
known year, not however before the time of M. Aurelius, who instituted 
the ofiice of iuridicus". ^leg(atus} Aug(usti) cens(ibus) acc(ipiendis') 
Ilisp(nniae) Cit{erioris). ^ Labic{anae). ^ Verci^ellensiuiri). ' 



198 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

22. C. Caerellio Pufidio | Annio Eavo C. fil. Ouf. | Pollittiano sodali 

Marciano Aureliano | Commodiano Helviano | Severiano. Ill 
vir. monet. | a. a. a. f. f., trib. laticlavio | leg. Ill Oyr., VI vir. 
equit. Eom. | turmae primae, quaestor. | candid. | imp. Caesaris 
M. Aurelli | Antonini Pii Felicis Aug./ | trib. pi. candid., pr. 
hastar./ c. v.,' | Fufidii Amycus et Chrestina nutritores. 

C. I. L. VI. 1365. Inscribed on a large marble pedestal found at Rome, 
now in Florence. ' Between 212-217 a.d. '^pr^aetori) hastar(io). 
Cf. Mommsen, Staatsr. 11.,^ p. 225. ^c(laiissimo) v(iro). 

23. L. lul. Apronio Maenio | Pio Salamalliano * | trib. latic. leg. X 

G-em., adjlecto inter qq.,^ prae|posito actis senat., | aed. curuli, 
praeto|ri, leg. Aug. vice quin[Q']ue fascium prov. | Belgi[cae, 
Ze]g. leg. I I Adiutric, leg. Au[9'] | pr. pr. provinc. Gra[to]|tiae 
item I I pr. pr. c. T. . . . 

JEphem. Ep. VII. 395. Inscribed on a pedestal found in the /or?/m at Lam- 
baesis, Africa, where it still exists. ^ He is said to have lived in the 
middle of the third century. The tribunatus militum and the legatio 
legionis show that he did not live after the time of Gallien. ^ Note thiis 
instance of adlectio inter quaestorios. Mommsen, Staatsr. II.,' p. 941, 
note 5, and p. 901. 

24. M. Tineio Ovinio | L. f. Arn. Casto Pulchro | c. v., pont. maiori,^ | 

q. urb., pr. k., cos., | s. p. q. T.^ | filio patroni, | nepoti patro- 
norum. 

O. I. L. XIV. 3614. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found at Tivoli (Tibur). 
1 If the pontiflces were not termed maiores until after the establishment of 
the pontificate of deus Sol, this inscription does not date before Aurelian, 
270-275, who is believed to have instituted the pontiflces dei Solis 
(Dessau). ^ s^enatus') p{opulus')q{ue) T(iburs). 

25. C. Caelio Censori|no v. c, praet. candi|dato, cons., cur. viae | 

Latinae, cur. reg. VII, | cur. splendidae Car|thagin., comiti d. 
n. I Constantini maximi Aug. | et exactori auri et argenjti 
provinciarum III, cons.^ projvinc. Sicil., cons. Camp., aucta | in 
melius civitate sua et refor|mata ordo populusque Atellanus. 
L. d. s. c. 



INSCRIPTIONS OP THE SENATORIAL ORDER 199 

C. I. L. X. 3732. Found at Grumo, near ancient Atella, between Naples 
and Capua, ^cons^ulari). The three provinces are Sicilia, Sardinia, 
Corsica. 

26. "Mavortii. | Q. Mavio Maesio Egnatio | LoUiano c. v., q. k., 

praetori ur|bano, auguri publico populi | Eomani Quiritium, 
cons, albei | Tiberis at cloacarum, cons. ope|rum publicum,' 
cons, aquarum, | cons. Campaniae, comiti Flaviali, | comiti 
Orientis, comiti primi ordinis et | proconsuli provinciae 
Africae, | regio portae triumphalis patrono dignissimo. 

G. I. L. X. 1695. Inscribed on a pedestal found atPuteoli, now in Museum at 
Naples. LolUanus was jji'ae/ecJMS urhi in 342 a.d., and consul ordinarius 
in 356 A.D. 1 By an error for publicorum. ^ p£u> j^'-o-om^ 

27. nobilitatis culmini, | litterarum et eloquentiae lumini, | auctori- 

tatis exemplo, | provisionum ac dispositionum magistro, | 
humanitatis auctori, | moderationis patrono, | devotionis anti- 
stiti, I Petronio | Probo v. c. proconsuli Africae/ | praefecto 
praetorio | per lUyricum Italiam et Africam, | consul! ordi- 
nario,^ | ob insignia erga se remediorum genera | Veneti adque 
Histri peculiares eius, | patrono praestantissimo. (On the aide) 
Dedicata VI idus Aug., | dd. nn. | Valente VI et | Valentiniano 
II I Augg. cons.^ 

C. I. L. VI. 1751. Inscribed on a large marble pedestal found at Rome, 
now in the Capitohne Museum. 1 358 a.d. ^ 371 ad. 8 ^ug. gth, 378. 

28. Eufius Praetextatus | Postumianus v. c, filius | magnifici viri 
Z Mariniani | praefecti praetorio | et consulis ordinarii,' | quaestor 

candidatus, | praetor urbanus, tribunus | et notarius praetori- 
anus, I praefectus urbi secundo, | consul ordinarius,^ quos | 
tantos ac tales honores | primo aetatis suae flore | promeruit. 

C. I. X. VI. 1761. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found at Rome, now in 
Museum at Florence. > 423 a.d. 2 443 ^u. 



200 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

INSCRIPTIONS OF THE EQUESTRIAN ORDER 
Praefecti Pkaetokio 

1. Vasiens. Y6c} \ patr6no, | Sex. Afranio Sex. f. | Volt. Burr(5 1 trib, 

mil., proc. Augujstae,^ proc. Ti. Caesar., | proc. divi Claudi, | 
praef. pra[e]tori,' oriia|iii[ew<]is consular. 

G. I. L. XII. 5842. Insoribed on a pedestal found at Vaison (Vasio), in 
Narbonensis. ' Vasienses Vocontii. ^l,ma.. ^Burrus was praefectus 
praetorio from 51-62 a.b. Tao. Ann. XII. 42. 

2. M. Bassaeo M. f. St[eZ.] | Riifo pr. pr. [m]peratoruiii M. Aureli 

Antonini et | [i,] Aureli Veri et^'L. Aureli Commodi Augg., | 
[c]onsularibus ornamentis honorato | [e]t ob victoriam Ger- 
manicam et Sarmatic. | [^Jntonini et Commodi Augg. corona | 
[m]urali vallari aurea hastis puris IIII | [to]tidemque vexillis 
obsidionalibus | [ab iisdem'] donato, praef. Aegypti, praef. j 
....,■' proc. a rationibus, proc. Belg[*cae] | et dw]arum Ger- 
maniarum, proc. regni [iVb|ri]ci, proc. Asturiae et Calleciae, 
trib. I look'] . . pr., trib. coh. X urb., trib. coh. V viguL, pp. 
bis.^ I [fiitic sen]atus auctoribus impp. Antonino et | \^Com- 
m]odo Augg. statuam auratam in foro | [divi TVaiajni et 
aliam civil i amictu in templo | [divi Pi'i], tertiam loricatam in 
tem|[^Zo Martis Ultoris9 jpojnendas [censuif], 

C. I. L. VI. 1599. Pound at Rome, existing now in a copy of the sixteenth 
century, i Supply either ann(onae), or vig(ilum). ' ^ p(rimo)p(_ilo) bis. 
Dio Cassius LXXI. 5. The order of the honores is descending. The 
highest ofBces of the equestrian career are given from pr(^aefecto) 
pr(aetorio) to prae.f{ecto) lann(onae) or vig{ilum)'i, those of the grade 
of procurator from proc(uratori) a rationibus to proc^uratori) Asturiae 
et Gallaeciae, and those indicating preparatory military service from 
trib(_uno) [coh{ortis) . . .] to p(rimo)p(ilo) bis . . . 

3. L. lulio Ve[Ai7]io Gr[oto] | luliano pra[e/.] pr., praef. | ann., i 

rationib., praef. ii[lassis p]raet. Misenat., pra[e/] | classis 
praet. Raven [«ai., proc.^ Aug. et praep. vexil[Za]|tion. tempore 
belli [Britannici, pr]6c. Aug. provinciae | Lusit [aniae] et 
Vett[o7i?ae, proc. 4]ug. et praeposit[o] | vexillationis per . . • 



INSCRIPTIONS OP THE EQUESTRIAN ORDER 201 

...... prdc. Aug. I et praef. classis Po[ntic]a[e, proc. Augg. 

e]t pra[ep.] | vexillationis per Aehaiam et Macedonian! | et in 
Hispanias adversus Castabocas et | Mauros rebelles, praeposito 
vexillatio|nibus tempore belli Germanici et Sarmat., | praef. 
alae Tampianae, praef. alae Her|culanae, trib. cohort, primae 
Ulpiae Pan|nonioruin, praef. cohort, tertiae August. | Thracum, 
donis militaribus donato ab impe|[rato]ribus Antonino et Vero 
ob victoriam | [belli Part7ii]ci, item ab Antonino et | [Commodo 
ob vic]toi. belli Germ[a]nic. | . . . . 

Notizie degli Scavi, 1887, p. 536. On a pedestal found at Rome in the bed 
of the Tiber. lulianus was praefectus praetorio of Commodus, and was 
slain by him; Dio Cassius LXXII. 14 ; Vita Comm. 7, 4. 11, 3. A state- 
ment in Vita lHarci, chap. 21, shows that the Moors ravaged Spain in 
the time of M. Aurelius. 

4 L. Petronio L. f. | Sab. Tauro Volu|siano v. cos. | ordinario,' praef. 
praet. | em. v.,^ praef. vigul. | p. v.,^ trib. | coh. primae praet. 
protect. I Augg. nn.,* item trib. coh. IIII praet., | trib. coh. XI 
urb., trib. coh. Ill vig., leg. X | et XIIII Gem. prov. Pannoniae 
superiori. | itim (sic) leg. Daciae,° praeposito equitum sin|gu- 
larior. Augg. nn., p. p.* leg. XXX Ul|piae, centurioni deputato, 
eq. pub., I ex V dec, Laur. Lavin. | ordo Arretinorum patrono | 
optimo. 
C. I. L. XI. 1836. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Arezzo (Arretium), 
where it still exists. ' v^iro) co(_n)s(ulari) ordinario, 261 a.d. ^ em(jin- 
entissimo) v(iro) . ^ p{erfectissimo) vCiro). * protection) Aug{ustorum) 
n^ostrorum), the earliest mention of protectores ; cf. Momm. Ephem. 
Ep. V. p. 126. ' leg{ionis) Daciae. ^p(rim,o) p{ilo). 

Pkaefecti Aegtpti, Annonae, Vigilttm 
5. M. Magio M. f. Maximo | praef. Aegypti, Tarraconenses. 

C. 7. L. IX. 1125. Found at Le Grotte di Mirabella (Aeolanum), still in 
existence. Maximus was praefeotus Aegypti under Augustus (Philo. adv. 
Flaccum 10. Pliny N. H. 36, 9, 69). 

Ti. Claudio | Ti. fil. Pal. | Secundino | L. Statio Macedon[«] | p. p. 
leg. IIII P. f.,' trib. coh. | prim, vig., trib. coh. XI | urban., 
trib. coh. Villi pr., | p. p. iterum,^ praef. leg. II Tra. [/.], | 



202 LATIN" INSCRIPTIONS 

proc. XX her., proc. provin[c.] | Lugdunens. et Aquitan [icae], [ 
a rationib. Aug./ praef. an[non.], \ L. Saufeius Iulianu[s] | 
amico optini[o]. 

C. I. L. V. 867. Found at Aquileja (Aquileia), where it still remains!. 
^p{rimo) p(ilo) leg{ionis) quartae F{laviae) f{elicis). ^p{rimo{ p{Uq) 
iterum. The return to this position or grade evidently looked to obtain- 
ing some special advantage which fell to the primipilarii. " An inscrip- 
tion on a lead pipe (C. /. L. XIV. 2008), referring to this man, shows 
that Secundinus was a rationibus for Antoninus Pius. 

6. C. lunio C. f. Quir. | Haviano | praefecto annonae, | proc. a 

rationibus, proc. | provinciarum Lugdunesis | et Aquitanieae, 
proc. hereditat., | proc. Hispaniae citerioris | per Asturicam et 
Callaeciain, | proc. Alpium maritimarum, | promagistro XX 
hereditatium, | tr. mil. leg. VII Gem., pontif. minori, | merca- 
tores frumentari | et oleari Afrari. 

O. I. L. VI. 1620. Inscribed on a large marble tablet found at Rome, 
where a fragment still exists. 

7. Cn. Marcio Cn. fi[Z]io Rustio {^Bujino praef. cojhortium vigilum, 

p[r]aeposito s.ia\nonae imp. L. Septimi] \ Severi Pii Pertinac. 
e.[t] M. Aurelii Aiiton[ini Augg., praef.'] \ classium praetori- 
a[n(]m Misenatium [ei Eavennat., trib. co] |liortium primae 
prae[to]riae, XI urban., [F/ vigil, prim. \ pil. legi^omua III 
Cyrenaicae, III Gall[zcae, et \ Salinato^iiaG P. fil. Augustinae 
ei[MSj. 

C. /. L. IX. 1582. Found atBenevento (Beneventum), where it still exists. 
Eufinus was praefectus vigilum from 205-207 a.d. 

PROCnSATOEBS 

8. C. Baebio P. f. Cla. | Attico | IE vir. i. [d], primopil. leg. | V 
Macedonic, praef. | civitatium Moesiae et | Treballia[e, pra^et 
[cijvitat. I in Alpib. maritumis, t[9-.J mil. coh. | VIII pr., 
primopil. iter., procurator. | Ti. Claudi Caesaris Aug. Ger- 
manici | in Norico, | civitas | Saevatum et Laiancorum.^ 

C. I. L. V. 1838. Inscribed on a bronze tablet found at Zuglium (lulium 
Carnicum), still in existence. Teople of Noricum. 



INSCRIPTIONS OF THE EQUESTRIAN ORDER ■ 203 

9. P. Besio P. f. Quir. Betuiniano | C. Mario Memini6 Sabino [ 
praef. coh. I Eaetorum, trib. leg. X G. p. f., | praef. alae 
Dardanorum, procurator! | imp. Caesaris Nervae Traiani Aug. 
Germ. Dacici | monetae, proc. provinc. Baeticae, proc. XX 
hered., proc. pro | leg. provinc. Mauretaniae Tingitanae, donis 
donato ab | imp. Traiano Aug. bello Dacico corona murali 
vallari hastis pur. vexillo argent., | exacti exercitus. 

O. I. L. VIII. 9990. Found at Tanger (Tingi), Mauretania, and taken to 
Oxford, where it remains in the museum. 

10. d. m. s. I P. Vibi P. f. Mariani e. m. v.,^ proc. | et praesidi prov. 

Sardiniae, p. p. bis, | trib. colih. X pr. XI urb. IIII vig., praef. 
leg. I II Ital., p. p. leg. Ill Gall., 7 frument., | oriundo ex Ital. 
lul. Dertona, | patri dulcissimo, | et Eeginiae Maxime matri | 
karissimae, | Vibia Maria Maxima c. f. fil. et her. 

C. I. L. VI. 1636. Inscribed on a large sarcophagus found near the fifth 
milestone of the Via Cassia, near Rome, where it still exists. ^ egregiae 
memoriae viro. 

11. T. Cornasidio | T. f. Pab. Sabino e. m. v., | proc. Aug. Daciae 

Apulensis, proc. | Alpium Atractianar. et Poeninar. | iur. glad., 
subpraef. class, pr. Eaven., | praef. alae veter. Gallor., trib. 
leg. II I Aug., praef. coh I Mont., p. c, auguri, Laur. | Lavin., 
aed., II vir., q., q. q. p. p.,^ | collegia fabrum centon. dendro- 
phor. I in honorem | T. Cornasidi | Vesenni dementis | fili eius, 
equo publ., Laur. | Lavin. patroni plebis et col|legior., qui ab 
ipsis oblatum | sibi honorem statuae in | patris sui nomen 
memo|riamque transmisit. 

C. I. L. IX. 5439. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Fallerone (Falerio, 
in Picenum), now at Rome in the Vatican Museum, i aed(ili) , duoviiXo), 
q{uaestori), g(mn)q(^uennali) p{er)p{etuo) are municipal honores. 

12. M. Aquilio M. f. | Pabia Pelici | a census equit. Eoman.,' | praef. 

cl. pr. Eavennat., | proc. patrim. bis,^ proc. hered. | patrim. 
privat.,' proc. oper. pub.,* | praep. vexillat., p. p. leg. XI CL, | 
y fr.,^ patron, col., ob mer. eius | Antiat. publ. 



204 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

C. I. L. X. 6657. Pound at Nettuno (Antium), now at Bome in the 
Capitoline Museum. iPor a censibus eguiti^uni) lioman(orum), as 
Mommsen, Staatsr. III., p. 490, note 2, who identifies this oiBoer of 
the bureau for examining the demands of candidates for the equestrian 
order with the officer of the bureau of petitions (a libellis) ; or for 
(jiroc) a{d,) census equit(um) Boman^orum), a special officer only 
mentioned here, so, Hirschfeld, Verwaltungsgeschichte, p. 18, note 4. 
2 proc^uratori) patrim{onii) bis, i.e. of two provinces. ^ proc(_uratori) 
hered(itatium) patrim{onii) privatii), was the officer to whom fell the 
charge of inheritances coming to the emperor on account of ius patronatus. 
The duties of this officer afterwards devolved upon the procurator rationis 
privatae. * This function, mention of which does not occur elsewhere, 
was held by Felix in 193 a.d. = c{enturioni) fr(umentariorum). 

13. Tib. Antistio Faus|ti fil. Quirina Marci|ano domo Circina, | 

praef. coh. II His[p]anae, | trib. leg. XV [^poZ]linaris | piae 
fideli[s, prjaefecto a|lae Sulpic[m]e c. E.., secunjdiiin man- 
data impp. do|minor. nn. Augg.' inte|gerriin. abstinentis- 
simoque procur., tres provinc. | G-alliae primo umquam eq. 
' E. a censibus accipijendis ^ ad aram Caesa|rum statuam 
equestrem ponendam censu|erunt. 

Miisee de Lyon, I., p. 162. Found at Lyons (Lugdunum). i Probably 
Severus and Caracalla. 2 The meaning is that Marcianus was the first 
censitor of the equestrian rank to be honored by the tres Galliae with an 
equestrian statue. 

14. M. Bassaeo M. f. Pal. | Axio | patr. col., cur. r. p.,^ II vir. 

munif./ proc.^ Aug. viae Ost., et Camp., | trib. mil. leg. XIII 
Gem., proc. reg. Calajbric, omnibus honorib. Capuae func, | 
patr. col. Lupiensiuiii, patr. municipi | Hudrentinor., universus 
ordo municip. | ob rem publ. bene ao fideliter gestam. | Hie 
primus et solus victores Campani|ae pretis et aestim. paria 
gladiat. edidit. L. d. d. d. 

C. I. L. X. 1795. Found at Naples, but probably belonging in origin to Pu- 
teoli. ^patr{ono) col{oniae),cur(,atori) r(ei publicae). "munifico. ^The 
charge of the more important roads was given to men of senatorial order 
i.e. curatores viae, while those of less consequence were given in charge 
of equites known here as procuratores, in 0. I. L. VL 1610 as curatores. 
Hirschfeld, Verw., p. 112, note 4. Momm. Staatsr. II.,' p. 1077, note 4. 



INSCRIPTIONS OF THE EQUESTRIAN ORDER 205 

15. P. Magnio Q. f. Quir. Rufo | Magoniano tr. mil. IIII/ proc. 

Aug. XX her.^ per Hisp. Baet. | et Lusitan., item proc. 
Aug. I per Baetic. ad | Pal. veget.,' | item proc. Aug. prov. 
Baet. ad | ducen.,'' Acili. Plec* amico optimo | et bene de 
provincia | semper merito d. d. 

C. I. L. II. 2029. Inscribed on a pedestal found in Andalusia near El Cerro 
de Leon (Anticaria), Spain, where it still exists. '■ tr(ibuno) mil(itum) 
quater. ^ vicesimae (partis') her(_editatium). ^procurator Augusti ad 
Falernas vegetandas, an oflScer looking to the propagation of Italian 
vines in Spain (Mommsen). *adducen(d) (milia sestertium). *AciU(a) 
Plec(usa). 

16. C. Sextio C. f. Papir[m] | Martiali trib. mil. legionis IC-fW] | 

Scythicae, proc. Aug. ab actis urbis/ p[roc.] | Aug. inter 
mancip. XL Galliarum et ne|gotiantis/ proc. Macedoniae, qui | 
ob memoriam T. Sexti Alexandri | fratris sui, inlatis H-SL 
mil.^ rei pub. | col. suae Mactaritanae, epulaticium ex | usiiris 
curialibus die natali fratris sui | quodannis dari iussit, ot 
quam liberalitate {sic) \ eius statuam universae curiae d. d.'' 
pec. sua posuer. 
C. I. L. Yin, Suppl. 11813. Found at Mactaris in Africa. ^ proc^urator) 
Aug{usti) ah actis refers to an officer of equestrian rank in charge of the 
actapnblica (diurna urUs acta, Tao. Ann. XIII. 31) ; liberti Augustorum 
ah actis (C. I. L. VI. 8674), and adiutor ah actis (VI. 8695) were his 
subordinates. ^ inter manciples) quadragesimae Galliarum et nego- 
tiantis. The procurator referred to was the arbitrator between the man- 
eipes and negotiatores. ^inlatis (sestertium') L mil(ibus). *d(ecreto) 
d(ecurionum) . 

17. P. Cominio P. f. | CI. Clementi | praef. classium p raet . | Misenens. 

et Eavenn., | praeposito a cens./ proc. | Aug. XX her.,^ proc. 
Aug. pro|vinc. Lusitan., proc. Aug. | prov. Daciae Apolensis 
(sic), I subpraef. ann., proc. Aug. | ad famil. glad. Transpa., | 
proc. Aug. XX her. per Hisp. | citer./ omnib. equestrib. milit. 
funct., pontif., pa|tron. coloniar. Cone. ] Aquil.^ Parmens. 
Venafr./ ordo Cone. 
C. 7. L. V. 8659. Found at Concordia, Italy, where it still exists. Another 
inscription in mutilated form has recently been found referring to the 
same Cominius Clemens, from which it appears that he performed his 



206 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

military service under Marcus Aurelius {Notizie degli Scavi, 1890, p. 173). 
1 Momra., Staatsr. III. 490, note 2. ^ proc(^urator) Aug(_usti') vicesimae 
her(editatium) at Rome, but a similar function in the province is indi- 
cated liy proc(urator) Aug(,usti) vicesimae her(editatiuin) per Hisp{aii- 
iam) citer{iorem). ^ Conc(ordiensis) Aquil{eiensis). * Venafrl^anae). 

18. Q. Petronio Q. f. | Meliori | proe. annon., adiutori curatoris | 

alvei Tiberis et cloacarum, | curatori rei publ. Saenesium, | 
praetori Etrur. XV populorum | bis, trib. mil. leg. Ill Gallicae, 
sc[r.J I q. VI primo principi,^ praet. Laur. Lavin.,^ IIII viro 
qq. Faesulis,^ | pontif. Faesulis et Tlorentiae, | corpus inesor.^ 
frum. Ost.« I L. d. d. d. p.' (0» the Me) Bed. III. non. Feb. | 
L. Eggio Marullo Cn. Papirio | Aeliano cos./ | locus adsign. 
per C. Nasenn.* | Marcellum cur. pp. oper. pub. 

C. I. L. XIV. 172. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found at Ostia, having 
been built into the theatre when it was restored in the fourth or fifth 
century A. D. '^ sc[r{ibae')~\ q{uaestorio sex) primo prinetpi. ^ praet(ori) 
Laur{entium) Lavin{atium'). ^ IIII viro q{uin)q{uennaU) Faesulis. 

* me(^n)sor{um). ^ frum{entariorum) Ost(iensium). ^ l{pcus) d(atus 
d(ecreto) d{ecurionum) p(ublice'). ' Febr. 3d, 184 a.d. ^ Nasenn(ium). 

19. Aegippi. | L. Mussid Aemiliano | Laurenti Lavinatium, | IIII 

milit./ V. e., praef. vehicul. | triuin prov. Gall. Lugdunens, 
I Narbonens. et Aquitanic. | ad -SSLX, proc. Alex. Pelusi | 
p. . . .^ I ad SSC, proc. portus utriusq. | ad [_SSCO], \ viro 
innocentissimo, | codicarii navicularii et | quinq. corp. navi- 
gantes, ob | insignem eius erga se | beniTolentiam ac singu|larem 
abstinentiam. (0» the 'side) Dedic. XV Kal. lun. | dd. nn. 
l^Philippis'] I Augg. cos.,' | cuiant. nun. Hermogen[e] | Aun. I., 
Paulino Coz.' . . . 

C. I. L. XIV. 170. Found at Rome, whither It was brought from Ostia, 
existing now in copy only, i (a) quattuor milit(iis), i.e. functus quattuor 
militiis equestribus. ^ Pelusi plhari'] according to some ; others Pelusi- 
p[hylac.^, i.e. Pelusiplhylac^iae)}, like potamophylaciae (C. /. L. II. 
1970), Hirschfeld, Verwaltungsgeschichte, p. 263, n. 8. » 247 or 248 a.d. 

* curant(ibus) n%in(_dinas) Hermogen^e] Au[g.'\ n.l., Paulino Coz[m,o'] 
is suggested by Mommsen, but the names have probably been wrongly 
copied. The first word, Aegippi, i.e. of Aegipplus, is separated from the 
rest, and forms one line of the inscription. 



INSCRIPTIONS OF OFFICIALS OF THE THIRD CLASS 207 

20. M. Aurelio Basileo | viro ducenario, proc. | rationis castrensis, | 
ordo decurionum ob | tanto amore quam (sic) erga | patriam 
nostram praes|tare consuevit. 

C. I. L. X. 5336. Found near Interamna, where it still exists within the 
walls of an ancient town. This is the only instance known of a man of 
equestrian order being procurator castrensis, since elsewhere the pro- 
curatores castrenses are libertini. 



INSCRIPTIONS OF OFFICIALS OF THE THIRD CLASS 
Apparitores and Aides of Magistrates 

1. [J!f.] lunius M. L Menander | scr. libr. aed. cur. prineeps | et q.^ | 

v.^ lunia M. L Calliste, | lunia 0.' \. Sophie, vixit ann. VIII. 

Notizie degli Scavi, 1886, p. 420. Found at Rome on the Via Salaria. 
1 scr(_iba) Ubr{arius) aed(_ilium) cur{ulium) prineeps et {scriba) q{uaes- 
torius). ^viva. ^ G^aiae), i.e. mulieris. 

2. P. Aelio P. f. Pal. | Agathocliano | pontif. praetori Laurenti|uin 

Lavinatium, scrib. tribuni|eio maior., scrib. q. sexsprimo, | 
scrib. aediL curulium, de|curial. pullario maiori,^ | praef. fabr. 
in, accens. velat.," | roroclodienses ex deer. | decur., patrono, 
ob ineri|ta eius et quod primus | ad tbermas publicas | marmora 
et columnas | [de]derit, cuius ob dedicati [ [owew] sportulas 
deG[urionibus2 virit[™ divisit]. (.On the side) Ded. VII id. 
Aug. I Cn. Claudio Severo II | Ti. CI. Pompeiano II cos.^ 

Notizie degli Scavi, 1889, p. 9. Found near Braociano, where Forum Clodii 
was situated, i Mommsen, Staatsr. I.,' p. 366, n. 6. '■' accens{o) velat{o). 

3 173 A.D. 

3. Sex. Caecilio | Epagatho | scrib. libr. tribunicio,* | apparitori 

Caesarum, | scrib. libr. q. Ill decur.,^ | viat. Ill vir. et IIII 
vir.,^ I scrib. libr. aed. cur., | patri optimo, | Sex. Caeeilius Sex. 
f. I Quir. Birronianus et | M. Caeeilius Sex. f. | Quir. Statianus. 

C. I. L. VI. 1808. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found at Rome, where 
it still exists. ^ scrib{ae') Ubr{ario') tribunicio. ^ scribC^ae) libr(ario') 
q(itaestorio) trium decur(iarum) . ' viatori triumvirum (sc. capitalium) 
et quattuorvirum (sc. viarum, curandarum)- 



208 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

4. [i.] Marius L. lib. Doryphorus anulos aureos | consecutus a, divo 
Gommodo,' scrib. aedilic. et | tribunic, scrib. libr. aedil. curul., 
praeco cos., | \_pra]eo. quaestorius,^ sacerdotal, viator augurum, | 
[Kc{]or curiat., Laurens Lavinas, fecit sibi et | . . . ae Ascle- 
piodote eoniugi, item libertis | libertabusque posterisque eorum. 

C. I. L. VI. 1847. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Rome, existing 
only in a copy, i This refers to the ius aureorum anulorum, conferring 
ingenuitas, introduced by Commodus. Mommsen, Staatsr. 11.,' p. 893. 
^Mommsen, Staatsr. I.,' p. 363, note 4. 



5. P. Aemilio P. f. Nicomedi patri | incomparabili, | decuriali 

decuriae lictor. | cos. trium decuriar. X primo/ | item decur. 
lictor.^ popularis | denuntiat.' X prime, | item praecon. aedilium 
curul. Xprimo, | Aemilii Nicomedes et Mcomedes | et Tbeofila 
fili et I heredes fecerunt. 

C. I. L. VI. 1869. Found at Rome, now in the Capitoline Museum. 
^decuriali decuriae lietor(_iae) eo(n)s(ularis) trium decuriar(_um), 
decemprimo. ^decur{iae) lictor(iae'). ^ denuntiat(,orum). 

6. Euhodi.^ I M. Aurel. Sabiniano | Augg. lib., patrono | civitatis 

Anagninor. | itemq. collegi caplato|rum, decuriali decuriae | 
lictoriae popularis denuntiatorum | itemq. gerulor., sed et 
decemviralis,^ | s. p. q. A.' erga amorem patriae | et civium, 
quod thermas longa incuria | neglectas sua pecunia restituerit, 
I statuam ex leg.* suis ponend. censuer. ; ob cuius dedic. dedit 
decur. 'XV, sexv. | SCII, pop. 5fl,' et epul. sufflc. 

C. I. L. X. 5917. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found in the forum of 
Anagnia, the chief town of the Hernici, Italy, i This is the additional 
cognomen. ^ Sablnianus was a member of one of the decuriae which 
attended the decemviri stlitibus iudicandis. ' s(enaJas) p(^opulus) 
g(Me) A^nagninus}. * leg{atis). ^ decur(ionibus) denarios quinos, sex- 
v(iris) denarios binos, pop(ulo) denarios singulos. 



7. Tutic.^ Hylas hie positus, | qui fuit margaritar. ; Mc habuit dec. 
viat.^ coiisu|larem, et colleg. den[d]r. | Roman, qq. pp.' fuit; 



INSCRIPTIONS OF OFFICIALS OF THE THIRD ,CLASS 209 

qui reliquit collegio s. s.* | hhS decern mil. n., uti ex usuris | 
eius omnibus annis parentet | ei hoc loco, aut si non factum | 
fuerit ante terminal./ inferet | aerario p. R. decern m. n. 

C. /. L. VI. 1925. Found at Rome, existing only in a copy. ^ Tutic(J,us f). 
^ dec{uriam') viat(oriam). ''colleg{ii') dendr^ophororum) Jioman{orum) 
q{uin)q{uennalis) p{er)p{etuu$). * s{upra)s{criptd). ^For terminalia 
see Marquardt, Staatsv. III.,^ p. 202. 

8. in honorem domus August. | vv. qq.^ scholam vetustate corruptam 
s. p. ret. 1. s. s.^: | L. Venuleius Agatho, M. Aurel. Auggg.' lib. 
December, M. Aurel. Spendon, C. Gemellius Privatus. | Dedic. 
V idus .Maias Fulvio Pio, Pontic Pontiano cos.,^ curat. C. 
Gemellio Private. 

C. /. L. VI. 816. Found at Rome, preserved in a copy. ^ v^iatores) q(uae- 
storii). 2 This is the form given in the copy, probably representing s. p. 
ref. q. i. s. s., i.e. s{ua) p(ecunia) re/^ecerunf) q{ui) i{nfra) s(eripti) 
s{unt), on the stone. ' Perhaps, Maximus and Balbinus with Gordian 
Caesar. * 238 a.d. 



9. M. Talcidio | M. fil. Pal. | Hypatiano | adlecto in | ordinem dec. | 
Puteolanor., | ordo | decuriae luliae | praec. cos.,^ | ob merita | 
M. Falcidi Cupiti | praeconis et | apparitor. Aug., | patris eius. 

C. I. L. VI. 1944. Found at Rome, now in museum at Naples, i For 
decuria lulia praeconum consularis, cf. Momm. Staatsr. I.,^ p. 344, note 5. 

10. Anniae | Agrippinae | uxori | C. luli Apolloni | decur. Eomae | 

trib. item aedil.,' | accens. velatd, | cur. mun. glad.^ | tridui, 
hered. | 1. d. d. d. 

Ephem. Ep. VIII. 370. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found at Puteoli 
near the amphitheatre, i decur(ialis) JRomae trib(unorum) item aedil- 
{ium). 2 cur{atoria) mun{eris) glad(iatorii). 

MiNISTKI OF THE DOMUS AuGUSTAE, FeEBDMEN AND SlAVES 

11. M. Aur. Aug. liber. | Marcioni proximo | rationum, proc. | mar- 

morum, proc. | prov. Britanniae, | proc. summi chorag., | proc. 
prov. Fryg., | Seneeianus collib. | ex tabular. | h. c} 

LAT. INSCRIP. — 14 



210 LATIN INSCRIPTION IS 

G. I. L. III. 348. Found at Kaimaz (Tricomia) Phrygia. i h(finoris) 
c{ausa). 

12. d. m. I Aciliae Lamyrae coniugi | carissimae, Apollonius | Aug. 
n. verna arcarius pro|vinciae Asiae, hoc monumentum | cum 
sarcophago fecit et sibi at su|is. Quorum curam agunt col- 
legia I lib.^ et servorum domini n. Aug. i. s.^ : | magnum/ et 
Minervium tabulari|orum, et Faustinianum commeii|tare^si^m, 
et decurionum, et ta|bellariorum. | H. m. h. n. s. 

C /. i. III. 6077. Found at Ephesus. '^lih^ertorum). ^ i(nfra) s^cripta). 
" Collegia in eo nominata sunt non servorum Ephesi consistentium, sed 
domus Augustas universae" (Mommsen). 'magnum (sc. collegium 
familiae imperatoriae'). 

13i P. Aelio Aug. lib. | Liberali | procuratori annonae | Ostiensis, 
procuratori | pugillationis et ad naves | vagas,' tribunicio 
collegi I magni,^ decuriali decuriae | viatoriae consul., decu- 
riali | gerulorum, praeposito mensae | nummul. f. f. Ost./ 
ornato orna|mentis decurionatus col. Ost., | patrono | Lauren- 
tium vici Augustanor. 

C. I. L. XlV. 2045. Inscribed on a pedestal found in the Laurentine 
district among ruins of the vicus Augustanus. ^ "What this refers to is 
unknown. Henzen suggests that it may pertain to a sea postal service 
{Bull. delV 1st. 1875, p. 10), but of. Momm. Staatsr. 11.,^ p. 1030, note 3. 
2 See preceding inscription, s Mensae nummulariae f{isci) /{rumen- 
tarii) Ost{{ensis). 

14. dis manibus | M. TJlpio Aug. lib. | G-resiano an XXXXV, | tabu- 

lario XX liere|ditatium item tabu|lario provinciae Lugu|dunen- 
sis et Aquitani|cae, item tabulario projvinciae Lusitaniae, | h. 
s. e., s. t. [t] 1. Ulpia Pia | coniugi f. c. 

C. I. L. II. 3235. Found at Villanueva de los Infantes, near old Mentesa 
Oretanorum (Pliny, H. N. 3, 3, 25), Spain. 

15. Ti. Claudius Aug. lib. Bucolas praegustator, triclinare. {sio}, \ 

proc. a munerib.,' proc. aquar.,^ proc. castrens's, cum Q. 
Claudio I Flaviano filio et Sulpicia Cantabra matre d. [d]. 



INSCRIPTIONS OF OFFICIALS OF THE THIRD CLASS 211 

C. I. L. XL 3612. Inscribed on a large marWe tablet found at Caere, now 
preserved at Civlta Vecchia. See Friedlander, Sittengeschichie, I.,^ p. 192. 

1 Hirschfeld, Verw. I., p. 167, note 1 ; Momm. Staatsr. II.,' p. 951, note 4. 

2 An inscription on a lead pipe shows that Bucolas held this ofSce 
under Domltian. imp. Domitiani Caesaris Aug. Qer. sub cura Bucolae 
proc. {Notizie, 1890, p. 186.) 

16. d. m. 1 Servato Caesaris n. ser. | contrascribtori rationis | summi 

choragi, vixit ann. XXXIIII | mensibus VIII diebus XII, 
amico | bene merenti, fecerunt | Eortunatus Pompeianus, Op- 
tatus I Aug. lib. adiutores proc. rationis | ornamentorum, et 
Irenaeus | Caesaris verna adiutor | tabulariorum, et Isidorus | 
Primitivi Aug. disp. vicar.* | rationis eiusdem,^ et Helius | 
vicarius eius,^ domino bene|nierenti. 

C. I. L. VI. 8950. Inscribed on a marble cippus found at Borne, preserved 
in the Villa Albani. ^ disp(^ensatoris) vicar(ius). ^ i.e. rationis orna- 
mentorum. ' Servati. 

17. d. m. I Onesati Caes. | n. ser., paedago|go pueronim, | fecit 

Annia | Stratoniee | coniugi b. m. || d. m. | T.JE. Hermes | Aug. 
lib. I a superlectille p. Caes. n.,* I f. Portunata I lib. pat. b. m. 

O. I. L. VI. 8973. Found at Verona, whither it was brought from Borne. 
^ p(juerorum) Cae{saris) n{ostri). V-^'*-*'*''*'' 

Slaves and Fkeedmen of Publioaui 

18. Pudens, soe. | pub. XL ser., | > scr.' finib. | Cotti vovit, | arcar. 

Lugud. I s. L m. 

G. I. L. V. 7213. Inscribed on an altar found at Avigliana, between Susa 
and Turin, now in the museum at Turin. ' soc(iorum) pubQici) 
(quadragesimae) ser(vus), contrascr(iptor). 

19. d. m. I Inachus | public. XX | lib.,' Inacho | parenti | piissimo. 

C. /. L. VL 8453. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Rome, now in 
Vatican Museum. ^public{i) (vicesimae) Ub{ertatis) (serous). 



212 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



Inscbiptions op , Sueokdinate Militaet Ofpioebs 
(Including Centurions) 

20. L. Pompeio L. f. | Pom. Eeburro Fabro | Grigurro ^ Calubrigen., | 

probato in cob. VII pr., | beneficiario tribuni, | tesserario in 
V," I optioni in V, | signifero in V, | fisci curatori, | corn, trib., | 
eYoe. Aug., | L. Flavins Flaccinus | h. ex t. 

C. I. L. II. 2610. Found at San Esteban de la Rua (Compostella) Tarra- 
conensis, Spain, existing in copy, i A tribe of the Asturians (Pliny 
N. H. Ill, 3, 28). The town Calubriga is unknown. '■' centiiria. Note 
that beneficiarius tribuni is placed before the series of functions. 

21. C. Arrio C. f. Corn. | Clementi militi cob. IX | pr., equiti coh. 

eiusdem, donis | donato ab imp. Traiano | totquibus armillis 
pbaleris | ob bellum Dacicum, singulari | pr[a]efectorum pr., 
tesserario, op|tioni, fisci curatori, cornicul. | tribuni, evocato 
Aug., "/ ^ cob. I vigil., y I statorum, y coh. XIIII urb., V coh. 
VII pr., I trecenario, donis donato ab imp. | Hadriano hasta 
pura corona aurea, | V leg. Ill Aug., primipilari, II viro 
quin|qnennali, patrono municipi, | curatori rei publicae, | 
decur. et Aug. V[7 vir.], municipes Matil.^ 

Dessau, 2081. Found at Matilica in TJmbria. '^ centurioni. ^ decur{ioni) et 
Aug{ustal{) se[yir{o)'], municipes Matil(icenses). 

22. C. Oppio C. f. Vel. | Basso p. c, | pr. Auximo,' V leg. Im Fl. 

fel., evoc. Aug. I ab ac tis fori , B pr. pr., signif., option., tesse. | 
coh. II pr., mil. coh. XIIII | et XIII urbanarum, | coll. cent. 
Auxim. I patr. ob merita eius. | L. d. d. d. iOn, the Me) Posita 
VI k. lul. I L. Aelio Caesare II, | P. Coelio Balbino cos.^ 

C. I. L. IX. 5839. Found at Osimo (Auximum) Picenum, where it exists 
to-day. 'p(^atrono) c(oloniae),pr(aeton) Auximo. ^ 137 a.d. 

23. C. Oppio C. f. Vel. | Basso p. p.,i p. c, | pr. i. d. Aux.,^ V leg. 

nil I Fl. fel. et leg. II Tr. for. , | evo c. Aug. ab act.' fori, | B 
pr. pr.,* mil. coh. II pr. | et coh. XIII et XIIII urb., | omnibus 
officiis I in caliga functo,^ | centuriones leg. II | Traianae 



INSCRIPTIONS OF OFFICIALS OF THE THIRD GLASS 213 

fortis, I Optimo et dignissimo. | In cuius ded. cenam col. ded.^ | 
L. d. d. d. 

C. I. L. IX. 5840. Found at Osimo (Auximum), where it still exists. 
'^ primipilari. ''■ p{atrono) c(oloniae), pr(aetori) i(iire) d{icundo) 
Aux(imi). ^ Of. Momm. Ephem. Ep. V., p. 149. * b(^eneficiario') 
pr^aefectorum) pr{aetorio) . ^ The positions of signifer, optio, and tessera- 
rius, enumerated in the preceding inscription, are referred to. ^ In cuius 
ded(icatione) cenam col(onis) ded(it). The second centurionate and the 
primipUate were held after the setting up of the preceding inscription. 

24. C. Luccius C. fil. | Stell. Sabinus | Beneventi decurio, | vivus 

sibi et Ofilliae | Paratae uxori et Luccio | Verecimdo fratri 
posterisq. | suis fecit, militavit in coh. | I urb. ad latus tribu- 
nor., fuit | secutor, optio valetudi.,^ optio | carcaris, singularis, 
benefic. | tribuni, a quaestionib.^ factus per | Annium Verum 
praef. urbis,' et | tesserarius, optio, signif., fisci | curator, optio 
ab act., cornicul. | trib., benef. Valeri Asiatici praet.'' (sic) \ 
urb., missus ab imp. Hadriano Aug. | Serviano III et Vibio 
Varo cos.,^ [dec] X [fc]a[Z.] Mai. Erueio Claro II cos.* In/f- 
p. XX in agr. p. XX. 

C. I. L. IX. 1617. Found at Beneventum, where it still exists, i valetiir- 
diQnari). ^ a quaestionih(us) {praef ecti urhis). ^ Annius Verus, 
grandfather of Marcus, the emperor, was cos. II in 121 a.d.; cos. Ill, 
126 A.D. Cf. Vita Marci, a. \. * Rather ^me/. = 134 a.d. ^ i46 a.d. 

25. L. Tros[i]us L. f. Pup. | Maximus Tergeste, | V coh. XI uib., | 

militavit V coh. II vig., | evoc. Aug. a quaestion. ( pr. pr.,^ 
speculator Aug. | in coh. X pr., vix. an. LV, | mil. an. XXXIII, 
t. f. i. I In fr. p. XII. I in ag. p. XIII. 

C I. L. VI. 2755. Inscribed on a cippus found at Eome, from a copy of 
the sixteenth century. ^ a quaestion{ibus) pr{aefecti) pr(aetorio). 

26. C. Virrius lucundus | vexil. coh. II vig | o^ Viserti Latini, | milit. 

ann. VI men. VII | dies XVIIII, | in eis tesserar., optio, | vexil- 
larius, | vix. ann. XXVII, | aram cum base sua | t. p. i. | Arbi- 
tratu Luciliae Lacaenae | et C. Virri lucundi f. 

C. I. L. XI. 1438. Inscribed on a pedestal found at Pisa, now in the Anti- 
norian Museum at Florence. '■ centuriae. 



214 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

27. d. m. I M. Aur. Augustiano | ^ coh. V vig., vix.. an. XXXIIII, ] 
provitus ann. XVII, excep|tor presidi '■ provincies | M. s.^ ann. 
nil, lectus in prae|toria, eques sive tabu|larius ann. V, factus 
y I in Syria, vixit ann. VIII, | Claudia Pacata coniux | piissimo 
et Ulpius Mar|cellus nepos b. m. fece|runt. 

O. I. L. VI. 2977. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Borne, existing in 
copy only. ^ praesidi{s). ^ M(^oesiae) S(uperioris). 



28. P. Tutilius P. f. 0[m/.] veteranus, sign[j/ej-], aquilifer leg. 
V . . . , I curator vete[ra?i.J, | accepit ab impe[rai] | praemia 
dupl[«cia], I natus est A. Hirtio [A. f. C] | Vibio Pansa cos.,* 
de[cessif] | C. Tufio Gemino L. Eu[&eM«o] | Gemino cos.,^ sibi 
[et] P. Atecingi f. [e«] | Demincae [/., et] \ Andoblationi P. f. 
[et] Gnatae P. f., | t. f. i. 

C. I. L. V. 5832. Found at Milan, now at Brera, 1711/43. 2 29 a.d. 
Note tlie Gallic names. 



29. M. Vettio M. f. Ani. | Valenti | mil. coh. VIII pr., benef. praef. 
pr., I donis donate ^ bello Britan. | torquibus armillis phaleris, | 
evoc. Aug., corona aurea donat., | V coh. VI vig., ^ stat.,^ 7 
coh. XVI urb., V cho. | II pr., exercitatori equit. speculatorum, 
^ princip. | praetori' leg. XIII Gem., ex tree* leg. VI | Victr., 
^^ donis donate ob res prosper. ] gest. contra Astures torq. phaler. 
arm., | trib. coh. V vig., trib. coh. XII urb., trib. coh. | III 
pr., [trib.] leg. XIIII Gem. Mart. Victr., | proc. imp. Caes. 
Aug.° prov. Lusitan., | patron, coloniae, speculator. X h. c.,° | 
E. Luccio Telesino C. Suetonio Paullino cos.^ 

C. I. L. XI. 395. Found at Ariminum, existing now in copy. ^ a Claudia. 
^ centurioni stat(orum). ^ princeps praetorii, most honored among 
centurions after the primipilus ; of. Ephem. Up. IV., p. 281. ■* Mommsen 
thinlis p. p. = primo pilo has disappeared here and that this man was not 
ex trecenario legionis sextae Victricis, but from a trecenarius, i.e. a, cen- 
turio praetorianus, became centurio legionarius, Ephem. Ep. IV. , p. 243. 
6 Nero is referred to. ^ speculator(^es) {decern), h(pnoris) c(_ausa). 
' 66 A.D. 



INSCRIPTIONS OF OFFICIALS OF THE THIRD CLASS 215 

30 I militavit L annis, IV in leg. Ill A[ug.^ | librar., 

tesser., optio, signifer, | f actus ex suffragio leg. [^]u[9'. pr. pr. 
y] I militavit V leg. II Ital., [y-\ leg. VII . . . , | 7 leg. I 
Min., V leg. X Gem., </ leg. II . . . . ,\</ leg. Ill Aug., V 
leg. II[J] Gall., V leg. XXX UPjp., | V leg. VI Vic., V leg. 
Ill Cyr., V leg. XV ApoL, | V leg. II Par., V leg. I Adiu- 
tricis, I consecutus ob virtutem in | expeditionem Parthicam | 
coronam muralem vallarem | torques et plialeras, agit in | diem 
operis perfecti | annos LXXX, | sibi et Claudiae Marciae Capi- 
tolinae | koniugi karissimae, quae agit | in diem operis per- 
fecti I annos LXV, et M. Petronio Portunato filio | militavit 
ann. VI V leg. X[X]II Primig., | V leg. II Aug., vixit ann. 
XXXV, I cui Fortunatus et Marcia parentes | karissimo memo- 
riam fecerunt. 

O. I. L. VIII. 217. Epliem. Ep. V. 1043. Inscribed on a mausoleum 
discovered at Henchir Gasrin, ancient Cillium, Africa. 



31. M. Apicio T. f. | Cam. Tironi | p. p. leg. XXII Primig. p. f., | 

praef. leg. XIII Gem.,^ | V leg. XV Apollin., evoc.^ | a com- 
ment, oust., optioni | evoc, salar. curat, ab indicib.,* | patron, 
mun. Raven.,* | pontif. ^ 

C. I. L. XI. 19. Inscribed on a large marble cippus found at Ravenna, 
where it still exists in part, in tlie Museum Classepse. i It is curious 
that the function praefectnra legionis should be placed among those of 
the centurion ate. ^ 'piro was at first among the praetorian soldiers, then 
afterwards became evocatus. ^ For these various functions performed by 
Tiro as evocatus see Mommsen, Ephem. Ep. V. 148. * Baven{natium) . 

The Navt 

32. Antho Caesaris | trierarcho Liviano, | C. lulius laso f. c. 

C. I. L. XII. 257. Found at Frejus (Forum lulii), existing in copy. It 
will be remembered that under the Julian and Claudian emperors, a fleet 
was stationed at Forum lulii. 

33. C. lulio C. f. I Fal. Magno | navarc. princ. | clas. pr. Misen.,^ | 

adlec. in ord. decur. | et inter" IIvirale[s] | decret. decur. p. 
p.^ I munic. revere [«fes]. | Cuius dedi[caiione] | decurion[i6i{s] | 
H-S XX [m. n. dedif\. (On the aide) Dedic. pr. idus Au[(7.J | 



216 LATIlSr INSCRIPTIONS 

Saturnino et [^Oallo cosF\, \ curant. Q. Sevilifo] ...... | 

Ti. CI. Phile[to II viris]. 

O. I. L. X. 8215. Found at Castel Volturno (Volturnum) in tlie foundar- 
tions of the Curia, now in the Museum Campanum. ^navare(o') 
princi(pi) clas{sis) pr{aetoriae) Misen{ensis). '■' p(ostulatione') p{opuU) 
(Mommsen). ^ This is suggested by Mommsen, who assigns the inscrip- 
tion to 198. 

2- 

34. T. Suillio Alband | qui jBt_ Timotheus | Menisci f., natione | 
X- Nicaens., arm. custod. | lib. Virtut., mil. a. XXV, | vixit ann. 

X I , Aiito[w]ius Quadratus | et Aemil. Quadratus | 

[a]rm. cup[*.] ex IIII Minerv. | heredes, et Suillia | Eugenia 
lib. ben. mer. | fecerunt. 

C. I. L. X. 3406. Found at Puteoli, existing in part in the museum at 
Naples. 

35. d. m. I C. Publius Mari|nus mil. clas. pr. | Mis., sec. tr.,* | n. 
■< |^,r. . i5yr.,^ stip. IIII, I V. ann. XX, paren|tes b. m. f. 

C I. L. X. 3494. Found at Naples, where it still exists in the museum. 
^ seciutor) tr(ierarchi). ^ natione Syr{us). 

36. Ti. Claudio Aug. lib. Eroti, | trierarcho liburnae Nilli, exacto 

classis Aug. | Alexandrinae, L. Iuli|us C. f. Fab. Saturninus 
et M. I Antonius Heracla trier., heredes eius fecerunt. 
Mphem. Ep. V. 989. Found at Cherchel (Caesarea), in Mauretania. 

Insckiptions of Municipalities 
Italy 

37. L. Licinio L. fil. Pal | Herodi | equit. Kom., decuriali | decuriae 
viatoriae | equestris cos.,' decurioni, | quinquennali duumviro, | 
sacerdoti geni col., flam. | Eom. et Aug., curat, oper. publ., | 
quaestori aer.,^ aedili, flam. | divi Severi, sodali Arulensi, | 
praet. prim. sac. Volk. faciu., | ordo Augustal. | optimo civi, 
ob merita. 

C. I. L. XIV. 373. Inscribed on a large pedestal found at Ostia, now at 
Rome in Villa Abani. ^ co{n)s(ula'ns). ^ aer(_arii'). ^praet{ori) 
prim{o) sac(^ris) Volk(^ano) faeiu{ndis). 



INSCRIPTIONS OF OFFICIALS OF THE THIRD CLASS 217 

Praeneste. 

38. P. Acilio P. f. Men. | Paidlo | III III yir. Aug. q. coL, | aed.,II 

Tir., flamini divi Aug., | cur aunonae, | cur. muneris publici, | 
cur. kal., | cultores lovis | Arcani | regie macelli | patrono 
dignissimo. | L. d. d. d. (On. the side) Dedicata V idus | 
Maias | Arriano et Papo | cos. | Durante Ti. CL ..... | Vitale 
mm I vir. Aug. 

C. I. L. XIV. 2972. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found at Praeneste, 
now in Vatican Museum, Borne. The date is 243 a.d. 

Nomentum. 

39. Gn. Munatius M. f. PaL| Aurelius Bassus | proc. Aug., | praef. 

fabr., praef. eoh. Ill | Sagittariorum, praef. coh. iterum II | 
Asturuin, censitor civium | Eomanorum coloniae Victrijcensis 
quae est in Britannia | Camaloduni, curator. | viae Nomentanae, 
patronus eiusdem | mvnicipi, flamen perpetus (sic) \ duum virali 
potestate, | aedilis, dictator IIII. 
C. I. L. XIV. 3955. Inscribed on a large marble cippus found at La 
Mentana (Nomentum), now in Vatican Museum. 

Vibo. 

40. Q..Laronius Q. f. [augur], \ Ti. Libertius C. f. pent, max | IIII 

V. i. d. q. c. p.' ex s. c. Con.^ H-S .... 
C. I. L- X. 49. Inscribed on a pedestal found at Montellone (Vibo), Italy, 
existing in a copy. ^ q(iiinquennaUs) c{ensona) p(^otestate). ^ Gon{stoet). 

Aeclanum. 

41. d. m., I Ti. CI. Maximo | II vir, aed. quaes. | pecuniae alim. | vixit 

ann. XXVII m. V | , Ti. CI. November | et CI. Hermio|ne filio 
bene | merenti fee. | et sibi. 
O. I. L. IX. 1415. Assigned by Mommsen to Aeclanum, existing in copy. 

Beneventum. 

42. I. 0. M., I C. Ennius C. f. Pirmus | permissu decurion. | c. B.*,! 

Benevento^ aedilis, | II vir i. d., quaestor, | curator operis 
tbermarum | datus ab | imp. Caesare Hadriano Aug. 

G. I. L. IX. 1419. Found at Aequum Tuticum, still in existence. ^e(olo- 
niae) B{eneventi). 



218 LATIN INSCKIPTIONS 

Histonium. 

43. M. Baebio M. f. Q. n. Arn. Suetrio | Marcello equo publico, | aed,, q., 

II II Y\x i. d., II II vir, quinq. II, | patrono munic, flamini 
divi I Vespasiani., | M. Baebius Suetrius Marcellus | et Suetria 
Eufa patri optumo. | Huic decuriones funus publicum | sta- 
tuam equestrem clipeum | argenteum locum sepulturae | decre- 
verunt et urbani statuam ppdestre {sic). 

G. I. L. IX. 2855. Found at II Vasto d'Aimone (Histonium) among the 
Frentani, where It still exists. 

Alba Fucens. 

44. d. m. s., I L. Marculeio Saturnino | veterano Augusti cho. VII | 

pr.,' IIII viro i. d., quaestori rei p|ublice, curatori pecuiiia|e 
alumeiit[a]r, curatori annone plebis, curatori oper|um publicor, 
curatori apu|t lovem Statorem qq cole|gi fabrum tignuariorum 
L. M|arculeius Faustu[s] lunior | IIII vir iure die. curatori,, 
aiin|one patri optimo et sibi fecit. 

C. /. L. IX. 3923. Found at modern Scurcula near Alba Fucens, among 
the Aequi, only existing in part. ^ veterano Augusti c(o)Ao(rtis 
septimae) pr(cietoriae). The date is 149 a.d.(?) 

Spain 

45. p. H. c. I L. Domitio | M. fil. Serg. | Dentoniano, iudic. dec. V, 

equo I publico per Traianj | II vir. munic. Consabur[e]ii., | 
flam[i]n. perpet.,' tribun. milit. | cohort. Astur. Callaeciae | et 
Mauretan. Tingit.,^ | flam. p. H. c* 

C. I. L. II. 4211. Found at Tarragona (Tarraco), existing only in a copy. 
1 Sc. Consaburae. ^ Hiibner believes that by an error this stands for 
cohort(is) AstmXum) et OaUaec{orum) Mauretaniae Tingitanae, because 
we can hardly believe that the cohors Asturum encamped in the neigh- 
boring Gallaecia. ^ p(rovinciae) H(ispaniae) c(iterioris). 

46. M. Valeric M. f. M. n. | Q. pron. Gal. Pullino | tt vir., leg. per- 
• petuo I munic. Pontif.*, | praef. fabr., flam., | pontif. Aug., 

mu|nicipes et incolae. 



INSCRIPTIONS OF OFFICIALS OF THE THIRD CLASS 219 

C. I. L. II. 2132. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Porouna (Obulco), 
where it still exists. ^ leg{ato) perpetuo munic(ipii') Pontif{iciensis), 
i.e. Obulconis. 

47. L. Porcio L. f . | Gal. Himero | IT vir, praef . pro/ | II vir., flamini | 

divorum bis. | Ob merita | pleps aere conlato. | Huius tituli 
honore | contentus impesam | remisit. 

U. I. L. II. 34. Pound at Aloajer do Sal (Salaoia), Lusitania, existing in a 
copy, 

AJrica 

48. Ponti.* I C. Helvio C. f. Am. Honora|to aedil., II vir, II vir qq. 

II[i]^ I ^t.' curat, aliment. dis[iri6], | ob insignes liberalitajtes 
in rem pub. et cives | amorem viro bono | col. lul. Curubis d. 
d. p. p. 

C. I. L. Vni. 980. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found at Kurba 
(Curubis), where it still exists, i Pontius is the additional cognomen of 
Honoratus. 2 jiommsen considers this II vir, so that Honoratus held 
three honores : the ordinary II viratus, quinqnennalitas, II viratus cum 
curatione alimentorum coniunctus. ^ et indicates that both positions 
were held at the same time. 

49. Marti | Victori | Aug. sac. | M. Ulpius M. | f. Pap. Androlnicus 

q., aed., II vir., flam., | II vir qq., pe|cimia sua | posu[iY]. 

C I. L. VIII. 8439. Inscribed on an altar found at Setit (Sitifls), where it 
is still preserved in the public gardens. 

50. C. Fulcinio M. f. Quir. | Optato, flam. Aug.,' II vir. | qq., pontif., 

II vir., augur., | aed., qu[ae]stori, qui inrupt[io]ne Baqua|tium 
co[?]oniam tui|tus est [ies]timonio | decreti ordinis et | populi, 
Cartennitani | et incolae primo ipsi, | nee ante ulli, | aere 
conlato. 

O. I. L. VIII. 9663. Found at Tenes (Cartenna), now in the Algerian 
Museum. ^flam,(J,ni) Aug{ustaU). 



220 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



Insoeiptions op Collegia 1 

51. Cn. Sentio Cn. fil. | Cn. n. Ter. Ifelici | , dec. deer, aedilicid adl., 

d. d. d. adl.^, | q. a. Ostiens., II vir., q. iuTenum^ | — hie primus 
omnium., quo annd dee. adl. est, et | q. a. fact, est et in proxim. 
annum II vir designat. est — | quinq. euratdrum navium 
marinar.,^ gratis adlect. | inter navicular, maris Hadriatici et 
ad quadrigam | fori vinari, patrdnd decuriae scrib^r. ceraridr. | 
et librari(5r. et lictdr. et viatdr., item praeconum et | argentaridr. 
et negotiatdr. vinarior. ab urbe | , item mensor. frumentaridr. 
Cereris Aug., item corpor. | scapliarior. et lenuncularidr. traiect. 
LucuUi et I dendrdphoriim et tdg^tdr. a fore et de sacomar.* | 
et libertdr. et servdr. publicdr. et olearidr.' et iuven. | cisianor.* 
et veteranor. Aug., item beneficiaridr. prdc. | Aug. et piscator. 
prdpolar., curatdri lusiis iuvenalis. | Cn. Sentius Lucilius | 
Gamala Clodianus f. | patri indulgentissimd. 

G. I. L. XIV. 409. Inscribed on a marble cippus found at Ostia, now in the 
museum at Florence. • cl{ecurionum) d^ecreto) d(ecurioni) adl(^ecto). 
2 i.e. the collegium iuvenum. " corpus euratorum navium marinarum. 
* sacomar(is9}. ^ The mercatores olearii. •> Perhaps the same as the 
cisiarii. 

52. d. m., I T. Sillio T. lib. | Prisco | mag. coUeg. | fabr. H et- q. IT, | 

mag. et q. sodal. | fuUonum, | Claudiae Filib.^ | uxori eius 
matri | sodalic fullon. ;== | T. Sillius Karus et | Ti. Claudius 
Plii|lippus mag. et | q. colleg. fabr. | fill parentib. | piissimis. 

G. I. L. IX. 5450. Found at Fallerone (Falerlo) Picenum, where it may 
be seen in the museum, i Filib. an unknown cognomen. ^ matri 
sodal(icii) fullonum. 

63. dis manibus. | L. Calpurnius Chius sevir Aug. | et quinquennalis | 
idem quinq. corporis mensor. | frumentarior. Ostiens, et curat, 
bis I idem codicar. curat. Ostis et III honor.^ | idem quinquen- 
nal. collegi. Silvani | Aug. maioris quod est Hilarionis, | functus 

1 Zur Geschichte und Organisation des Bomischen Vereinswesens. W. 
Liebenam, Leipzig, 1890. 



INSCRIPTIONS OP OFFICIALS OP THE THIRD CLASS 221 

sacomari^ idem magistro ad Marte. | Ficanum Aug. idem in 
coUegio dendrofor. | fecit sibi et | Corneliae Ampliatae coniugi 
suae I carissimae cum qua vixit annis XXXI., | Calpurniae L. 
lib. Pthengidi libertae (sic) carissimae, | L. Calpurnio Forti 
vem. lib.lL. Calpurnio Felici lib., L. Calpurnio Adaucto vern. 
lib., I Calpurniae L. f. Chiae vern., Calpurniae L. f. | Ampli- 
atae vern., L. Calpurnio L. f. Felici vern., L. Calpurnio L. f. 
Pal. CMo Felicissimo, | libertis libertab. posterisq. eorum b. m. 

C. I. L. XIV. 309. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found at Ostia, now 
preserved in Rome. ^ eodicar{iorum') curat{or) Ostis et III honor{atus) . 
2 According to Mommsen, functus sacomari is for functionis sacomariae. 
The Calpurnii and Calpurniae, sons and daughters of Lucius, and lilie- 
wise vernae, Henzen believes to have been children of liberti born 
before the manumission of their parents, but Mommsen more correctly 
considers them children of liberti born in the house of their patron. 

54. Ti. Claudio Aug. 1. Felici | Scapulano d. Ill, q. Ill, quinquen- 
nali, inmuni | triplicario benemerenti, ex consensu decuriae 
univers, | honoris causa, zothecam publice dederunt. | Atimetus 
1. sua pecunia adornavit. 

C. I. L. VI. 10302. Inscribed on a marble tablet found on Via Salaria, 
Rome, existing in copy only. 




Amphora and Stamped Handles. 
From Monte Testaccio, See page 274. 



222 



PAET III 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION OP INSCRIPTIONS 

In the preceding portion of this work we considered Eoman names 
and oificial titles, elements which are found in inscriptions of all 
kinds. To study the additional elements which are found in indi- 
vidual inscriptions, it will be useful to arrange epigraphic material 
in various classes, and then to examine the special form peculiar to 
each class. 

By " Latin Inscriptions," if we use the term in a general sense, 
we mean the remains of the Latin language of a non-literary char- 
acter preserved for us in the more enduring substances. 

There are two great classes : 

I. Inscriptions proper (e7rtypa</)ai, iiriypdixiMTa, tituU, Aufschriften). 
These have no existence apart from the objects upon which they are 
found, but form a necessary part of these objects, denoting their 
particular purpose. 

II. Inscriptions which are strictly documents (acta, instrumenta, 
tabulae, Urkunden). These were written with some particular indi- 
vidual purpose, and hence have an existence mainly or entirely 
separate from the objects upon which they appear. Each of these 
classes may be subdivided as follows : 

223 



224 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



I. TITULI 

1. Dedicatory and Votive Inscriptions ( TituU Sacri). 

2. Sepulchral Inscriptions {Tituli Sepulcrales). 

3. Honorary Inscriptions {Tituli Honorarii). 

4. Inscriptions on Public Works ( TUuli Operum Publicorum] 

5. Inscriptions on Movable Objects {Instrumentum). 

II. INSTRUMENTA 

1. Laws {Leges et Plebi Scita). 

2. Decrees of the Senate (Senatus Consulta). 

3. Imperial Documents {Instrumenta Imperatorum). 

4. Decrees of Magistrates {Decreta Magistratuum). 

5. Sacred and Public Documents {Acta Sacra et Publica). 

6. Private Documents {Acta Privata). 

7. Wall Inscriptions (Inscriptienes Parietariae). 

8. Consular Diptychs {Diptycha Oonsularia). 



CHAPTER VII 

TITULI 

DEDICATORY INSCRIPTIONS 

Dedicatory inscriptions {tituli sacrt) appear on the various objects 
consecrated to the gods, such as vases, altars, thin metal plates 
{laminae) attached to altars and on votive tablets. 




Dedicatory bowl of Etruscan origin, now in a museum at Paris. Date 350-250 B.C. 
(7. I. L. I. 44. P. L. M. B. XI. a. 
J.AT. TSSCpiP. 15 2?§ 



226 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



The earliest known are painted in white upon earthen cups or 
bowls of a dark color, and give the name of a divinity in the genitive 
case as indicating the owner of the vessel. 



H Oi 



^u 



U 



Inscribed on a patera found at Volci, Etruria, now in Gregorian Museum, Eome, 
Date 360-260 B.C. 





Inscribed on apaiera found at Horta, Etruria, now in Gregorian Museum, Borne. 
Date 360-260 B.C. 

The natural form of dedication, the dative case of the name of 
the divinity, is found on the votive altars of the grove of Pisaurum. 
(See page 54.) 

The bronze lamina shown below is also an illustration of this 
form of dedicatory inscription. 




lunonei Loucina{e). 

C. I. L. X. 6484. P. L. M. E. 11. D. 



DEDICATORY INSCRIPTIONS 



227 



With these names of divinities there appears in some instances the 
name of the dedicator together with a simple verbal phrase, e.g. 
donu(m) dot, dede(t), dono(m) ded(e)ro(n)t, donum portat. Even in 
the early period we find also the word sacrum (S, SA, SAC) with 
the dative case, or, more rarely, with the genitive ; likewise the 
words libens and merito, indicating the spirit of the dedicator and 
the worthiness of the one honored. In inscriptions on offerings 
taken from spoils of war, the name of the dedicator may appear 
without the name of the divinity. 

M. Fulvius M{arci) f(ilius) \ Ser{vii) n(epos) co(ra)s(«Z) Aetolid cepit. 

In general, however, tituli sacri of all periods contain the name of 
the divinity, the name of the dedicator, and a verbal phrase. These 
may be termed major elements. Subordinate expressions varying 
with the individual inscriptions may be termed minor elements. 



I. Name of divinity. 

This appears regularly in the dative case, rarely in the genitive, 
and is accompanied at times by deo, deae, or deabus, or is modified 
by some adjective or appositional phrase, such as epithets and titles 
belonging to the names of divinities, as, for example : 



luppiter Optimus Maximus I • • M 
luppiter Optimus Maximus Fulminator 

Fulginator I • • M • FVLM • FVL 
luno Begina I • R, RE, REG 
luno Seispita Mater Begina I • S • M • R 
Hercules Victor HERC • VIC 



Fortuna Primigenia F-P 
Genius huius loci G • H ■ L 
Genius Populi Bomani G ■ P ■ R 
Genius Domini Nostri G ■ D • N 
Numen Augusti N • AVG 
Sol Invictus Mithras S • I • M 



II; The name of the dedicator, in simple form, i.e. the t7'ia nomina, 
or with possible additions described in Chap. IV. Indications of 
rank, ofiicial station, profession, or calling may accompany the name. 
After this major element, minor elements may be found indicating : 

1. Participation in the. act of dedication, e.g. : 
cum coniuge et filiis, cum suis omnibus, cum liberis suis. 



228 LATJN INSCRIPTIONS 

2. The object dedicated, e.g. : 
aram, signum, statuam, templum. 

3. The- motive or incentive to which the offering is due, e.g. : 

ex imperio, ex iussu EX • IV, ex visu or visa, ex senatus consuUo EX • S • C, de 
senatus sententia D • S • S, decreto decurionum D • D, ex testamento EX • T, TEST, 
pro salute (illius) PRO • S, pro se et suis, pro salute sua P • S ■ S, in honurem 
(illius), in memoriam, in honorem domus divinae IN ■ H • D • D, o6 honorem 
OB • H, HON, o6 merces recte conservatas, stiblato haste perniciosissimo p(opuli) 
M^omani). 




MMcuiKcmmi 



Dedicatory inscription on a marble tablet from the temple of Jupiter Doliehenus 
on the Aventine. Circ. 244 a.d. 

Hubner's Exempla, No. 505. 

I(ovi) o(_ptimo) miaximo) a(eterno) I)(olicheno) et | Soli digno pres(tanti) 
pro sal(^ute) M. Aur(elii) And\ronici et Tarquitie \ Marcelle cuiugis et \ 
filiorum eius aram \ posuit ex voto per | C. Fab{ium) ffermanum sacer- 
d^otem). C. I. L. VI. 412, vv. 3-5. 

4. The cost of the offering or the means of providing for the 
same, e.g. : 

de pecunia sua D . S ■ P, de suo D . S, de praeda, ex sestertium (tot) milibus 
nummum EX • H-S • N, ex auripondo — P, aere publico. 

5. The location of the monument, e.g. : 
inforo novo, in suo. 

6. The permission or the assistance of others, e.g. : 
per (ilium), per patrem, permissu (illius). 

III. Verb or verbal phrase. 

The verb appears in the perfect or present tense, singfular or 
plural, first or third person, e.g. : 



DEDICATORY INSCRIPTIONS 229 

dedit, dedernnt D, DED, dedit dedicavit D • D, dono dedit dedicavit D ■ D ■ D, 
donum or donu dedit D • D, dono dedit lihens merito D ■ D • L • M, fecit F, FEC, 
faciendum curavit F, FAC ■ C, CVR, sacrum dat S • D, posuit P, sacravit SAC, 
ex voto posuit EX ■ V • P, votum bene merenti posuit V • B • M ■ P, donum dedit 
votum laetus libens merito D • D • V • L • L ■ M, votum solvit libens merito 
V ■ S • L ■ M, votum solvit libens animo V • S • L • A. 

Certain minor elements may follow the verbal phrase : 

1. Date of dedication. 

This is ordinarily indicated by the names of the consuls of the 
year, with the addition in some instances of the months and days, 
or by the name of the emperor with the number of his tribunicia 
potestate and that of his imperial salutation, or, as in some provinces, 
with the year of his reign, e.g. anno I imp. Domitiani Aug. (C. /. L. 
III. 35). The names of other magistrates or officials, combined with 
the titles of their position, in the provinces, municipia, or collegia, 
also serve to indicate the date. Certain prominent events are used 
as dating points, e.g. ah urbe condita A ■ V • C, anno provinciae, post 
Interamnam conditam. 

2. Certain formulae indicating location, e.g. : 

locus datus decreto decurionum L • D ■ D ■ D 

loco dato publice decurionum decreto L • D ■ PVB • D ■ 

3. Ablative absolute indicating the person assisting, e.g. : 

curante (illo), curam agente (illo) C • A 

The general arrangement of dedicatory inscriptions may be indi- 
cated thus ^ : 

illi deo sacrum 
ille cum illo 

signum 

voto suscepto 

de suo 

posuit 

curante illo 

1 From Cagnat, Cours d'' Mpigraphie Latine, p. 224. 



230 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTIONS 

The customs of the Romans relating to the disposition of their 
dead have been the means of preserving for us a very large number 
of inscriptions. Their early rock-hewn tombs, their sarcophagi and 
stately mausolea, their catacombs with columbaria, or recesses for 
cinerary urns, and their burial grounds, are marked by inscriptions 
which appear either on the walls of buildings, on the receptacles 
themselves, on separate slabs of stone, or on the cippi indicating 
the place of burial. These inscriptions va,ry in form and matter 
according to their period, or according to the caprice of the builder 
of the tomb, or even in accordance with legal restrictions. 

The earliest sepulchral inscriptions represented by the epitaphs 
from Praeneste given below, contain only the name of the deceased, 
regularly in the nominative case, though somewhat later the gen- 
itive is likewise found. 




M. VaUi{s) ■ M{arci) fllios 



SEPULCHRAL INSCEIPTIONS 



231 



■*» 






I 



L.Aiiii:i(s) ■ V{ihi) -JXilius) 

EpiVdphs rroui rrai;in;=lL- dalixig bc-twtjun l'-jl»-lC'Li u.c. 

a I. L. XIV. 8131, 8133, 3MT, 8052. 

If the tomb was intended for more than one person, the names of 
all were often given. In this case the living were denoted by V or 
VIV = 'yTOMS or viva, vivit, vivunt, placed alongside of the name. 
The names of the dead were marked by 0/ -0-, or standing for 
ot)iit or obitus, or by Q Q = quondam, placed generally at the 
beginning of the inscription or before the name, or, by exception, 
after the name or before the statement of age or after it.^ 



f 



s... 






Epitaph iD^cribtjd un a prdesta] loiiiid at Vr.u-i 
a I. Z. XIV. 3188. 



stc 11(111-100 B.C. 



L. Oppi(s) L. f(ilius) Flacus films 

In the progress of time additions were made to this simple form, 
which were in general the indications of calling or profession, the 

^This is the theta nigrum of the poets (Persius, 4. 13; Martial, VII. 37), 
standing for Baviiv. It is found in the earlier Inscriptions of the city and Italy, 
but is rare after the Augustan period. It is not to be confounded with -0-. 

" E. Mowat, Bulletin Jlpigr., 1884, p. 133 ; Hijbner's Exempla, p. Ixxiii. 
See also C. I. L. XII., p. 964, col. 1. 



232 



LATIN INSCRTPTTOX-S 













■i;^* 






Ij^i w 












SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTIONS 



233 



date of death, the age of the person, and set formulae, such as ossa 
liic sita sunt, heic cubat, usually written in full until after the repub- 
lican period, also brief references to the dead as bonus, pudica, and 
finally the measures of the sepulchre and formulae referring to the 
protection of the same. 






F' I f V//\' 



I 



A/)'\/i-/Vo 









/ 



Inscriptions on cinerary urns found in tlie vineyard of San Uesareo, Rome, 150-50 b.o. 

Lutatia \ a. d. IV. k(alendas) 0{ctohris) \ nan f C. I. L. VI. 8297. 
Livia I a. d. VI. nionas) 0{ctohris) G. I. L. VI. 8290. 

Lucilla T.f. I a. d. IV. kQilendas) Mar{tias) C. I. L. VI. 8291. 

At about the close of the fifth century a.u.c. (250 b.c), contem- 
poraneous with the introduction of the custom of building tombs 
with some architectural design, and adding ornamentation, poetical 
elogia were inscribed after the usual titulus, mainly upon the tombs 
of distinguished families. The early epitaphs ^ of the Scipio family 



1 See pages 294, 296. 



2M LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

contain poetic epigrams in saturnian verse, and one ^ of a later date 
is accompanied by an epigram in hexameters and pentameters. 
This custom grew in favor) especially with the middle classes, where 
Greek influence was felt. 

sv^vEmEf■CE[-sfrvsT i 

. MiMVS-PtOVRVMA-avfl 
,k.;FE C1T-POPVL6-SOVE/5" ' 
^ GAVD/A-NVGES- 




Epitaph fouDd at Preturo, near Amitemum. 
C. I. L. I. 1297 = rx. 4463. P. L. M. S. XLIX. o. 

Frotogenes Cloul(i) ' suavei^ heicei^ situst mimus, 
Plounima que fecit popvlo soueis* gaudia nuges. 

Ritsohl states that these are the oldest dactylic verses in the inscriptions, 
belonging to about the time of Ennius. i Frotogenes was the slave of this man. 
2 suavei(s) = suavis ? ^ So Buecheler — duplici videtur locativi casus nota signa- 
turn, but Bitschl reads heic ei; see Lindsay, Latin Language, p. 567. *soueis 
— monosyllable. 

Towards the close of the Eepublic reference is made occasionally 
to the cultus of the dei manes, and the tomb is regarded as the (locus) 
deum maanium (C. I. L. I. 1410), or the dei manes are represented 
as having received the dead, while in the Augustan age the tituU 
sepulcrales assume the form of tituli sacri, becoming, in reality, dedi- 

1 See page 99. Other verse is found, such as iambic senarii, Eph. IV., p. 297; 
iambic dimeter, C. 7. L. VI. 6821; elegiac, G. 7. L. I. 1011 = VI. 9499; hendeea- 
syllabics, C. L L. VI. 9752, X. 1948. See Hubner, Ex. Scr., p. 396, also Antholo- 
gia Latina, Pars Posterior, Carmina Epigraphica, F. Buecheler, Leipzig, 1895. 



SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTIONS 235 

cations to the dei manes, while certain characteristics of honorary 
inscriptions, such as the fiill indication of official position, also 
appear. 



L'; O Rh^ £! Wr CK F Cfifi 'or-ifT/j^^^.-'A 5//" E HT; ^ 
, f'^-iflD?"! -JH. C,.'^^SV,v-S. vOSr'V''TAt\EFC :iTnOf i 

Epitaph of L. Gomellus Scipio, believed to be the son of HlspaUiis, Consul 57S/176. 
a I. L. I. 84 = VI. 1289. P. L. M. E. XLI. 

L. Cornelius Cn. f. Cn. n. Seipio, 

Magna sapientia multasque virtutes 

Aetate quum parva posidet hoc saxsum. 

Quoiei vita defecit, non hohos, honore. 

Is hie situs, quei nunquam victus est mrtutei, 

Annas gnatus (viginti) is [div^eis m^anldatus, 

Ne quairatis honore quei minus sit mandlat}u[s']. 

Elements entering into the composition of tituli sepulcrales. 
I. Dis Manibus (Oeoi^ Sai[io<Tiv, KwraxOovLoii). 

Inscriptions dating from the Augustan age regularly begin with 
these words, at first written in full, then later on abbreviated D ■ M. 
Other forms are dis manibus sacnim D • M ■ S or d. m. sacrum, 
d. TO. et memoriae or et genio, et quieti aetemae, somno aeternali, etc. 
In rare instance D • M is found at the close of the inscription (C /. 
L. X. 684). Sometimes a dedication to some other divinity, e.g. 
Venus, Juno, or Luna, is substituted for that to the dei manes. This 
occurs particularly in inscriptions from Spain. 



236 







LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 






felt 



a. 






Ud 



LU 



\><-^0^ 



,KAl1j^=^ ^ < 



Q 



L ^ ^ -^ '-^ ^ 



M>o^t^^ 



fr- r\^ 



>. "^ i±: cx' 'w'f— 

1-7 Q:! - .^ r_ Ltii 

g o^S o w H 

K 0,0 ^ ^i* (Q 

kL ^ ^ (? ' ; ■" ■- i 



o 
o 



SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTIONS 237 

II. Name of the dead. 

After the dedication to the dei manes there followed the name of 
the dead, with or without official titles or statements as to profession 
or calling. The name appears either in the nominative case as the 
subject of some verbal phrase, as hie adquiescit or iacet, situs est, in 
the genitive, depending upon dis manibus, or in the dative when 
the inscription is really honorary in character. 

Minor elements associated with the name of the dead. 

1. The age of the person is expressed by a variety of formulae: annorum 
AN, ANN, vixit minis (tot) V • A, AN, ANN. The accusative annos is also found, 
but is not.as'common as the ablative. At times the months (jnensibus or menses 
M, MENS) are also given, and in the early period, particularly in case of infants, 
the days {diehus, dies D, Dl, DIEB), and even the hours {horis H, HOR, 0). 

A relative clause often expresses the age, qui or quae vixit annis (tot) 
Q ■ V • A, also vixit annis plus minus VIX • ANN ■ P ■ M, which is rare before the 
middle of the third century a.d., but common in the later period. 

Other formulae are annos agens (tot), defunctus annorum (tot) D, DE, DF, 
&, DEF • AN, ANN, oiitus annorum (tot) 0, -e- • AN, ANN. 

In inscriptions relating to married persons the length of married life is ex- 
pressed in various ways, qui or quae vixit annis (tot), or facere, ferre, laborare 
cum (illo) in place of vivere cum (illo). In epitaphs of soldiers the years of 
service are usually given, so annorum (tot), stipendiorum (tot) ST, STIP, aerum 
(tot) AER or militavit annis (tot) M, MIL ■ AN, ANN. These indications of years 
in tituli sepulcrales are found particularly in inscriptions of men of lower rank 
who have held no official position and upon whose tomb no honorary titles can 
be recorded. 

2. In the tomb inscription of a gladiator together with his years of service 
there is also given the peculiar class to which he belonged, as essedarius ESSE, 
murmillo M, MVR, contra retiarius 7R, also the number of victories, denoted by 
the symbol (according to some = coronae). In the case of aurigae the epitaph 
contains ihefactio, e.g. f actio veneta; the country, e.g. natione Maurus ; the age, 
number of victories, e.g. primum vicit, date of victory, horses with which the 
contest was won, character of contest, e.g. inter singularum vicit (toties), inter 
binarum (toties), secundas tulit (toties), and finally the money earned.^ 

1 For complete information as to charioteers see Friedlander, Sittengeschichte, 
II.,s p. 526; Wil. II., p. 181; Ephem. Ep. IV. 2417, and Bullett. Comunale, 
1878, p. 164. 



238 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

3. Circumstances of death. 

a latronibus occisus, peregre defunctus, mors per culpam curantium, tegula 
prolapsa peremptus, a tauro deceptus.^ 

4. Formulae referring to the repose of the dead. 

hie situs H • S, hie situs est H • S • E, hie sepultus esJ H • S • E, hie iaeet H • I, 
hie adquiescit H • ADQ, ossa hie sita sunt ■ H ■ S ■ S, ossa hie sunt • H • S. 

5. Salutations addressed to the dead by passers-by, placed either at the 
beginning or close of the inscription. 

Ave or have, salve, with the name of the dead in the vocative case, as have 
Vitalis, LolU ave. Sit tibi terra levis S • T ■ T • L, ossa tua bene quiescant 
O'- T • B • Q, sit vobis terra levis S • V • T • L, ossa volo bene quiescant • V • 
B • Q, hie ossa volo bene quiescant H • ■ V • B • Q, opto sit tibi terra levis 
O . S . T . T . L. 

6. Salutations represented as addressed by the dead to the living, either at 
the beginning or close of the inscription. 

Ave, salve, vale viator, tu qui legis vale et cum voles venito, bene valeat is qui 
hoc titulum perlegit meum. 

III. The place of burial. 

1. Circumstances bearing upon the selection of a place. 

locus datus decurionum decreto L • D • D • D, loco dato senatus consulto 
L • D • S • C, empto loco, locus adsignatus a patrono, locus emptus est ^ . . . 
argenti, loeiim precario petierunt ab (illo). 

2. Measures of the tomb. 

infronte or in frontem pedes (tot) I, IN • F, FR, FRONT • P, PED, in via, in 
agro or in agrum pedes (tot) I, IN • A, AG, AGR, retro RET or in retro pedes 
(tot) IN • R- These are sometimes rendered more explicit by the addition of 
longus L, LONG, and latus L, LAT, e.g. infronte longumpedes (tot), latumpedes 
(tot) ; also locus L or locus monumenti L • U, e.g. L ■ M ire fronte pedes (tot), 
area quae ante sepulerum est huie monumento cedit in fronte pedes (tot). 

3. Protection of tomb from desecration and alienation. 

huie monumento dolus malus abesto H • M ■ D • M • A, ni violato, hoc monu- 
mentum heredem non sequetur or sequitur H • M • H • N • S, hoe monumentum 
heredem exterum non sequetur H • M • H • E • N ■ S, hoc monumentum sive 
sepulerum est heredem non sequetur H-M-S-S-E-H-N-S, hoc monu- 
mentum sine dolo malo H • M • S • D • M, dolus malus abesto et ius civile 
D • M • A • ET • I • C, hoc monumentum ad heredem non pertinet H • M ■ A • H • N • P, 
rogo te viator monumento huie nil malefeceris. 

1 See Index C. I. L. under Mortes Singulares. 



SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTIONS 239 

IV. The dedication of the monument. 

This portion of the inscription partakes of the nature of tituli 
honorarii which appear on public monuments and buildings. It 
may consist simply of the designation of the person dedicating the 
tomb, and an indication of the one remembered, or it may form an 
elaborate elogium containing references to the deeds of the dead, 
and setting forth details as to the tomb and the occasion of its 
dedication. 

This dedicatory form often takes the place of the ordinary titulus 
sepulcralis. 

Minor Elements : 

1. The persons who dedicate the tomb or monument. 

These are designated either by their names or by terms which, frequently 
modified by adjectives, make clear the relationship or bond of union existing 
between the dedicator and the one remembered : amicus, heres, libertus, pater 
infelicissimus, coniux carissima, heres ex iussu eius solus, patronus, parentes 
non hoc merentes a vobis, nutrix filiarum eius, collegium, sodales. 

2. Terms denoting the object dedicated. 

domus aeterna, locus sepulturae, monumentum, sepulcrum, sarcophagus, 
tumulus, titulus, aedes. 

3. Verbal phrase. 

adornavit, aedificavit, constituit, donavit, ponendum curavit P • C, sub ascia 
dedicavit S • A, ASC • D, DED (Gaul), posuit. 

4. Phrases explaining the circumstances or the reasons for building the 
monument. 

ex auctoritate (illius), ex beneficio, secundum decretum ipsorum (coUegii), 
nomine meo et uxoris, ex praecepto matris, ex testamento. 

arbitratu (illius), curam agente (illo), (illo) curante, (illis) curantibus. 

honoris causa, memoriae causa, ob merita eius, ob memoriam custodiendam 
adque propagandam, pro meritis eorum. 

6. The person for whom, or in remembrance of whom, the tomb has been 
built is denoted either by his name or by a term indicating the relationship or 
the basis Of the union existing between him and the one providing the tomb. 

amico bene merenti A . B • M, coniugi (C), carissimae (o) flliae (o), fratri 
bene merenti B ■ M, Ubertae carissimae et bene merenti, libertabus, patrono 
indulgentissimo, marito amantissimo, mihi et uxori utrisque nobis vivis 



240 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



PSTT^S'TS^ 






-ixJ 

7 






--T^ 



UJ 

tq 
.O-l 

>|^ Cfe . v^ EK, ^ ^ V. TJ , 



SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTIONS 241 

posteritatique nostrae, sibi et suis S • ET • S, sibi et suis libertis libertabus 
posterisque S • ET ■ S ■ L • L • P • Q, municipibus suis incolisque, nutrici et 
mammulae bene merenti, servo ftdelissimo. 

Words denoting relationship are at times modified by such phrases as 
(marito) cum quo mxit annis (tot) sine ulla animi laesione, (vLxori) cum qua 
concorditer egit per annos (tot). 

There are also in existence sepulchral inscriptions which, are, in 
reality, documents^ (instrumenta). Of this character are the funeral 
orations, e.g. Laudatio Murdiae^ of the first century a.d., which, 
having formed a part of the obsequies, have been inscribed upon the 
tomb ; also legal documents, such as the will of Dasumius " (108 a.d.) 
and the donatio * of Flavius Syntrophus. 

Columbaria 

One form of tomb used in Rome was that known as columbarium.^ 
These were burial-rooms, built partly above ground, in the walls of 
which were arranged small recesses or niches having the appearance 
of pigeon-holes (columbarium — dove-cot). These niches were used 
to hold vases (pllae) containing the ashes of the dead. Columbaria 
frequently served as the tombs of men of the lower classes, as of 
freedmen and slaves, and were, for the most part, built by collegia 
or societates, whose members thus secured by cooperation a final 
resting-place for themselves and family. Upon the completion of 
such a building the ollae were portioned out to the various members 
of the collegium.' A difference in number of the ollae assigned 
implied a difference in the amount contributed*.^ Each member 
indicated his own place by inscribing his name upon a marble tablet 
which was fastened above or below the recess, or by writing his 
name with a graphium on the wall of the building. The tablets, 

1 See Acta ad sepulcra spectantia, C. I. L. VI., p. 1356 ff. 

2 C. I. L. VI. 10230, and page 293. 
8 C. /. L. VI. 10229, Wil. 314. 

4 a I. L. VI. 10239, WH. 312. 
^ 6 y^ii I., pp. 118-119. 

6 Cf . paHes viriles, Wil. n. 336, or sortes, Wil. 333, 335. 
T Wil. 335, 344. 

LAT, INSCKIP. 16 



242 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

termed tessellae, were either removed when the titulus sepulcralis was 
inscribed, or took the place of the same.^ 

The general arrangement of sepulchral inscriptions may be shown 
Jius '' : 

D. M. 8. 
ills or illius or illi 
{qui) vixit annis tot 

ille 

patri carissimo fecit 

h. s. e. 

If the tomb was made by a living person for several others, the 
arrangement was as follows : 

D. M. D. M. 

illi coniugi suae ille fecit 

vixit annis tot illi coniugi suae 

et illi fllio sua or vixit annis tot 

vixit annis tot et illi fllio suo 

et illifiliae suae vixit annis tot 

vixit annis tot et illi filiae suae 

ille fecit vixit annis tot 

If the maker of the tomb expected to be one of its occupants, the 

form was : 

Z>. M. 

.„ ( vivus 
tile < . 

» I VIVO 

sibi fecit 

et illi coniugi suae 

vixit annis tot 

et illi fllio suo 

vixit annis tot 

et illi filiae suae 

vixit annis tot 

et suis libertis libertabusque 

posterisque eorum 

iWil.n. 380-385. 

"Cagnat, Cours d' SpigrapUe, pp. 254-256. 



HONORARY INSCRIPTIONS 243 

HONORARY INSCRIPTIONS 

TlTDLI HONOEAKII 

The custom of raising statues in honor of distinguished men and 
adding thereto honorary inscriptions appeared in Rome towards the 
close of the third century B.C. This custom was of Greek origin, and 
some inscriptions are found in the Greek form, i.e. with the name (in 
the accusative case) of the person honored and with the verb omitted. 

The Romans at first merely transferred the inscriptions of their 
imagines maiorum to their tombs, adding these to the simple and 
customary titidi sepulcrales. The elogia of the Scipio inscriptions 
referred to above are of this character, although they are poetical in 
form. Memorial and honorary inscriptions (filogia), consisting of 
the name (in the nominative case) of the person honored, followed 
by official titles of curule offices and brief historical statements, may 
be regarded as the primitive form of tituli lionorarii. What was 
thus done by private persons was soon imitated publicly in the 
setting up, with, however, no sepulchral connection, either during 
the lifetime of the individual honored or after his death, of honorary 
inscriptions such as the Columna Eostrata in honor of C. Duilius, 
and the elogia of the triumphal arch of Fabius. 

Of a similar character- are the brief inscriptions found on the 
pedestals of statues and those of a memorial and honorary nature 
which appear on marble tablets and beneath husts. 

We learn from ancient writers that Augustus adorned his forum 
with statues of famous men, particularly of distinguished generals, 
and added inscriptions denoting their achievements. Only a few 
fragments of these elogia have been preserved, but as copies were 
set up also at Arretium which still exist, we can learn from them the 
character of the originals. It is possible that similar elogia found at 
other places, e.g. at Pompeii, referring to Aeneas and Romulus, may 
have been copied from the city inscriptions placed by Augustus.^ 

1 In C. I. L. elogia appear in vol. I.^ pp. 185-202, classed by themselves as 
somewhat of a literary character, taken from public and private records, and 
therefore not strictly tituli sepulcrales or tituli honorarii. They have the names 
of those honored in the nom. case and refer to men of the days of the Republic. 



244 



LATIN INSCKIPTIOnS 



_^,,.:rrXEMET-LEXnt 
CTMOSQy£-M AGIST BJ^T' 
^EM'CASTP.EIS'EXFOCl6v4T-MAarN 
^CNANDOD'CEPET'ENQyEEODEM-M.Al 
^'M-NAVEBOS'MARlD'CONSOLTP.lMOS- , 
/LASESQyE-NAVALESfRlMOS'OR.NAV£Ifi 
/vMOyE'ElS-NAVEB^S-CLASEIS-POENICAS-OMl 
VMAS-COPIAS'OARTACINIENSlS'PRAESENT^ 
UCJATOELEDP^MOMINALTODMAR-I^^'^ 
;^Y£^Ai^-^ /T'CVMSOCIElS'SErTEv^ 
fR IRESM OS QVE'N AVEIS- )^ 
L'CArTOM-NVM El ' ©QCDDC 
"OMCAPTOMTRAEDA'NVMEI-CB) 
, C A P T OM A E S ■ m ffi © (® SE) (aR)Q»)(ff[5) 

^QQVE'NAVALED'PRAEDA D-POnoi 

Colutmui Bostrata. 

Inscribed on a fragment of Parian marble found in the Forum where the Eostra stood, 
now preserved on the Capitol in the Palazzo dei Conservatori. 

Hiibner's Meem^la, No. 91. 



!i8ecest'}ano[sque'] [op-] 

[^sidione^d exemet lecione[sque Cartaciniensis omnis] 
[ma'\ximosque macistr\^a'\tos l\uci palam post dies'\ 
[niovem castreis exfoeiont, Macel\a,mque opidom m] 
\^p']uonandod cepet. enque eodem mac[istratud bene] 
[r]em navebos marid consol primos c[eset copiasque] 
[^c]lasesque navales primos ornavet pa[ravetque], 

cumque eis navebos claseis Poenicas omn[is item ma-l 
[x']umas copias Cartaciniensis praesente[d Hannibaled^ 

dictatored ollorlom in altod marid pucnlandod vicet] 
[^vi']que nave[is cepe^t cum socieis septer[esmom unam quin-'] 
[^queresmlosque triresmosque naveis X[XX, merset XIII'\ 

\_auro'\m captom : numei ® DCC 
\arcen~\tom caplom praeda npmei © C 



HONORARY INSCRIPTIONS 245 

[omwe] Captom aes © (repeated more than twenty-one times) 

Ipri-} 

[mos qu]oque navaled praedad poplom [donavet pri-] 

[mosque] Co?'tocim[ens]is [incelnuos d[uxit in] 

[trixvmpod] eis . . . capt . . . C. I. L. VI. 1300. 

Though this inscription refers to C. Duilius, consul 494/260, who won the 
battle of Mylae, it was probably inscribed with imitation of archaic forms in 
the imperial period, perhaps in the time of Claudius (Ritsohl, Opusc. IV., p. 
204). Wolfflin believes it to have been taken from a more ancient inscription 
in the time of Augustus, i 

From the period of Sulla honorary inscriptions regularly assume 
the dedicatory form having the name of the person honored in the 
dative case. Such inscriptions form the tituli honorarii of the later 
Republic and of the imperial period. 

Inscriptions on statues erected in honor of those still living were 
at first of simple form, consisting of the name of the person honored 
followed by the title of the oflB.ce held at the time of dedication. 

TO{¥lF^COS«SIGM 

Inscribed on a pedestal found at Saguntum. 
Hubner's lj}x&nvpla^ No. 214. 

C. Caesari Augusti f{ilio) \pontif{ici), co{n)s{uli) design^ato), \principi 
iuventutis. Date 748/6 - 753/1. G. I L. II. 3828. 

From the time of Augustus, however, inscriptions more elaborate 
and resembling in their contents elogia, but of a dedicatory form, 
were set up in honor of celebrated men, particularly triumphatores, 
both at Eome, as in the new fora of Augustus and Trajan, and also 
in the provincial cities. This custom spread throughout the Roman 
world and continued until the fourth or fifth century. 

1 Bavar. Class. Phil. Hist. 1890, p. 295. Quintilian, Inst. I. 7, 12, and 
Pliny, JV. //. XXXIV. 20, both refer to this inscription. For the facts of 
history see Polyb. I. 23, 7 ; I. 24, 2 ; Zonar. VIII. 11 ; Eutrop. 11. 20 ; Oros. 
XV. 7, 10. 



246 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Tituli honorarii of the form just described regularly consist of the 
following principal elements : 

I. The names (in the dative case) of the person honored. 

The names of emperors are regularly accompanied by the usual 
titles, while that of others may appear in simple form or, on the 
other hand, be accompanied by the cursus honorum and the desig- 
nations of the various functions arranged as described above. In 
some cases the name is in the genitive preceded by honori or in 
honorem. 

II. The name of the person, or, as in many instances, of the com- 
munity or collegium raising the statue and setting up the inscription. 
This element regularly follows the first, although it may be separated 
from it by certain idiomatic phrases. 

III. Various phrases or formulae accounting for the conferring of 
the honor, or bearing upon the circumstances of the raising of the 
statue or monument. 

1. Adjective or appositional phrases indicating the worth or dignity of the 
person honored : amantissimo patriae, abstinentissimo iustissimo disertissimo 
(praesidi pio-v.), praestantissimo (patrono), optima ac dignissimo (patrono). 

2. Phrases indicating the reasons for conferring the honor : ob amorem et 
instantiam erga patriam civesque, ob merita eius, ob eximiam benignamque erga 
omnes cives suos adfectionem, pro singulnribus erga civitatem nostram meritis, 
propter eximiam pietatem ct affectionerii fraternam, ad aeternitatem meritorum 
eius, ad perennem ipsir.s gloriam, ad referendam gratiam, ad perenne testi- 
monium, ob honorem eius, honoris causa'^ H • C. 

3. Phrases describing the dedicator : dicatissimus numini maiestatique eorum 
(imperatorum), devotus numini maiestatique eius (eorum), memor liberalitatis 
et honorificentiae eius. 

4. Phrases bearing upon the circumstances of the raising of the statue, regu- 
larly placed at the end of the inscription : petitu populi Bomani, publice P, 
publice decurionum decreto P • D • D, ex senatus consulto EX • S • C, decreto 
decurionum D • D, DEC • DEC, DECR • DEC, accedente auctoritate proconsulum, 
permissu proconsuHs P - P. 

aere conlato A, AER • C, COLL, pecunia publico P, PEC • P, PVB, pecunia sua 
P • S, de pecunia sua D • S ■ P, de suo D • S. 

locus datus decurionum decreto L • D • D • D or LOC • DAT -D-D. 

1 This formula occurs at the close of earlier inscriptions. 



INSCRTPtlONS ON PUBLIC WORKS 247 

A 
locus datus senatus consulto L • D • S • C. 

decurionum decreto pecunia publica D • D • P • P. 

cura agente (illo) C • A, CVR • AG, curante ac perflciente (lUo). 

If the person honored has himself met the expenses of the raising of the 
statue, the fact is indicated at the close of the inscription : honore usus sumptus 
remisit loco dato decreto decurionum H-V-S-R-L-D-D-D, honore accepto 
impensam remisit H • A • I • R, honore contentus sua pecunia posuit H • C • S • P ■ P, 
honore usus impensam remisit H • V • I ■ R. 

IV. The fourtli element is a verbal phrase, expressed or under- 
stood. Such are — 

statuam censuit ponendam, conlocavit, erigi conlocarique iusserunt, statuen- 
dum etiravi, statuam conlocandam decrevit, ponendam or poni censuit, posuit 
idemque dedicavit, fecit FEC, faciundum curavit F • C. 

The order of the elements may be indicated thus ^ : 

illi illi illi illi 

ille oh merita ille ille 

ob merita ille ob merita ob merita 

statuam posuit statuam posuit locus datus decreto decurionum 

The first shows the omission of the verb, the second and third the 
position of the verbal phrase, and the fourth the general position of 
the formulae of honor. 

INSCBIPTIONS ON PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND STRUCTUEES 
TriuLi Operum Poblicoeum 

In the last century of tho republic it became customary in Kome 
to place inscriptions upon public buildings and temples, also upon 
other structures, such as bridges, arches, and aqueducts. These 
were primarily intended to simply indicate the person or the com- 
munity under whose direction the work had been accomplished. 

The early and simple form, belonging particularly to buildings 
erected by private persons, consisted of the name of the one erect- 
ing the building and a verb, e.g. fecit, or verbal phrase. Of this 
character is the inscription on the Pantheon. 

M ■ AGRIPPA ' L . F • COS • TERTIVM • FECIT O.I.I. VI. 896. 

1 Cagnat, Cours d^^pigraphie Latiiie,, p. 229. 



248 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

As the custom grew in prevalence, the inscriptions were made 
much more extensive, and under the Empire they were given with 
great fulness, containing many particulars connected with the rais- 
ing of the structure so adorned, so that they virtually fulfilled the 
purpose of records and served as inscriptions in honor of those 
named, becoming in character, and finally in form, tituli honorarii. 



bSTATlVS-CMF CHl LQ 
LP ETT IVS'-C-F PAiVfSA 
GPETT r/SVf-GEMELLVs 
;LTATT 1 VS -T- F C OX SA '^ 
1. ;• MAG! STR {'LAYER NE|S 
AAV RVM-CA EMENT I Ci VN 
iPORTAM'PORTl Q VM 

iXF^Ai' ^'^'*^'BOWAeD£A t 
lACfDECRETOFAaENDV, 

Inscriptiou uf Teniple ul Bona i>ea, at Laveriiue, now Prezza, near Corlinium, Italy. 
a I. L. 1. 1279 = IX. 8138. P. L. M. S. 

The various elements which enter into these inscriptions may be 
classified as follows : 

I. The names and titles, in the nominative case, of the person or 
community building the structure or restoring the same. 

II. The designation of the structure, or description of the work 
accomplished, in the accusative case : 

portas, halneas, templum, Aqiiam Marciam, areiim, aquaeductum, horologium, 
porticum ad halineum cum piscina et sirjno Cupidinis, thermas cum porticibus 
duplicibus, aquam per publicum ducendam, tabularium faciundum, etc. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON PUBLIC WORKS 249 

If the inscription indicates the restoration or rebuilding of the 
structure, phrases describing its former condition are found : 

thermas HercuUs vi terrae motus eversas, porticus publicas vetustate cor- 
ruptas, basilicam equestrem exercitatoriam iampridem a solo coeptam. 

III. A verb or verbal phrase expressing the idea of constructing or 
of rebuilding and restoring, or again of dedication or of supervision : 

aedijlcare, perficere, dare, de suo dare D • S ■ D, fucere faciundum curare et 
probare, adornare or ornare, a solo facere A ■ S • F, sLernere, ponere, reflcere, 
restituere, reparare, rejiciundum coerare, ad prisiinam factum reducere. 

IV. Various phrase's expressing : place, 

loco privato, accepto loco a re publico, loco dato publice decreto decurionum 
L • D ■ PVB • D • D ; 

time, see page 229; measure, (murum) pedes C C; expense or means 
of providing for the same, 

de pecnnia sua factum dedit D • P • S ■ F • D, peeunia publica P • P, sumptu 
propria, parvo sumptu, amplius esc sestertium (tot) m(ilibus) n(ummuni) de sua 
peeunia; 

reasons for building the structure, 

ob honorem aedilitatis, ob honorem flaminis, quod eos e lege in ludis aut in 
monnmentis consumere oportuit, ex pagi decreto, de decurionum sententia 
D ■ D • S, de senatus sententia D • S ■ S, de vici sententia faciundum curarunt 
idemque probarunt D-V-S-F-C-l-Q-P, senatus consulto S • C ; 

supervision of those in authority, 

curantibus aedilibus, curante ordine splendidissimo, curante et dedicante 
(illo), sub cura,per (ilium). 

The architect's name is given in rare instances. 

"When the structure is dedicated to some divinity, as with temples, 
the inscription is strictly dedicatory, and is introduced by the name 
of the divinity in the dative case. See tituli sacri. 

These tituH operum publicorum afso serve the purpose of honorary 
inscriptions, and assume the form of such, being introduced by the 
name of the person honored in the dative case, or by phrases 



250 



LATIJSr INSCRIPTIONS 



expressing the idea of honorary dedication, thus explaining the 
motive for the construction of the building, e.g. in Konorem damns 
divinae IN • H ■ D ■ D, pro salute imperatoris Caesaris PRO • SAL- 
IMP • CAES, 2>'>'o magnificentia saeculi dominnrum nostrorum Augu.s- 
torumduorum — DD • NN • AVGG, aureo saeculo dominorum nostro- 
rum trium — DDD • NNN. 



iMP-CAES-FLCO^r 


IS'IAWTINDMAXI M O 


P'F-AyCVST 


O • S • P • O. • R 


OVODMSTINCT^ 


/DIVINITATISME NTIS 


MAGNITVDINI 


C VM EXEP.CIT V SVO 


TAMDETYRANN 


OQM^MDEOMNIEIVS 


FACTIOHEVNOTEMPOREIVSTI S 


REMPVBLICAMVLTVSiSTARMIS 


ARCVMTRIVMFHISINSIGNEMDICAVIT 



Inscription on the Arch of Oonstantine, Rome. Date, 315 a.d. 
Habner's Ex-&fnpla^ No. 702. See page 163. 

The various forms of titvXi operum publicorum may be represented 
thus : 



ille 



in honorem illius ^ 



curiam faciundam ille 

desua pecunia aedificium vetustate corruptum 
coeravit refecit 

dedicante illo 

aedificium illud^ 

refectum (est) 

per ilium, 

cura illius 



pro salute Imp. Caes.^ 
aedificium, illud 

ille 
ob honorem ilium 
sua pecunia fecit 
idemque dedicavit 



When the passive form is used the verb sum is understood, and 
agency is denoted by per with the accusative. 

1 From Cagnat, Oours d'Spigraphie, p. 237. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON PUBLIC WORKS 



251 



Milestones and Bocndaky Stones 
Miliaria et Gippi Terminales 

Of the inscriptions appearing on public works, those found on the 
cylindrical or cubical milestones (miliaria) of the Roman viae, and 
on the boundary stones (cippi terminales) of the agrimensores deserve 
special mention, inasmuch as they contain names of places, records 
of distances, measurements, and boundary lines, which are valuable 
in the study of the geography and topography of both Rome and of 
her provinces, in addition to the ordinary information of other tituli 
operum publicorum. 

Miliaria 

Miliaria of republican days, which are rare, compared with the 
great number belonging to the imperial period, regularly contain 
inscriptions which are of simple form, consisting of the name of the 
founder of the road and a number indicating distance. 



PPOPlLLIVSG 




Colmmia MiUa/Ha of P. PopiliuB Laenas, found near Hadria, on the Po. Date, 
P. FopilUtts 0. f. I COS. I vbXXXI 

C I. L. I. 550 = V. 8007. This is a stone column four feet high and two 
feet broad, narrowing toward the hase for insertion in the ground. Mommsen 
considers it the oldest form of stone miliaria. The numerals indicate the milia 
passuum from Ariminum. 



252 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

The other and more famous miliariufa Popilianum erected by the 
same, man, P. Popilius Laenas, consul 622/132, is more than a mere 
milestone, and serves the purpose of an elogium. 

tN-FA VIA- r ONTEIS-OMNEfS-MMJ ARIOS 

TABELAR|05aVE-roSEIVEl-HINCE-SVN1| 

NO VCE R ! A MMElLf A-X f -CAPVAM-XXaiii j 

AAVRAN VA^'XXX nil •COSENTlAAACXXIt! 

: NAUm'At^iC,ix)::-M' AD-FRET\W^ 

S.^TATVAM-CCXXX!5' REGIVA/VCCXXXVI' ; 

SVMAAFCAPVARECIVM'MEIUA'COe 
ET'E IDE. v.- PRAETOR. IN \^XI| 

SieiUA'EVCfTElVOS-ITALICORV/A i 
eONQVAEISfVE l-REDJDEiavE ! 

MOM} ME S' BCCCC XVII •- E ID EMaVE! 
PRlMVS'FFCEIVTDEACRO'rorLiCo! 
ARATOR!8 VS'CEDERENT'PAASTORE5 I 
,..^J^O^VAAv^E0{SQV£-POPLICAS-HEjGFECEIj 

Milianwm of P. Popilias Laenas. Date, 622/132. P. L. M. E., LI S. 

Viam feeei ab Begio ad Capuani, et | in ea via ponteis omneis, miliarios | 
tabdariosque poseivei. Hince sunt \ Nouceriam meilia -i/\, Capuam 
XXCIIN I Muranum O/Xllll, Oosentiam CXXlll, | Valentiam Cvl/XXX/, ad 
/return ad | statuam CCXXXI .', Begium CCXXXVII | snma af Capua Begiitm 
meilia CCCXXI /. Et eidem praetor in \ Sicilia fngiteivos Italicorum | con- 
quaeisivei, redideique \ homines DCCCCXVII. Eidemque \ primus fecei, utde 
agro poplico \ aratoribus cederent paastores. | Forum aedisque poplieas heie 
feeei. 

C: I. L. I. 551 = X. 6950. Found near PoUa, in Lucania, where Forum 
Popilii was situated. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON PUBLIC WORKS 263 

Inscriptions on milestones vary greatly in form, but admit of the 
following classification : 

I. The first class is marked by the nominative case of names and 
titles : in time of the Republic, of magistrates, and in the imperial 
period, of the emperors. 

a. These, like ordinary tituH operum puhlicorum, may be followed 
by a verb indicating the making or restoring of the road {fecit, poni 
iussit, muniendam curavit, miliaria restituit), accompanied at times 
by an object (yiam or itet), modified by some phrase referring to 
the previous condition of the road or the obstacles met in building. 

■ Numerals denoting distances follow with or without M • P (milia 
passuum). 

b. The names and titles in the nominative case may be followed 
simply by the numeral, with or without M ■ P, or also by the name 
of a legatus in the nominative case and a verb (e.g. fecit). 

II. The second class is marked by the dative case of the name of 
the emperor or magistrate, and resembles honorary inscriptions. 

This may be followed simply by the numeral, or also by the 
designation, in the nominative case, of the official or official body 
making the road or supervising the same, together with a verb ; or 
the nominative case and the verb may be replaced by per and the 
accusative of the name, or by the ablative absolute. 

III. The third class shows the name of the emperor in the abla- 
tive case, serving thus to indicate the date. Such inscriptions are 
common in Africa but rare elsewhere. The name in the ablative 
case may be followed simply by the numeral, with or without M • P, 
or again by the name, in the nominative case, of the official making 
the road or supervising the same, with a verb, or this may be replaced 
by the name of the ofiftcial in the ablative case. 

The numerals that accompany any of the above-mentioned classes 
appear as a rule at the close of the inscription with or without 
M • p. Inscriptions of certain roads of Italy and Sardinia show 
numbers at the beginning, while in others of Italy the numerals 
occur both at beginning and end, the former indicating the distance 
from a neighboring city, the latter denoting the distance from 
Rome. There may also appear a phrase indicating the starting 



254 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



point, i.e. the preposition a with the ablative of the name of the 
place, and to this may be added the designation of the limit of 
distance in the accusative case preceded by ad. 




MlUarium found between Hante-Valette snd 

Gr6oli6re8, near Andon, Maritime AJpe, 

Date 218-21 T. 

[Imp(erator) Caes{ar) M. Aurel{ius) Antoninus Aug(ustus) P(ius) P(_elix), 
PartMcQus) m(aximus) BrittanieQiis) m(a,ximus), t'nb(unieia)'\ po[J(es- 
tate) . . . (i]o(ji)s{uV) IIII, \_p(ater) p(ja,triae), proo(onsul) pont^es) viam- 
q(ue) vetustate colla'ibs^os) rest(ituit), cura(^nte) ac d[edica]nte Inlio 
Honorato, p(rocuratore) Aug{usti) ex primipiKfi). M{ilia) p{assuum) 
decern et octo. 

C. I. L. XII. 6432. This inscription is restored from another mUiarium of 
the same road, No. 5430. 

Boundary Stones 

Boundary stones inscribed on the same general plan as the miliaria 
were used by the Romans to establish the dividing line between the 
ager publicus and ager privatus, to define the boundary between 
different communities, and to mark the course of the Tiber and the 
line of the Pomerium. Very old specimens of these cippi terminaies 

1 For an account of Honian roads, see Bergler, Histoire des Grands Chemins 
de V Empire Eomatn, II., p. 757; F. Berger, XJher die Heerstrasssn des'Mdm. 
Beiches ; II Die Meilensteine, Berlin, 1883. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON PUBLIC WORKS 255 

remain to-day, the earliest of which, dating loefore the second Punic 
war, give the names of certain officials (quaesitores) and a portion 
of a decree setting apart certain lands as sacred. Others, indicating 
the portioning out of the public lands (ager publicus) by Gains 
Gracchus, contain the names of the tresviri in the nominative case 
followed by such expressions as termmos restituendos ex s(enatus) 
cipnsulto), terminos finisque ex s(enatus) c(onsulto) statui iussit inter 
(illos) et (illos). In the imperial period the names of the emperors 
appear in the ge«itive case with iussu or ex auctoritate, followed' by 
the names of the officials in the nominative case, and some phrase, 
as inter illos et illos terminavit. The passive form also occurs, fines 
positi inter (illos) et (illos) iussu, etc. 

Although inscriptions relating to aqueducts appear regularly on 
the structures themselves, others are found on the boundary stones 
which separated the public land assigned for the aqueduct from 
private property.^ Such cipjji, separated from each other by inter- 
vals of 240 feet, were set up, where the space to be left unoccupied 
was set off from private property, by Augustus, Tiberius, and 
Claudius. 

Cippi of a similar kind also defined the pratum of a legion as dis- 
tinguished from the domain of municipalities. Terminus Augustalis 
dividit pratum leg. IIII et agrum IuUobrig(ensem). 

Termini inter Privatum et Publicum 

These cippi indicate the transfer of private land to the public 
domain, and mark the boundary for the saime. They contain the 
names of consuls, emperors, or curatores locorum publicorum, and the 
phrases redemptum a private publicavit or ex privato in publicum 
restituerunt. 

1 The decree of the senate 743/11 is given by Frontinus, Aquaed. c. 127. 
Circa fontes et fornices et muros utraque ex parte vacuos quinos denos pedes 
patcre ; et circa vivos qui sui terra essent et specus intra urbem et extra urhi 
continentia aedificia utraque ex parte quinos pedes vacuos relinqui; ita ut wqvf 
monumrntum in his loois neque- aedificium post hoc tempus ponere neque coii- 
serere arbores liceret. 



256 LATIN mSCKlPTIONS 

Termini Pomerii^ 
The ideal boundary of the city, known as the Pomerium, was 
enlarged by the emperors Claudius and Vespasian. Inscriptions on 
tlie cippi that indicated this imaginary line gave the name of the 
emperor and his titles in the nominative case, followed by aiKtis 
populi Romani finibus pomerium ampliavit terminavitque. Under 
Hadrian the Pomerium was marked anew, and its limits were deter- 
mined by the college of augurs. The inscription on one of these 
cippi shows collegium augurum — auctore imperatore Caesare — 
Hadriano terminos pomerii restituendos curavit. 

Termini Riparum Tiberis^ 

These cippi determine the breadth and the direction of the banks 
of the river. Inscriptions 'of the republican period contain the 
names of consuls or censors in the nominative case, followed bv 
ex s{enatus) c(onsulto) terminaverunt. In the imperial period the 
name of the emperor, accompanied by titles, becomes the subject' of 
the verb. These inscriptions are accompanied by phrases expressing 
the distance to the next stone : r(ecto) r(igore) prox(imus) cipp(its) 
p(edes) XX, or r{ecto) r(igore) ex proximo cipp(6) ped{es) XLS. 

At times the name of the emperor depends upon ex auctoritate, 
a phrase which first appears under Claudius, and is followed by the 
name of the curator alvei et riparum Tiheris in the nominative case, 
subject of the verb terminavit or restituit. 

mSCEIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS OF GENERAL USE 

Instkumentum 

Under the title instrumentum, or instrumentum domesticum, the 
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum presents generally at the close of 
each volume the inscriptions which appear on movable objects of a 

^ D. Detlefsen, Das Pomerium Moms und die Grenzen Italiens, Hermes, 
XXI. 497. O. Riohter, Topographie von Bom (Muller's Sandbuch, vol. III. 
773-775). 

2 Notizie degli Scavi, 1890, 82 ; Bull. Com. XV. (1887), 306 ; XX. (1892), 71. 
Dip C^s. LVIL 14. 7. T^c. Ann. I. 7?. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 257 

great variety and shape, belonging alike to public and private life. 
The most important of these may be classified as follows : I. Arti- 
cles made of Metal — 1) Weights and Measures, 2) Tesserae, 
3) Armor and Missiles, 4) Lead Water Pipes, 6) Vessels and 
Articles of Bronze, Silver, and Gold, 6) Stamps. II. Products of 
Mines and Quarries. III. Tiles and Bricks. IV. Vessels of Clay. 

Weights and Measures 
Pondera et Mensurae. 

By far the largest number of weights and measures are simply 
marked with numbers and letters indicating their size and equiva- 
lents. Others are supplied with brief inscriptions, which refer to 
the authority giving them validity, e.g. ex auctoritate lunii Mustici 
praefecti urbi. Others contain the date, standard of value, and the 
name of the place where the weights were tested. Thus the temple 
of Castor is shown by inscriptions to have been an office for the 
verification of weights and measures ; cf. exactum ad Castoris. 
Weights were made of stone, lead, or bronze, and the inscriptions 
are either in relief, or cut into the surface, or inserted in the material 
with letters of gold or silver.' 

Tesserae 

The term, tesserae, confined, when strictly used, to cubes of ivory 
or bone, is generally applicable to all such small articles of whatever 
shape or material which served among the Romans as tokens or 
vouchers. Among the various kinds of tesserae the following are 
of the greatest importance and interest. 

Tesserae Frumentariae. 

These were tokens distributed among the poorer people of Eome, 
by the surrender or exhibition of which they obtained corn. Very 
few of these remain, unless we may class with them the tesserae 
nummariae coins or counters of lead, of which fifty are in existence, 

^ Iscrizioni Ponderarie, in Annali delV 1st., 1881, p. 185 fi., and Bull. 
Com., 1884, p. 61 ff. 

L4.T. ISSpifll- 17 



268 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

according to Benndorf.' The types of the latter represent some 
attribute of Annona, e.g. the modius, or ears of corn. On some of 
these tesserae there are found inscriptions indicating the time and 
place of distribution. 

Tesserae Theatrales or Imsoriae. 

Circular tesserae of ivory, bone, or lead, used as tickets of admis- 
sion to the theatres, amphitheatres, or circus, have been preserved 
for us in considerable numbers. They contain inscriptions consist- 
ing of Greek names of divinities or poets, and two numbers, seldom 
exceeding XV, one in Latin and one in Greek, corresponding to 
each other, indicating the seat assigned in the cavea. There are 
also seen on these tesserae heads of divinities, representations of 
buildings, or other devices applicable to the character of the spec- 
tacle, e.g. the head of Apollo for ludi musici, of Castor for ludi 
equestres.' Other tesserae theatrales, made of metal and similar to 
coin, contain on one face representations of the emperor, or some 
prominent member of the imperial family, and on the other a num- 
ber rarely exceeding XVI. Sections of the cavea were named after 
members of the emperor's family, and ornamented with their busts 
or statues. The number on the tessera evidently indicated a seat in 
one of these sections.' 

These tesserae, which are shown in great numbers by Blanchet, 
are regarded by Hillsen as tesserae lusoriae, i.e. they were used in 
games of chance as played on the tabulae lusoriae, diagrams for games 
found on the floor and steps of the Basilica lulia (Bullett. dell' 1st., 
1896, p. 227). 

' Beitrdge zur Kenntniss der Attischen Theatres, Wien, 1875. Garracci, I 
Piombi Antichi, Rome, 1847. Eckhel, Doct. Num. VI. 268; VII. 203, 414. 
Marquardt, Staatsverwalt, II. 125. 

2 Henzen, Annali delV 1st., 1838, p. 275. Marquardt, Staatsverwali, III., 
p. 515 ff. Wieseler, Commentatio de Tessereis Eburneis Ossrisque Theatra- 
libus, Gottingen, 1866. Blanchet, Bevue Archeologique (3d series), XIII., 
p. 225 ff. 

8 Fr. Lenormant, La Monnaie dans VAntiquite, p. 62. For the use oJ 
contorniates, sometimes classed with these tesserae, see Ch. Robert, ^tude 
sw les Medallions Contorniates, Brussels, 1882. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 



259 



Tesserae Hospitales. 

Among the Romans, as among the Greets, much importance was 
attached to the tie which hospitality established between an enter- 
tainer and his guest. This relationship was emphasized and formally 
recognized by the interchange of tokens which certified to the exist- 
ence of such a tie. We find references in Plautus to such tesserae^ 
of hospitium privatum, and two or three specimens are in existence 
to-day. A similar relationship, however, was often established 
between two communities, hospitium publicum, or between a com- 
munity and a private person, as when a distinguished man became 
the patron of a city. Such compacts were recorded on tablets of 
bronze (tabulae patronatus ") arranged so as to be placed in public or 
in the atrium of a house. These, when in small form, were equiv- 
alent to tesserae hospitales, e.g. the tessera Fundana^ in the shape of 
a fish could be carried from place to place. 



L iPIPVJMViV^^E 


. m S' w 


M.' K¥H 


^SiNiroa '^QS 



Te88&ra Gladiatoria found at Modena (Mutina). 
Date 786/19. C. I. L. I. 743. 

Lepidwa Mumme\ia(:n')i s(ervus) sp(ectavit) m(ense) Iun(io) | C. Sentio 

Tesserae Oladiatoriae. 

The most interesting of the tesserae which have remained to us 
are those known as tesserae gladiatoriae (termed tesserae consulares, 
G. I. L. I., p. 196). These are oblong blocks of ivory or bone, pro- 

1 Plautus, Foenulus, 5, 1, 25, deum hospitalem ac tesseram mecumfero ; 5, 2, 
87, HA. Si ita est, tesseram Conferre si vis hospitalem, eccam attuli. AG. Age- 
dum, huce ostende. Est par probe, nam habeo domi. 

2 See page 379. « O. I. L. I. 532. 



260 LATIN iNSCRIP'i'iONS 

vided with a handle or hole for suspension or carrying, and inscribed 
upon the four long faces. The brief inscription found thereon gives, 
first, the name of a person, generally of a slave or a freedman, in the 
nominative case ; second, the name of his patron or trainer in the 
genitive case; third, the abbreviation SP or SPE, or the word 
SPECTAVIT, and the date in days of the month; fourth, the 
names of the consuls of the year. 

The uncertainty as to the exact use of these tesserae has made a 
satisfactory explanation of the abbreviation SP or SPE very-diffi- 
cult. It has generally been regarded as standing for spectatus, i.e. 
tested in public and approved because of victory, an explanation 
consistent with the inscription on the Tessera of Aries, 

ANCHIAL • SIRTI • L • S 

SPECTA T • NVM 

MENSE FEBR 
M-TVL-C-ANT-COS C./.X.XII.5695. 

as well as with the well-known line of UoTuce, Epistulae, I. 1. 2, 
spectatum satis et donatum rude. Other tesserae, however, have been 
discovered which contain the word spectavit, with which the ordinary 
explanation of SP or SPE = spectatus is inconsistent.^ 

Mommsen'' has interpreted SPECTAT • NVM of the Tessera of 
Aries as spectat(pr) num(erator), claiming that the gladiator, having 
graduated from the arena to the cavea, has the privilege of viewing 
contests as an authorized critic, even though he himself must still 
participate in them. 

Again, SP has been explained as sp(ectavit) (^populus), and the 
date as denoting when the people first beheld the gladiator who 
is now no longer a tiro.^ Some have regarded spectavit as equivalent 
to spectatus est;* he has made his spectatio, and hence is spectatus, 

\Hubner, Ephem. Ep. III., pp. 161-16.3. Henzen, Ephem. Ep. III., p. 204. 

2 Mommsen, Hermes, XXI. 1886, p. 266. C. /. L. VI. 631. 

2 P. J. Meier, De Gladiatura Bomana, 1881, p. 53. 

* A. Elter, Bhein. Mus. Xhl. 1886, p. 517. P. J. Meier, Bhein. Mus. XLII. 
1886, p, 122. F. Haug, Berliner. Philol. Woahenschrift, 1888, p. 763. See also 
for a summary of the discussion, Friedlander, Sittengeschic.hte, vol. II.,« p. 524. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 261 

i.e. an approved gladiator. It has also been said that from spectavit 
gladiatorem in the first sense and with emphasis on the second word 
arose the expression gladiator spectavit with the second meaning. 

Tesserae Conviviales. 

A few counters have been found which probably served as tickets 
of admission to important dinners and banquets. They are virtually - 
tickets to meals such as were given by the emperor to the people, 
or by a collegiiCm to its members, who were thus identified. They 
contain numbers which probably indicated the place reserved for the 
holder. We learn from the inscriptions' that at banquets tesserae 
were scrambled for, which served as vouchers for gifts of money 
and clothing. These were probably the same as sortes conviviales or 
sparsiones. 

Armoe and Missiles 

Scattered and rare specimens of Eoman arms contain inscriptions 
which indicate the owner, and the legion and cohort to which he 
belonged. It is possible that from the time of Augustus it was 
required that the pieces of armor should thus be marked. Hubner, 
in support of this theory, cites the shield buckle found at the mouth 
of the Tyne, England,^ which is ornamented with various designs 
and inscribed in litterae punctatae thus ; 

LEG . VIM ■ AVG and ■ IVL ■ MAGNI ■ IVNI • DVBITATI 
Leg(iOHis) VIII Aug(ustae) ; o{enturiae) luliii) Magni; lunii Dubitati 

also the sword of Tiberius found at Mainz, now in the British 
Museum.' 

Perhaps there should also be classed with these inscriptions those 
found on some leaden bullae, the purpose of which it is difficult to 
determine. They may have been a kind of tesserae carried upon the 
person after enrollment, and serving as a countersign. They have 
been found in considerable numbers in Great Britain.* 

1 Orelli-Henzen, 3994, 5320; Henzen, Annali delV 1st. XX. (1848), p. 273 ff. 
'■ 2 Arch. Epigr. MiUheilungen aus CEsterreich, 1878, p. 105 fi. O. I. L. 
VII. 495. 8 Brambaoh, Inscr. Bhen. 1108. 

* C. I. L. VII., p. 230 ; Mphem. Ep. III., pp. 144 and 318, IV., p. 209. 



262 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Lead Bullets (Glandes Plumbeae). 

These lead sling-shots used by slingers (fundifores) in the Eoman 
army are oval in form with points at both ends. They have been 
found in large numbers, many of which are^ however, undoubtedly 
spurious, inasmuch as it is known that they were extensively manu- 
factured in more recent times for the purpose of deceiving scholars."^ 
The Romans, imitating the Greeks in their use, imitated them also 
in placing upon them brief inscriptions. 




FoQDd near Corropoll, now In the museum at 
Aseoli (Asculum), Italy, It was used in the 
Marsic or Social war (90-88 B.C.). 

nali. — T. Lafirenius) pr(aetor). C. I. L. IX. 6086. 1. 

The inscriptions of the greatest number of these glandes are in 
raised letters, evidently made in the clay mould which was marked 
when wet by a graphium or other sharp instrument. 

Zangemeister, who has treated of these missiles very completely 
in Ephem. Ep., vol. VI., classifies the inscriptions found upon them 
as follows : 

Names indicating the people or state making war, e.g. Itali. 

" " the official ordering their manufacture, e.g. L. Piso L.f. cos. 

" " the legion, e.g. Leg. XI. 

" " the funditores, e.g. Firmani. 

" " the maker, e.g. C. Fabricius fecit. 

Exclamatory expressions addressed to the enemy, e.g. em tibi malum malo; 
esureis et me celas ; pertinacia vos radicitus toilet. 

1 Zangemeister, C. I. L. IX., p. 35 sq. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 



263 





Lead sling-shot, found in Spam, used in tlie war waged by Julius Caesar 
against the son of Fompey. 

Cn. Mag(jrms) imp(erator). C. I. L. II. 4965. 

This refers to Onaeus Pom/peius MagniJUius, who is designated on 
coins On. Magnus imp. 

Lead Water Pipes * (Fistulae Plumheae Aquariae). 

Information obtained from inscriptions found on lead water pipes 
has been most useful in determining the location and ownership of 
buildings, and in bringing to light many details bearing upon the 
water service in Eome. The method of making these inscriptions 
was to cut raised letters on wooden stamps and to press these into 
the sand or clay of the mould, which in this case was a flat surface 
upon which the lead plates out of which the pipes were made were 
cast. The inscription thus produced would be in raised letters. 
These inscriptions range in date from the time of Augustus to the 
close of the third century. The earliest show merely the names of 
the emperors, while those of the second century regularly contain 
the name of the emperor, the name of a procurator, or of other 
officials such as tribuni aquarum, the name of the officinator (either 
in the nominative or in the' genitive with ex officina), under whose 
general direction the pipe was made, or the name of the slave, who 
hag made the pipe, in the nominative case followed by fecit. Water 
pipes of the municipal towns give the name of the municipality 
ind the name of the public slave (plumbarius or Jistulator) who had 
looked after the manufacture of the pipe. In particular cases the 
names of the owners of the houses to which the water was conducted 
are given, and in others the capacity of the pipe is indicated. 

1 Lanciani, Silloge Epigrafica Aquaria. L. Renier, Sev. Arch. (2d series), 
vol. XXI., p. 328 sq. 



264 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Vessels and Articles of Bronze, Silver, and Gold. 

This class includes inscriptions on bronze vases of different sizes 
and kinds, on cups and bowls, on mirrors, on strigils, on articles of 
jewelry such as fibulae and rings. The inscriptions which have 
been either engraved, scratched, or stamped upon the surface vary 
somewhat with the character of the article, but the elements most 
commonly found are the names of the owner or maker, sentences of 
dedication to a divinity, or of presentation to some individual, or, 
again, exclamatory phrases expressing a wish. 

Inscriptions on metal utensils of ordinary use are very well 
illustrated by that on the bronze patera shown on page 57. Of other 
articles containing inscriptions the following are of special interest : 

1. The toilet cases and mirrors of Praeneste, which are orna- 
mented with drawings illustrative of Greek myths, to which are 
attached the names of divinities or heroes. Only two or three of 
these contain the name of the maker or owner. The most famous is 
the Cista Ficoroniana, which contains the well-known. inscription: 

DINDIA • MACOI/NIA • FIl^EAl • DEDIT 
NOVIOS • PLAVTIOS • MED • ROMAI • FECID 

C. J. L. XIV. 4112. 

2. The four silver goblets ^ found at the Aquae ApoUinares, the 
warm springs of Vicarello. These contain an itinerary from. Gades 
to Eome, and were probably used by travelers visiting the springs. 
Of a similar character, but more brief, is the itinerarium inscribed 
on a bronze vase^" which was found in England, where it is still 
preserved in Alnwick Castle. 

Jewelry. 

Some of the articles of jewelry which have been preserved contain 
brief inscriptions giving either the name of the owner, the weight, 
or phrases addressed to the owner. Cagnat refers to a bracelet of 
gold containing the inscription Oorelia Ny(m)p{h)e ; auru(m), 

1 O. I. L. XL, p. 496 sq. 

2 C. I. L. VII. 1291 ; Hubner's Exempla, No. 911. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 



265 



p(ondo) XX}, also to a fibula of silver with the words utere felix,^ 
and to a, fibula of gold with the words Costanti vivas. 

The gold fibula from Praeneste contains probably the oldest Latin 
inscription extant, written in retrograde order. 




Mbula Pra&neefiTia. 
Manias med fhefhaked Numasioi. C. I. L. XIV. 4123. 

The retrograde order, the fli for /, the form fhefhaked for fecit, 
and the dative Numasioi for Namerio indicate that this is a very 
early inscription.' 

Rings, as well as the gems which they held, were often inscribed 
with names in the genitive or nominative case, or with initials of 
the owner's name, or, in very rare instances, the name of the maker. 
Some contain exclamatory phrases of a benevolent or erotic nature. 

Thus in a ring found at Este (Ateste), the inscription on the 
stone, existing now in a copy, was 

Q .. C • L 

SEPTVM I AE 

PR I SCAE 

FIDES 

(Two hande joineO) C. I. L. V. 8125, 9. 



again on carnelian found at Aix (Aquae Sextiae) : 



BONAM AMOTE 

VITAM AMAME 

SERVA FIDEM 



a I. L. XII. ! 



1 See p. 331, 



2 C. I. L. III. 6016, 6. 



' See Lindsay. Latin Language, p. 188. 



266 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

also on tlie gold: 

A M O T E C.I.L. XII. 6692, 6. 

and in letters of tlie second century on a gold ring in the British 

Museum : 

M A T R 

VI A * C * 

C * A E 

Matrionis) viaQihus) C. C{ornelius) AeQianus). O. I. L. VII. 1299. 

Stamps (Signaculd). 

Seals or stamps with which stamped inscriptions were produced 
were made chiefly of bronze. They appear in various shapes, as of 
a fish, a heart, a circle, or a square, and contain letters in relief 
arranged in retrograde order. The inscription consists of the name, 
in the genitive or nominative . case, of the owner of the article 
stamped, followed in some cases by the name of the slave engaged 
in the work, in the genitive or nominative case. It is difficult to 
determine the ^xact use of these signacula, for none have been 
found that match the impressions on the stamped articles. Without 
doubt, they were employed for a variety of purposes. Mommsen,' 
quoting Pliny, M. H. XXXIII. 1, 26, nunc cibi quoque ac potus anulo 
vindicantur a rapina, has agreed, from the evidence of the stamped 
bread and its corresponding stamp found at Pompeii, that certain of 
these signacula were used to mark articles of consumption. The 
following was found at Pompeii : 

POTITI 

POPP • SABINI 

Potiti, Popp{aei) Sabini (servi). C. I. L. X. 8058, 71- 

SERVAN DVS 

QLP ET CLP 

Bervandus, Q. L . . . P . . . et C. L . . . P . . 

C. I. L. X. 8059, 366. 

1 C. I. L. X. p. 915. 



mscRiPTioisrs on movable objects 267 

cELERIS . Q • GRANI 
VERI . SER 
Inscription impressed on bread found at Herculaneum. O. I. L. X. 8058, 18. 

Oculists Stamps. 

A very curious and interesting class of signacula are those made 
of stone, which were employed by oculists for stamping the medica- 
ments, salve, etc., for treatment of the eyes. They are small rec- 
tangular tablets containing inscriptions on the four sides cut into the 
material, usually in two lines, rarely in one, giving the name, in the 
genitive case, of the physician who made or sold the preparation, 
the name of the remedy itself, the designation of the disease, in the 
accusative case preceded by the preposition ad, and, finally, the 
method of applying the remedy.^ 



'^CALnsFSTT 




iisAmMTiifnr 






t 






Oculist's Stamp from Beims. 
Hiibner's Ex&mpla, p. 485. 

D. Galli(i) Sesti [s'ifraglis ad a.'<pritudi(nes) 

D. QallHi) SestQi) sfra\gis ad impetum lippitudinis 

J). Galli{i) Sest(i) pe\nicil(lum) le(ne) ad lipp(itudinem) 

D. Galli(J,) Sest(i) \ dignu{in) ad asp(ritudines) 

' Becueil des Cachets d' OcuUstes Bomains. 'km Espfirandieu, in Rev. Arch. 
vol. XXI. 1893, p. 296 et sq. Cachets d' OcuUstes Bomains, H^ron de Villefosse 
et Tli^denat, Paris, 1882. Die Stempel der Bom. Augendrzte, C. S. Grotefend, 
Gottingen, 1867. 



268 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Products of Quarries and Mikes 

1. Tnscriptiones Marmorwm Massis Incisae. 

Inscriptions of considerable value have been found on blocks of 
marble which have been discovered in the quarries,' and at the 
Emporium in Kome, where they have been landed, but not used. 
Such inscriptions were made for business purposes, so that no mis- 
take or fraud might take place in the transportation or setting up of 
the stone.^ These inscriptions contain the following elements : 

1. Numerals indicating the number of the block taken from the 
quarry, e.g. loco CX LV I, or the number shipped to Rome, e.g. N • LXV, 
reckoned from the beginning of the year. 

2. The name of the quarry or the section of the quarry from 
which the stone was taken, off(icina) Pa(piri) n. LXXXVI; locus 
n. II. 

3. The names of the consuls indicating the year in which the 
stone was quarried. 

4. The names of officials, e.g. procuratores montium, acting as 
superintendents, and others ; also names of slaves having the charge 
of quarries. 

5. The names, in the genitive case, of the emperors, placed either 
at the beginning or end of the inscription, indicating the imperial 
ownership of the quarries. 

2. Massae Argenti, Aeris, Plumbi. 

Of a similar character to those just mentioned are the inscriptions 
stamped or cast upon pigs of silver, bronze, and lead. Some contain 
the name of the emperor in the genitive or ablative case, also the 
place from which they were obtained, e.g. Britan{nicis metallis) ; 
Britannicum, and more exactly the name of the people, e.g. de 
Ceangi(s) ; met(allorum) Lut(udensmm ?). 

The expression ex argento, which appears on some pigs of lead, 

1 C. I. L. III., 'p. 71. C I. L. VIII. 14561-14600 ; Ephem. Up. IV., p. 34, 
and v., p. 47. 

^Bruzza, Iscrisioni dei Marmi Orezzi, Annali delV 1st., 1870, vol. XLII., 
p. 106. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 269 

refers to the refining of the silver out of the lead.^ Metal ingots 
containing inscriptions have been found in England/ Spain/ Italy/ 
Sardinia.^ 

Bricks and Tiles ^ (Lateres et Tegulae) 

An abundant source of historical, geographical, and archeological 
knowledge has been found in the stamps (sigilla) which appear on 
bricks and tiles discovered in Eome, Italy, and the provinces, which 
were the product of the brick-kilns and potteries (Jiglinae) belong- 
ing to the emperor or members of his family, or to municipalities, or, 
finally, to private persons. 

I. Stamped bricks, which can safely be assigned to the republican 
period, have not been found in Eome, but they have been discovered 
in Italy, at Veleia, dating before the middle of the first century e.g. 
These are given in G. I. L. I. 777 ff. They are dated, i.e. they con- 
tain the names of consuls, and show as well the name of the potter 
(Jigulus). 

II. Lateres of the imperial period, found at Eome, are of great 
number and importance. They are fully described by H. Dressel in 

a I. L. XV. 

Stamps on bricks of the first three centuries of the Empire appear 
in several forms, being either rectangular, semicircular, round, or 
crescent shape, but with the greatest frequency in a form between 
the full circle and the crescent, made by cutting a very small circle 
out of a larger one. 

Of these the rectangular stamps, with inscription in one line, and 
in large letters, may belong to the last century of the Eepublic, or, 

1 Pliny, N. H , XXXIV. 151 and 158, Plumbum nigrum saepe cum argento 
nasci mixtisque venis conflari atque ex plumbo nigra argentum fieri. 

2 C I. L. VII. 1201-1217. 3 o. /. L. 11. 6247, 1-8. 

1 G. I. L. IX. 6091 ; X. 8073, 8339. Albert Way, Archeological Journal, 
XVI., 1859, p. 23 ; XXIII., 1866, p. 277. Hubner's Exempla, No. 1204-1212, 
and p. XL. Bhein. Mus. XII. 1857, p. 347, ff. 

5 C J. L. XV. Desoemet, Inscriptiones Doliares Latines in Bibliothgque des 
fiooles Fran^aises d'Athgnes et de Rome, XV., Paris, 1880. Marini, Le Iscrizi- 
oni Antiche Doliari, Eome, 1884. Dressel, Untersuchungen iiber die chronologie 
der Ziegelstempel der Gens Domitia, Berlin, 1886. 



270 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

at least, to the first century a.d. Those of two lines belong to the 
middle or latter part of the first century, while those of several lines 
may be assigned to the age of Trajan and Hadrian. 

Semicircular or crescent shape stamps date, speaking in general 
terms, between the age of Claudius and the close of the first century. 

Perfectly round stamps of one line belong to the same period as 
the crescent shaped, while those of two lines date in the latter part 
of the second and third centuries. The form midway between the 
circle and crescent appears to have come into use a little after the 
middle of the first century, and prevailed through the second and 
third. The modification in this form may be assigned to certain 
periods : 

o o 

60-100 (120) 100-180 175-217 

Stamps of this prevailing form have inscriptions frequently in 
two verses, arranged in concentric circles. 




stamp on a brick found at Rome. Date 123 a.d. 
Hiibner's Mnempla, No. 1214. 

Opens') d(pUare) Dionys{i) Domit{iae) P. f{iliae) LucilQae), Paet(ino) 
et Apr(onia7w) co{n)s{uUbus). 

If the little circle is large enough, it determines the beginning and 
end of the outer and inner verses ; but if it is small, the inner verse 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 



271 



is in a continuous circle, and the first letter of the second verse is 
above the last of the first. The words proceed regularly from left 
to right with few exceptions. In bricks of a later period no partic- 
ular order is observed, and we may find both verses retrograde, or 
one retrograde and the other direct (fiova-TpofjiriSov). 

The letters are generally raised (prominentes), though those 
pressed into the surface (cavae) sometimes occur. The shape of the 
letters is such as would be made by a marking stamp with rectangu- 
lar shaped furrow, and not wedge shaped as in cut inscriptions. 

The marking stamps, signacula, in the opinion of Dressel were 
made of hard wood. To establish this theory he refers to the 
marks on the bricks, evidently made by the cracks in the wooden 
stamp.* 




Stamp on a brick from Lyons. JSulleUn 

Expraedis domini no\stri 



I, vol. II., p. 



The middle circle generally contained some figure, either a repre- 
sentation of some divinity or his insignia, or of a bird or other 
animal, or of a palm branch, or of leaves, stars, etc., probably merely 



1 C. L. Visoonti, Bull. Arch. Com. 1879, pp. 197 fi. and 217 fE., endeavors to 
show that the stamps were of bronze or lead, and that some of those preserved 
were used for this purpose. 



272 , LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

ornamental. At times the names of the owners of the estates or 
kilns were thus portrayed, as, for example, a wolf is represented 
on the bricks from the kiln of M. Eutilius Lupus, a corona on those 
of C. Julius Stephanus. 

The inscriptions of the first century were brief, consisting fre- 
quently of only the name of the owner of the estate or pottery, or 
the name of the superintendent or potter, and rarely the name of 
the kiln or pottery (Jiglina). After the beginning of the second 
century such formulae as opus doliare (illius) and names of the 
estates or of the figlinae, also, names of the consuls, are more com- 
monly given. 

One or more of the following elements may appear in these ia- 
s'criptions : 

1. The name of the owner of the estate whence the clay was obtained, or 
where the pottery was situated, or of the pottery itself. 

Asini PoUionis (first century) ; Ex praedis L. Mummi Bufi (after first 
century). 

2. The name of the superintendent {officinator). 

C. Cosconi (first century) ; Opus doliare L. Bruttidi Augustalis or L. 
Bruttidius Augustalis fecit. 

The name of the owner and that of the officinator ox figulus (servus domini) 
may appear together thus : Felicis Domiti Afri{servi) or Tegula C. Cosconi 
fig(uli) Asini PoUionis (first century). 

Ex praedis Q. Servili Pudentis, sub cura Hedy(nis) servi, 133 a.d. 

Opus doliare Aristi Thalli, ex praedis Plaetori Nepotis, 123 a.d. 

Opus doliare Statiae Primillae, ex figlinis Domitiae Lucillae. 

3. The name of the pottery, or brick kiln, or estate, as in the following: 
Amoeni duorum Domitiorum Lucani et Tulli, ex figlinis Caninianis (first 

century). 

Ex figlinis Oaepionianis Plotiae Isauricae,fornace Peculiaris servi (after first 
century). 

4. The names of the consuls, an element which does not appear on bricks 
from the City or Latium before 110 a.d., nor after 164 a.d. 

5. Exclamatory expressions such as valeat qui fecit, particularly on bricks 
from the potteries of the gens Domitia. 

Inscriptions of the first three centuries a.d. differ, in general, very slightly, 
although the name of the figlinae rarely appears in those of earlier date, and 
mention of the negotiator is not given until the close of the second century. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 273 

The following abbreviations are common in these inscriptions : 

Opusdoliare = 0, OP • D, DO, DOL, DOLI, DOLIAR. 

Opusfiglinum (rare) = • FG, FGL. 

Ex or de Praedis = EX or DE • P, PR, PRAE or PRE, PRO, PRAED. 

Ex or defigUnis = EX or DE . F, Fl, FIG, FIGVL, FG'l., FIGL, FIGLIN, FIGLINI. 

Ex officina = EX ■ OF, OFIC. 

III. There should also be mentioned here the bricks marked by 
legionary soldiers made to be used in-building their quarters. These 
contain, the name of the cohort, legion, or army. 

EXERC -PANN • INF 
Exere(J,tus) Fannioniae) Inf mortis, 

V&ssels of Clay^ (Dolia, Amphorae, Lucemae). 

A large portion of the-section in C. I. L. entitled Instrumentum is 
assigned to inscriptions which appear on vessels made of clay, the 
product of Eoman potteries. These vary from the large, sometimes 
huge, dolia and medium sized amphorae to the small patellae and 
pelves of household use. With these are to be classed also the lamps 
(lucemae'), which are made of like material and by similar methods. 
The inscriptions which appear on these vessels consist mainly of 
names denoting the maker, merchant, or owner, in the nominative 
or genitive case. In some cases the verb fecit, FEC, FE, F, is found. 
The words manu, MAN, MA, M, officina, OF, OFF, ovjiglina, FIGVL, 
FIG, may precede or follow the name in the genitive case of the 
maker or merchant. These trademarks were made by pressing a 
stamp upon the clay of the vessel or upon that of the mould, pro- 
ducing letters below the surface (cavae) or in relief, (prominentes). 
The location of the inscription on the vessel was either the neck or 
handle, sometimes the bowl or inner flanges of wide-open vases, but 
most frequently, and regularly so in the lucemae, upon the base. 

1 Schuermans, Sigles Pigulins, Brussels, 1867 ; Froehner, Inscriptiones Terrae 
Coctae Vasorum intra Alpes, Tissam, Tamesin repertae, Gottingen, 1858,' 

J,AT. JNSQRIP. 18 



274 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

The inscriptions which appear in relief involved with ornamentar 
tion were most commonly made in the mould. They show a variety 
of statements appropriate to the device of the ornamentation, some- 
times of a dedicatory character, or, again, giving expression to good 
wishes. 

Other methods of marking these clay vessels were employed, 
particularly in inscribing the dolia and amphorae of Pompeii and 
Herculaneum. Letters were cut in the clay before or after baking 
by nleans of a graphium, or painted in black, red, or white color, or 
marked by crayon. These inscriptions give the name of the maker 
or merchant in the nominative or genitive case, also the contents 
and measure of the amphorae. On the wine jarfe there were found 
the name of the wine, the names of the consuls of the year in which 
the wine was made, also the name of the maker or merchant.' 
Exclamatory expressions are also found ; vivas, valeas, semper gaude, 
reple me, bibe vivas multis annis. 



.xWi/^ 







Archaic inscription made with a stilus on a black colored vase found at Ardea. 
Eqo (= Ego) K(aeso) Anaios (= Annaeus). C. I. L. X. 8336. 

Compare with this the inscription found on the Esquiline, Eco C. 
Antonios, Ann. dell' 1st., 1880, p. 301. 

1 H. Dressel, Bicerche sul Monte Testaccio, in Annall dell' 1st., 1878, p. 118- 
192 ; C. /. L. IV., p. 171 ; Ephem. Ep. I., p. 160. 



DEDICATORY INSCRIPTIONS 276 



DEDICATORY INSCRIPTIONS 

TiTDLI SaCKI 

1. a) Aecetiai' pocolom. c) Salutes pooolom. 
6) Fortunai pocolo. d) Volcani pocolom. 

o) C. I. L. I. 43. On a patera of black color found at Volci, Etruria, 

now in British Museum. 
6) O. I. L. IX. 258. On a vase of dark color, now in private house at Rome. 

c) C. I. L. I. 49. On a black patera, now in Gregoiig-n Museum at Rome. 

d) C I. L. I. 50. On a h\a.ck. patera found at Tarquinii, now in Museimi at 

Berlin. 
1 Perhaps Aequitia or Aequitas. These inscriptions are assigned to the fifth 
century a.u.c. (350-250 b.c). 

2. a) Cesula ' | Atilia | doim ^ | dat Diane.' 

6) Matre | Matuta ■* | dono dedro ° | matrona. | M' Curia | Pola 

Livia I deda.° 
c) Fide. d) Salute. 

C. I. L. I. o) 168, &) 177, c) 170, d) 179. Inscribed on oippi, found in 
a sacred grove at Pisaurum, in Picenum, dating about 500/254-550/204. 
^ Caesulla. ^ Note omission of final m. * Dianae. * a dative. ^ ded{e)- 
ro(jit). ^ Some explain as dedant (like (a^iaravTi. = iaToaC) a primitive 
3d plural perf . 

TituK Sacri, Sixth and Seventh Centuries a.u.c. (260-50 B.C.). 

3. Apoline | L. Carnius C. f. 

C. I. L. X. 7265. Pound in Sicily, now in public museum at Panormus. 

4. Devas | Corniscas^ | sacrum. 

C /. L. I. 814 = VI. 96. Inscribed on a stone found " trans Tiberim,'''' 
probably near the site of a sanctuary of the corniscae divae, who were 
said to be in tutela lunonis. i Possibly a dative plural standing for 
Deivais Corniscais. 

5. Orcevia Numeri^ | nationu^ cratia | Fortuna/ Diovo fileia^| pri- 

me cenia,' | donom dedi. 

C /. L. XIV. 2863. On a bronze lamina found at Praeneste. ^ Sc. uxor. 
^nationu = nhtioni{s). ^ Datives. Nationis gratia, in the opinion of 
Mommsen, signifies propter feturam pecorum. 



276 LATIN IlsrSCRlPTlON'S 

6. Sa.^ Burtio V. f. I lue '' dono I ded.^ mereto. 



Mitt, de.s Bum. Inst., 1890, p. 297. Found at Avezzans, near Lake Fucinus, 
^ 8a(lvios) Burtio{s). '^Iue = Iovi. ^ded^et). 

7. L. Gemenio L. f. Pel.' | Hereole dono | dat lubs. merto | pro sed. 
^"^^ sueq. ; ^ I ede.^ leigibus | ara Salutes. 

C. I. L. XIV. 2892. On a cone-shaped block of tufa, found near Praeneste. 
^ Pel. . may be a cognomen. ^prosedsue(^s)q(ue). ^ e(s')de{m). For 
the syncope in the Praenestinedialect, see Lindsay, Latin Language,Tp. 177. 

8. P. GoTn[elios'] | L. f. coso[Z] | proba['«if] Mar[te sacrom']. 

C. I. L. I. 41 = VI. 475. On an altar found in the Quirinal gardens at 
Rome (1626). Consul, 518/236. 

9. Hercolei | sacromj | M. Minuci C. f. | dictator vovit. 

0. I. L. 1. 1503 = VI. 284. Inscribed on an altar found near Rome, now in 
the Capitoline Museum. On the right side of the stone there is inscribed 
li • I • XXVI, which Ritschl interprets legiones I et XXVI. Wilmanns thinks 
it indicates the number of the gift in the temple as recorded in the 
register. Minucius was dictator 537/217 (Livy XXII. 25). 

10. a) M. Claudius M. f. consol | Hinnad ' cepit. 

b) Martei | [if.] Claudius | [J^T. / c]onsol ded[ii]. 

C. I. L. a) I. 5.30 = VI. 1281 ; 6) I. 531 = VL 474. 

a) On a stone found at Rome, near the baths of Trajan. 
6) On a marble tablet found at Rome, near Porta Capena, now in 
museum at Naples. M. Claudius Marcellus, who captured Henna, 
was consul 543/211. ^ Ex Hinna. 

11. Pietatis | sacrum. 

C. I. L. XI. 3779. On a round marble altar found at Veii. Note the geni- 
tive ; ara Neptuno represents the more common form. 

12. L. Mummi ' L. f . cos. 

Duct.^ I auspicio imperioque | eius Achaia capt.,' 
Corinto | deleto Eomam redieit | triumphans.^ 
Ob hasce | res bene gestas quod * | . [is] in bello vovBrat, | 
Hanc aedem et signu Herculis Victoris 
imperator dedicat. 



DEDICATORY INSCRIPTIONS 277 

C. I. L. I. 541 = VI. 331. Inscribed on a tablet of travertine found on Mons 
Caelius, Rome, now in Vatican Museum. L. Mummius was consul in 
608/146, and triumphedin609/145. ^Mummi{s). ^ Duct(u), cf. duclu 
imperio auspicio suo, Plant. Amphit. 196. '^capt(a). » A very early use 
of the aspirate, cf. Corinto. The inscription is in Sa turn ian metre. 
° quod, although short, may, as accented, take the place of the long 
syllable. Eitschl supplies is, so quod is. Livy (XL. 52, XLI. 28) tells 
us that similar tablets were placed in temples by triumphatores. 

13. [J'jorte 'EoT:{tunai\ \ donum dant | eonlegiu lani | piscinenses/ 
j^^^-S magistreis | coiraverunt | A. Cassi C. 1. | T. Conieli Oor. 1.^ 

lAic -AA> Q^ J j^ Yj_ jgy Inscribed on a small pedestal found near Rome, in the 
grove of the fratres Arvales. ^ Lanii, from the neighborhood of the 
piscina publica. ^ Corneliae libertus. 

14. Q. Caecilius Cn. A. Q. Flamini leibertus lunone Seispitei matri 

reginae. 

C. I. L. I. 110. Inscribed on an epistylium found near Lanuvium. Cf. 
Fest., p. .343, a. 14. Sispitem lunonem quam vulgo sospitem appellant 
antiqui usurpabant. 

16. sei deo sei deivae sac. | C. Sextius C. f. Calvinus pr., | de senati 
sententia | restituit. 

C. I. L. I. 632. Inscribed on an altar found on the Palatine hill. This 
may be C. Sextius Calvinus, opponent of Glaucia, praetor 654/100, but 
with more probability his son, of the time of Sulla. The altar may have 
belonged to the temple at the foot of the Palatine, near tlie temple of 
Vesta, built in honor of the voice of the god heard by Aius Locutius, 
who announced the coming of the Gauls (Livy, V. 50). 



16. Felix Publicus | Asinianus pontific' | Bonae Deae Agresti 
Felic.^ I Totum solvit iunicem alba. | libens animo ob lumini- 
biis j restitutis, derelictus a medicis, post | menses decern 
bineficio (?) dominaes^ medicinis sanatus^per |-eam, restiiuta 
omnia ministerio Canniae Fortunatae. 

J a.,,*x:i..M_. 35-/3 



278 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

C. I. L. VI. 68. Inscribed on a marble tablet found on the "Via Ostiensis, 
now in Vatican Museum. ^ ponUfic{alis) ov pontificQum). ^Felic(i'). 
'gen. sing. 

17. P. Servilio L. Antonio cos.^ ] a. d. IIII k. Sext. | locavit Q. 

Pediug q.^ urb. | murum lunoni Lucinae | H-S © ® © Q) (I) „ 
(D (D I eidemque probavit. 5^ 

(7. L L. VI. 358. Inscribed on a tablet of travertine found on the Esquiline, 
now in Villa Albani, Rome, i 71-3/41. ^ q(^uaestor). The inscription 
belonged to the temple of luno Lucina, on the Esquiline. 

18. Laribus publicis sacrum, | imp. Caesar Augustus | pontifex max- 

imus I tribunic. potestat. X Villi ' | ex stipe quam populus ei | 
Jfi contulit k. lanuar. apsenti, | C. Calvisio Sabino L. Passieno 
Eufo cos.^ 

C. I. L. VI. 456. Inscribed on a marble tablet cut from a pedestal found 
on the Palatine, now in Museum of Naples. >■ undemcesimum. 2750/4. 

19. Saliiti perpetuae Augustae Genio municipi anno post 
libertatique publicae Interamnani conditam 

populi Romani BCCIIII ad Cn. Domitium A***-- ^ 

Ahenobarbum !!!!!!! 
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! cos^ 
Providentiae Ti. Caesaris Augusti nati ad aeternitatem 
Eomani flominis, sublato hoste perniciosissimo ^ p. B., 
Paustus Titius Liberalis VI vir'Aug. iter, 
p. s. f. c* 

C. I. L. XI. 4170. Found at Temi (Interamna), in Umbria. ' Cn. 

Domitius Ahenobarbus was consul with M. Purius Camillus Scriboni- 

anus, 32 a.d. As Scribonianus was declared an enemy in 42 a.d., after 

' he began a revolt in Dalmatia, his name is erased. ^ Sejanus, who 

was killed 31 a.d. ^ p{eounia) s(ua) f{aciundum) o{uravit). 

20. Carpus Aug. lib. | Pallantianus | Sanctis draconibus | d. d. 

C. I. L. VI. 143. On a marble altar, now in the Kircherian Museum, 
Rome. Cf. Tac. Ann. XI. 11. The fact that serpents were said to 
have guarded the cradle of Nero may account for this inscription by a 
freedman of Caesar and a former slave of Pallas. 



DEDICATORY INSCRIPTIONS 279 

21. Libertati ab imp. Nerva Ca[es]ar[e] Aug., anno ab urbe condita 
DCCCXXXXIIXi XIIII [k.] Oclt.y restitu[iae] s. p. q. K. 

C. I. L. VI. 472. Found at Rome on the Capitoline, existing in a copy 

made before the ninth century. ' The year 848 of the Catouian era 

L 0,^ corresponds to the year 96_a.d. ^ Sept. 18th, the day on which Nerva 

became emperor after the murder of Domitian. Pliny, Ep. 9. 13. 4, 

speaks of libertas reddita. Tac. Agric. 3. 

1 22. Bassa Vitelli | [j5]ro Q. Vitellio Q. f. filio suo | [jMJnoni Lucinae 
V. s. 1. m. ~" 

O. I". L. VI. 359. On a pedestal found in Kome near temple of luno Lucina, 
existing now in copy. Of. Tao. Ann. 11. 48. 

23. Q. Coelius L. f . pr., | aed. pi. Cer.,^ | pro. pr. ex s. c, q.^ | ex Toto 

suseepto | pro incolumitate | Ti. Caesaris divi Aug. f. | August! ) 
pontific. maxim. | Concordiae d. d. auri p. -^CXV. 

C. I. L. VI. 91. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found in the temple 
of Concord, now in the Capitoline Museum, Borne. ^ Cer(^ealis). 
2 q(uaestor'). 

24. pro salute | dominorum, | Genio horreonim, | Saturninus et Suc- 

cessus I borreari | donum dederunt | Caesare Vespasiano VI | ' 
Tito Caesare imp. IIII | cos. 

C. I. L. VI. 235. Inscribed on a marble cippus found at Borne, now in the 
Vatican Museum. Determine date from table, p. 129. 

25. C[ere]ri sacrum | [D. /wjiiius luvenalis | pn1>.] cob. [7] Del- 

matarum, | II [yir] quinq., flamen | divi Vespasiani | Tovit 
dedicav[i<g]ue | sua pec. 

C. I. L. X. 5382. Found above Aquino, near a place called Eoocasecca 
on the river Melfi, existing in a copy of the eighteenth century. In 
the second century the cohors I Dalmatarum was stationed in Britain. 
For bearing of this inscription in history of the satirist Juvenal, see 
J. Dtirr, Das Leben Juvenals, p. 21. 

26. d. i. M. I in bonor. domus divin.' | Eppius Arimi|nensis filius. 



280 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

C. J. L. in. 4799. Inscribed on a small altar found at Toltschaoh (Viru- 
num), Noricum, where it still exists. ^ This formula, often abbreviated 
i. h. d. d., is not found before the middle of the second century, but 
becomes very common after the time of Commodus (Wilmanns). 

27. I. 0. S. p. d.' I et lunoni sanctae | Herae, Castorib. et Apollini 

conservato|ribus, Thrysus | pro salute patroni sui | et sua suo- 

rumque | iussu numinis eorum | aram d., | salvis candidatis | 

huius loci I per C. Fabium Germanum. 

(pniheiefiside.-) Ded. VI idus | [0]ct Peregiino et | Aemiliano | 

cos.^ 

C. /. L. VI. 413. Inscribed on a marble altar found at Rome, now in 
Museum of Vatican, belonging to the temple of Jupiter Dolichenus on 
Aventine. i I{pvi) 0{ptimo) S^oli) p(raestantisaimo) d{igno). ^ 244 a.d. 

28. dis maguis, | TJlpius Eguatius Tave^itinus | v. c.^ augur p. v. b. p. 

E. Q.^ pater et hieroceryx d. S. i. M.' | archibucolus dei 
Liberi, | hierofanta Hecatae, sa|eerdos Isidis percepto | tauro- 
bolio criobolioq., | idibus Augustis d d. n n. | Valente Aug. 
V. et Valentinia|no Aug. conss.* feliciter 

Vota Paventinus bis deni | suscipit orbis 
Ut maetet repetens aurata | fronte bicornes. 

C I. L. VI. 504. Inscribed on a large marble pedestal found at Rome, ex- 
isting only in copy. '■ v(ir) cilarissimus). '^ pubQicus) p{opuli) B{pmani) 
Qiuiritium). ^ d(ei) S(^olis) i{nvicti) M(ithrae). * 376 a.d. 



DEDICATORY INSCRIPTIONS IN VERSE 

Saturnian Metre 

29. M. P. Vertuleieis C. f.* 

Quod re sua d[*/"]eideus asper | afleicta 
Parens timens | beic vovit, veto hoc ] solut[o 
De]cuma facta | poloucta^ leibereis lube|tes' 
Donu danunt | Hercolei maxsume | mereto. 
Semol te | orant, se [-yjoti crebro | condemnes. 



DEDICATORY INSCRIPTIONS 281 

C. I'.L. 1. 1175, X. 5708. Found at Sora in Italy, now in the gardens of 
the church of S. Restituta. '^M{arau,s) et P(uUius) Vertuleii G{ai) 
f{ilii). "^poloucta, at. Cato, de M. B. 132 ; Plaut. Stick. 233 ; Varr. L. L. 
VI. 54. ^lube{n)tes. Bitschl places this in the early part of the 
seventh century a.u.c. (150-50 B.C.) The letters are archaic, and the 
Saturnian measure is indicated on tlie stone by intervals. 



Iambic Senarii 

30. Templum hoc sacratum lier[oi6MS, qui] quod ger[Mwf] 
August! nomen felix [illis] remaneat, 
Stirpis suae laetetur vl\J regno'] parens. 
Nam quom te, Caesar, tem[jpMs] exposcet deum 
Caeloque repetes sed[em, qua] mundum reges, 
Sint hei, tua quel sorts ter[ra«] huic imperent 
Eegantque nos felicibu[s] voteis sueis 
{Written heneath) L. Aurelius L. f. Pal. Kufu[s] primopilaris 
l{_eg] XVI militans st imp. Caesaris 

C. I. L. X. 3757. Inscribed on a stone found at Acerrae. Nissen. has 
suggested that Claudius, Nero, and Britannicus were referred to in line 1, 
but Mommsen assigns the inscription to the time of Augustus, and con- 
siders C. and L. Caesar as the heroes to whom the shrine was dedicated. 

Hexameter 



31. Numiui aquae [ Alexandrianae | * 

Hanc aram NympMs extruxi, | nomine Laetus, 
^ Cum gererem fasces patriae | rumore secundo ; 
Plus tamen est mihi gratus | honos, quod fascibus annus 
Is nostri datus est, quo sanc|to nomine dives 
Lambaesem largo perfu|dit flumine Nympha. 

C /. L. VIII. 2662. Inscribed in the Nymphaeum at Lambaesis, Africa, 
irrom Severus Alexander, the emperor who introduced water into 
Lambaesis in 226 a.d. Cf. the Aqua Alexandriana at Rome, thus named 
for a similar reason, Lampridius c. 25; cf. also C /. L. VIII. 2658. The 
word was partially erased after his death in 235 a.d. ■' As duumvir at 
Lambaesis. For similar ending cf. Verg. Aen. VIII. 90. 



282 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTIONS 

TiTtiLi Sepulcrales 

1. a) G. Turpleio 0. f. c) C. Fouri M. V 
V) Q. Fourio A. f. d) On. Fourio 

C. I. L. XIV. 2750, 2700-2707. Four inscriptions on cinerary urns from 
the tomb of the Furii and Turpleii at Tusculum. They belong to the 
fifth century of the City, and show the names in the nom. case, i C. 
Fouri{s) M(jirci) f(ilios). 

2. a) L. Anicio /) Anicia P. f. 

6) Maio ^ Anicia C. f. g) Mino Cumia L. f. 

c) L. Cupi L. f. A. n. h) Atlia A. 1. | Lais 

d) Maria Fabricia i) Tert. Coriaria 

e) Titoleiai M. f. f) P. Gessius P. f. | Vala 

C. I. L. XIV. 3046-3310. These inscriptions are selected from those found 
in the sepulcretum at Praeneste, and date in the sixth and seventli 
centuries of tlie City. The cognomina are rare, but appear alike with 
names of men and women. Note also the praenomina with names of 
women. The gen. case is seen in e, but the others show the earlier form 
of the nom. case, i Maio{s) = Maior. 

3. a) L. Aeli,i | a. d. Ill idus | Octob. 

6) Baebia Q. 1./ a. d. | IX k. Oetobris. 

c) L. Caecilius, | a. d. VI k. Quictilis. 

d) Aemiliai, a. d. Ill non. Pe.^ 

e) P. Claudi M. 1. Philocratis, | a. d. Ill k. Novbri.* 

C. I. L. VI. 8211-8397. Inscribed on sepulchral urns found in the vineyard 
of San Cesareo, near the Porta Capena, Rome. They date in the early 
part of the seventh century of the City (150-100 b.c). ^ L. Aeli(_s)\ 
a(_nte) d(iem tertium) idus Octob(ris). ^l(jiberta). ^ Fe(bruarias). 
* Nov(^em,)bri(s') 

4. M. Aebutius M. 1. 1 Macedo pater, | M. Aebutius M. 1. 1 Callistratus 

f., I v.^ M. Aebutius M. 1. Eros, | v. lulia L. 1. Berenice f., | 
lulia L. 1. Hesuchium, | Pomponia L. 1. Selene, | Clodia 0.^ 1. 
Antiocis. 



SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTIONS 283 

C. I. L. VI. 10588. Inscribed on a marble cippus found at Rome, now in 
the Capitoline Museum. ^v{im() or i>{wus). '^ G{aiae), i.e. mulieris 
l(iberta). 

5. M. Aurelius M. 1. | Niceporus patronu. (sic), | Amelia M. 1. 

Trupher., | M. Aurelius M. 1. Apollonius, | M. Aurelius M. 1. | 
[^ijexsander M. Aureli 

C. I. L. VI. 1.3163. A sepulchral Inscription engraved in archaic letters, on 
travertine, found at Rome, now in the Vatican. For so-called theta 
nigrum, see page 231. 

6. P. Buxurius P. f. | Truentines.' quie.^ | coinomn^ Tracalo, | arte- 

, tecta/ salve. 

C. I. L. IX. 5279. Inscribed on a stone found near Monte Prandone, in east- 
ern Picenum, now in the curia at Ripatransone. i Truentine(ji)s(Js). 
2 quie{scit). ^ coi{= quoi, cui) nom\_e]n, or qui e[st] cocnomen Tracalo. 

* tecta = TeKTrjs for Tinrruiv, 

7. M. Drusi M. 1. PMlodami, | sibei et sueis, | veivont. 

C. I. L. IX. 752. Inscribedon a stone found at Larino (Larinum), in Apulia. 

8. P. Critonius P. f . Polio. | Mater mea milii | monumentum | coera- 

vit, quae | me desiderat | vehementer, me | heice situm in- | 
mature. Vale, salve. 

C. I. L. VI. 16606. Inscribed on travertine in archaic letters of the seventh 
century, found at Rome. 

9. Ultuma | suorum | Ciipiennia | L. f. TertuUa | fuueit ' quius | heic | 

relliquiae | suprema ^ | manent. 

C. I. L. VI. 16614. Pound at Rome, now existing in a copy, ^fuueit 
probably = ySK. ^suprema (munera'). 

10. Sex. Caesius Sex. | lib. Cinnamus | Illlll vir Augustalis | h. s. e. | 
et tibi et tu.' 

C. I. L. V. 552. Found at Trieste, where it exists to-day in the museum. 

* et tibi {bene sit) are the words of the passer-by ; et tu (vale) represents 
the reply of the dead. 



284 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

11. Q. Pabius Q. f. Quirina | Fabianus IluTConen|sis idem Patrici- 

en|sis ann. XXXXIII plus | in suis h. s. e., s. t. t. 1. 

C. I. L. II. 1200. Found at Sevilla (Hispalis), Spain, where it exists to-day 
in the museum. 

12. ave I Herennia Crocine | cara sueis inclusa hoc tumulo. | Crocine 

cara sueis. Vixi ego | et ante aliae vixere puellae. | lam satis 
est. Lector discedens dicat, Crocine sit tibi terra | levis. 
Valete superi. 

C. I. L. II. 1821. Pound at Cadiz. 

13. M. Aemilius Artema | fecit | M. Licinio Successo fratri | bene 

merenti et | Caeciliae Modestae coniugi | suae et sibi et suis 
libertis | libertabusq. posterisq. eorum, | excepto Hermete lib. 
qiiem veto | propter delicta sua aditum ambitum ne | ullmn 
accessum babeat in boc monumerito. 

C I. L. VI. 11027. Found at Rome, existing now in copy. 

14. P. Lucius Hilaxus | © ''■ Graecus sibi | et Pompeiae L. f . | v." Ter- 

tullae et | P. Lucio Graeci 1. | v.^ Philadelpbo et | Luciae 
Graeci L. 1. | 0^ Lepidae. 

C. I. L. XII. 4957. Inscribed on a marble cippus found at Narbonne 
(Narbo), existing in a copy. ^ The so-called theta nigrum is here placed 
before the cojinome?!. ^v(ivU). 

vivit 

15. P. Voltilius Eufio et Mamia Ter[<M]lla. 
C. I. L. XII. 5255. Found at Narbonne (Narbo). 

16. L. Cartorius P. f . Pab. | He sepultus est, | hie locus patet [ in 

frdnt. p. XX et i media fos. | in[<]ro vers. p. XXV. | Hunc 
locum monimentumque | diis manibus do legoque. 

C. I. L. V. 2915. Found at Padua (Patavium), existing in copy. 

17. C. Sentio Sat. cos.' | k. SextUib. | dei manes | receperunt | 

AbuUiam N. 1. Nigellam. 



SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTIONS 285 

C. I. L. 11. 2255. Inscribed on a small cippus found at Cordova (Cordulia), 
Spain, where it still exists. ^ He was consul without colleague in 735/19. 

18. d. m. s., I P. Aelio P. f. | Crescentiano | notario legati in officio 

luvenajlis praef. praetori | defuncto, vixit | annis viginti duo | 
et militavit an. IIII, | Aelia Processa mater filio | innocenti. 

C I. L. VIII. 2755. Found at Lambaesis, Africa. Flavins luvenalis was 
praefectus praetorio under lulianus and Severus. Cf . Vita Seven, c. 6 ; 
Vita Getae, 24 ; Hirsohfeld, Bom. Verwalt., p. 230. 

19. V. f.^ I C. Novellius C. f. | Ouf. Expectatus | dis deabus manibus | 

nomine meo et Atiliae C. f. Crae | uxori pientiss[«m]. 

(On the left) have. (On tJie right) vale. 

C. I. L. V. 6053. Found at Milan (Mediolanum), preserved in a copy. 
^v{ivus') /(ecif). 

20. d. m. I et memoriae | L. lul. Accepti qui | vixit ann. XV m. X | 

dies duos | M. lul. Euplus et lulia Accepta parentes | fil. 
unico karissim. | et sibi vivi | posuerunt. 

C. I. L. XII. 1964. Inscribed on a cippus found at Vienna (Vienna, 
Gallia Narbonensis), existing in a copy. 

21. d. m. I et quieti aeternae | Titiae Seiae defunctae | ann. XXII 

mens. V dier. XXV, | P. Seius Asclepiodotus pater | filiae 
incomparabili. 

C I. L. XII. 2013. Inscribed on a sarcophagus found at Vienne (Vienna, 
Gallia Narbonensis), existing now in copy, d and m are on the sides. 

22. d. m. I Titiae Catiae defunct. | annorum VIII m. V d. VIII. | 

Catia Bubate fil. pissimae | et sibi vivae posuit, | hoc sax. sub 
ascia ^ ded.^ est. 

C. I. L. XII. 2012. Found at Vienne, existing in a copy, i sub ascia dedi- 
cavit (S ■ A ■ D) is generally understood to indicate a new tomb still in 
charge of the workmen. The object of the phrase or representation of 
the ascia was to indicate that the right of reopening the tomb without 
recourse to authority was retained. This is the opinion of Facciolati. 
See Forcellini, ». o. and A. de Barth^lemy, Becherches sur le formule 
"sub ascia." ^ ded(icatum). d. and m. are on the sides. 



286 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

23. d. m., I Tertinio | Maxiiniaii|o Verilla | coniugi | posuit | s. a. d. 

C. I. L. XII. 1715. Inscribed on a cippus found at Eyzahut (Canton de 
Dieuleflt), France, where it still exists. 

24. have, Naevi, | salvos sis quisquis | es, | Cn. Naevio | Diadumeno | 

ven^lici^rio | Grae[c]drio. 

C. I. L. XII. 3349. Inscribed on a cippus found at Nismes (Nemausas), 
where it still exists. 

25. d. m. ; I lulius Eumenes | vixit ann. XXII | lulia Agrippina | 

patrou.' alumno | et corporate | utriculariorum, | quot tu nobis | 
debnisti facere, | et mater in|felicissiinae posuerunt. 

C. I. L. XII. 729. Inscribed on a cippus found at Trinquetaille, now in 
museum at Aries, France, i Join patronia) and et mater infelicissimae 
posuerunt quo{d) tu nobis debuisti facere. 

26. Sex. Kerianus | Eomulus | fecit sibi et | Cdrdiae Helpidi | con- 

iugi karissimae et | libertis libertabiisque | posterisque eorum 
utriusque sexus | ex • origine nostra. Si quis | eum titul. adul- 
teravit alienigennm corp. aut ossa aut cineres | in hoc monum. 
inferre volens adhnm. non haber.^ et dare debeat a. p. E.^ HS L 
m. n.,' I huic mon. dol. mal. abesto. 

C. I. L. VI 22915. Inscribed on a marble tablet in the church, S. Paolo 
fuori le Mura, at Eome. ^Read aditum non haber^et). ■'a{erario) 
p(_opuli) B{omani). ^ m(ilia) n(ummum). 

27. have, Manlia | Anthusa. | Bene sit tibi qui legis | et tibi qui 

praeteris | mihi qui hoc loco monument. | feci et meis. 

C. I. L. X. 6616. Found at Velletri (Velitrae), now in museum at Naples. 

28. vivit I Q. Caelius Sp. f. vivi^ | architectus navalis, | vivit | uxor 

Camidia M. 1. | Aprhodisia. | Hospes, resiste et nisi m|olestust 
perlege, noli | stomacare, suadeo | caldum bibas, moriii|n[d]ust, 
vale. 

C. I. L. X. 5371. Found on the Lirls between Interamna and Minturnae, 
exis,ting in copy, i Probably a corrupt reading. 



SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTIONS 28T 

29. d. m. s., I chaere' An|nonia Paula conjiunx rarissime" | quae 

exemplo esses ( feminarum, nisi XXXIII annorum | erepta 
gravem | fletum viro | reliquisses, | h. s. e. 

C. I. L. VIII. 8854. Found at Tiklat (Tupusuctu) Mauretania, Africa, 
existing in copy. ^x'"P^- ^ rarissima. 

30. d. m., I M. Munatius | Victor | v. a. XXX, li. s. e., o. e. b. q.' 

C I. L. VIII. 5682. Found between Celma (Calama) and Constantine 
(Cirta) Numidia, existing in copy, i o(sso) e(i) b(ene) q{uieseant). 

31. d. m. s., I lulia Cuivia | visit annis LXX | o. s.^ t. b. n.^ q., | fecit 

filius eius. 

C. J. £. VIII. 9128. Found at Sur Eoslan (Auzia), Mauretania. ^o(j:)s{d). 
2 6(e)n(e). 

32. d. m. s., I Q. lulius Lu|canus Medi|coms fil., | ut banc in patriam | 

planus laetitia | pervenirem an|nos LXXX certan|do vici, iam 
quietus | ego hie Medico | semper. 

C. I. L. VIII. 79. Found at Hr. Nebliana, Africa, existing in a copy. 

33. d. m. I L. Vibi Cresjcentis vet. | cob. IIII pr., | hie s. e. s. 1. 1. 1., | 

Gara Salvidie.' | tatae ^ b. m. 

C, I. L. XIV. 3632. Found at Tivoli (Tibur), inscribed on the wall of tbe 
curia, wliere it now exists, i Salmdie(^na). " tatae is a child's name for 
father. 

34. d. m. I Ulpiae | Epictesis, | Ti. Claudius | Abascantus | coniugi 

benemerenti | fecit. (.On the right side) Locus adsignatus ab | Ti. 
CI. Hilaro patrono | in fronte p. V s} in agro p. II s.^ | acceptus 
k. Aprilibus | C. Bellicio Torquato | Ti. CI. Attico Herode cos.^ 

C. I. L. VI. 29335. Inscribed on a marble cippus found at Eome, now in 
the Lateran Museum. ^ P^ecles) quinque s{emissem). ^ p{edes) duo 
siemissem). ^ 143 a.d. 

35. a. M. Statilius Mercuri|us fecit sibi et Liciniae | Vitali coniugi 

karissimae | et Statilio Geniali | et Statiliae Primitivae | liber- 
tis meis et | libertis libertabusque meis |.posterisque eoram 1 



288 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

introitum, exifcum omnem|que rem possidere quod miM | cOn- 
cessum est a T. Mavio Rufino | in parte dimidia intrantibus | 
parte sinisteriore in f ronte | pedes XXXIII in agro ped. XXX. 
6. Euphrosyno | et Hercliano | ser. C. n.^ concessum | eis ab Flavio 
Eufino I in monumento | luniano quod est | iuris mei intranj- 
< tibus parte dextejra in triclinio I in qiio pariete sunt | ollae 
ossuariae| numero XIIII | et in mclia sar|coph.aga n. Ill | quot 
cessi eco " \ ambas partes et | Statilio Mercurio | et nominibus 
s. s.^ 

C. I. L. XIV. 1636. Found at Ostia, existing now in copy. A custom 
existed at Ostia of placing on tombs tablets which were divided into 
parts, according to the sharing of the rights of the tomb. The above is 
a tabula bipartita, containing on the right an inscription of Statiliua 
Mercurius, and on the left that of two slaves of Caesar. ^ C(aesaris) 
n(pstri). 2 The words are those of Flavins Rufinus. ' nominibus s{upra) 
s(criptis'). Note also the giving of introitus and exitus, as often in sepul- 
chral inscriptions ; thus the formula reads, ille illi locum ilium donavit 
cut itum ambitum dedit. 

36. per deos superos | inferosque te rogo ne | ossuaria velis violare, | 

M. Calpurnius M. 1. Sulla, | Calpurnia M. 1. Fausta liberta. 

G. I. L. XIV. 2535. Found on the estate of a monastery at Grottaferrata, 
in the old ager Tusculanus, now in the Capitoline Museum. 

37. d. [m.J, I Clodia Domitia | fecit sibi et Terentio Eegino coiugi 

suo I et Clodiae Eeginae | filiae suae et liber|tis libertabusque | 
posterisque eorum | h. m. e. h. n. s. 
a. I. L. XIV. 848. Found at Ostia. 

38. d. m., I C. Voltilius Cypaerus et Flavia | Primilla fecerunt C. 

Voltilio I Atimeto f. suo dulcissimo et pientissi|mo bene merenti 
vixit ann. XVII m. V | d. XX, quisquis huic sepulchro nocere | 
conatus fuerit manes eius eum exagitent. 

C. I. L. VI. 29471. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Rome, now in 
the Lateran Museum. 

39. Longina Diliges {sic) \ fee. sibi et | L. Longinio Fortunato | patrono 

b. m. et Cassiae I Nice matri et filiae et Cassis Augustali patri 



SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTIONS 289 

et I filio et Florali filio | et lib. libertab. post, eor.^ | i. h. m. i. a. 
s. e. f., I in f. p. X, in a. p. x. 

C. 1. L. XIV. 1270. Found at Ostia, now in Lateran Museum, Rome. 
'■ post{eris) eor{um). ''i{n) h(oc) mConumentum) i{tum) a^diturri) 
s{acrorum) c{ausa) f(acere). 

40. Ti. Magio Caeciniano | trierarcho et | Alsiae Postumae uxori | 

n. f., n. s., n. c."^ 

C /. L. V. 1813. Inscribed on a cinerary box found at Gemona, Italy, now 
existing in copy, i n(ore) f{ui), ra(ore) s{um), n(_on) c{uro). Cagnat 
refers to ttie Greeli piirase, oiK -rifnivj iyevdfiTjv, oi)k eao/j-m, oi pU\ei fwt. 

41. d. m., I P. Aelio Aug. lib. | Erasino duleissimo et pientissimo, | 

Aemilia Helene coniunx | et P. P. Aelii Aug. lib. | Musicus et 
Helenus fill | fecerunt et sibi et suis libertis liberjtabusque 
posterisque eorum, | ita ne liceat hunc munimentum vendere | 
vel donare, quod si factum fuerit | utrisque ark. pontificum 
l+SXXX m. n. poenae nomine inferet, h. m. d. m. a. 

C. I. L. VI. 10682. Inscribed on a tablet found on the Janiciilum, Rome, 
now in the museum at Oxford. 

42. d. m., I L. Aurelio | Eufo | ann. XXVI | Emer.' sepulto | hie sito, 

I Aurelia Prisca | fil. piissimo p. 

C. I. L. II. 371. Found at Condeixa a Nova (Conimbriga, Lusitania), 
Spain, existing now in copy, i Emer{ttae). Either Rufus was buried 
at Emerita and his mother brought his remains to Conimbriga, or his 
burial place was at Emerita while his tomb was at Conimbriga. 

43. d. m., I M. lul. Serano | in itinere urb.' | defuncto et sepulto, 

Coelia | Eomula | mater filio | piissimo | et Collegium | salu- 
tare | f . c. 

C. I. L. II. 379. Found at Condeixa a Nova (Conimbriga, Lusitania), 
Spain, existing now in copy. ^ urh{ano). 

44. d. m., I Acutia Tyche | luliae Arche f., | vix. a. XXIIX, | et in 

eo mon | itu act. amb. in|lat. mort. mort. | inferre coron. | 
sacrif. sacrif. fac- 1 ei a. q. e. r. p. p. r. 1.', | fil. pientissimae. 
In f. p. VII, in a. p. VI. 

LAT. INSOHIP. — 19 



290 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

C. I. L. "VI. 10562. Found at Rome, now in Vatican Museum, i et in 
eo mon{umento) itu(m) act(um) amh(itum) inlat(ionem) 'mort(ui 
habere) mort(^uuni) inferre coron{are) sacrif(_icare) sacrif(ieia) fac(ere) 
ei a(d) q(uem) e(a) r{es) pieHinet) p{ertinebit) r{ecte) l{iceto). The 
comment of Mommsen is, Formulae hae ut solent ita in compendium 
redactae sunt, utparum cohaereant. 

46. M. Lollius Arphocras | v. f . s. et Paelinae uxori v. | et lib. liber- 
tab, post. q. eorum | m. s. s. e. h. n. s. | neque ulli liquebit 
locationis | causa in annis centum quan|doq. transvendere 
quod I si qui adversus it fecerint | eorum bona pertinere | 
debebunt ad rem publicam | Brundisinorum. 

C. I. L. IX. 136. Found at Brindlsi (Brundisium), now at Villanova only 
in a fragment. 

46. Q. lulio I Servando | InHI vir. Aug. | c. I. P. C. N. M.,i | Licinia 

Pallas I marito optimo | inlatis arcae | Illlll vir.ob tuitionem | 
statuae l+S n. cc. | 1. d. d. IlIIlI vir. 

G. I. L. XII. 4397. Inscribed in letters of the second century on a pedestal 
found at Narbo (Narbonne), Gallia Narbonensis, where it still exists. 
1 C(oloniae) I{uliae) P{aternae) CQaudiae) N{arl>onis) M(jirtii). 

47. C. Catio C. f. Men. Balbo | Opetreiiae C. f. Paullae. | H6s de- 

curiones fiinere | publico de foro e tribunali | efferendos et hie 
humandos cens. | Fiificiae A. 1. Yiolae | C. Catius C. f. Men. 
Gallus I parentibus et ux6rii. , 

C. I. L. IX. 1783. Found at Benevento (Beneventum), existing now in copy. 

48. Crescens agit. | factionis ven., | natione Maurus, | annorum 

XXII. I Quadriga pritnum | vicit L. Vipstani6 | Messalla cos. 

a 

natale | divi Nervae miss.^ XXIIII | equis his : Circio, Ac- 
cep|tore, Delicate, Cotyno. | Ex Messalla in Glabrionem cos. in 

^V' natale | divi Claudi miss, ost.^ | gCLXXXVI vicit XXXXVH. | 
Inter sing.^ vie. XIX, binar. | XXIII, tern. V, praemiss.^ I, | 
occup. VIII, eripuit XXX VIII, | secund. tulit CXXX, tert. 
OXI. I Quaest.' ret. hfS pCV] LVIII | CCCXXXXVI.« 



SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTIONS 291 

C. I. L. VI. 10050. Inscribed on a marble cippus, discovered in 1878 during 
the building of a sewer on the Via Pace in Rome. ^ miss(u). ^ miss (us) 
ost{io). ^ inter sing {nlanmi) vic{it). ^ praemiss(u) so. alius aurigae; 
Friedlander reads praemiss(it) . '' Quaest{um) ret^uUf). ° 1,558,346 
r3^i_ \ sesterces. See F riedlan der, iSittengeschichte, II. ," p. 517, and Momm. 
Ephem. Ep.lY.iil. « Nov. 8, 115 a. d. ' May 10, 124 a. d. 

49. L. Afilano L. f. | An. Proviuciali | equo p. ornat., | luperco 

desig., I huic ordo statu|am deereyit. | L. Afilanus Verecun|dus 5^ 
h. u. s. r./ I 1. d. d. d. 

C. I. L. XIV. 3442. Inscribed on . a cippus found at Praeneste, where it 
still exists, ^h(onore) u{sus) s{umptum) r{emisit). 

50. a) d. (.Figure of an ascia) m., | Venuleia I Pelagia | hie adq., | fil. matr. 

piiss. 
6) M..Naevius M. f. Gal. Eestitutus | mil. coh. X pr. h. aq.' | qui 
reliq. testam. coll. | fabr. naval. Pis.^ stationi ) vetustiss. et 
piiss. H-S II II I n./ ex cuius reditu pajrental. et rosar. quot- | - 
ann. at sepulchrum | suum celebrent. Quot | si factum, ab eis 
non I esset, tunc ea ipsa con|dicione fabr. tig. Pis.* | accept, pro 
poena a | fabr. nav. H-S IIII n.^ ipsi | celebrare debebunt. 

C. I. L. XI. 1436, Pound at Pisa, existing now in copy, i h{ic) a(d)q(ui- 
escit). '^coll(egio) fahr{um) naval(ium) Pis(anorum). ^ (milia) 

nQummum). * fahri tig{narii) Fis(ani). ^ accept(is) {mili- 

bus) n(ummum). 

. 51. d. m. et memoriae | aeternae Hylatis, | dymachaero sive | assi- 
dario ^ p. VII.^ ru I./ | Ermais coniux | coniugi karissimo | p. c. 

et S. as. d (Figure of cm ascia). 

Boissieu, Inscr. de Lyon, p. 469. Found at Lyons, existing now in copy. 
1 Hylas was a dimachaerus and essedarius ; cf . Friedlander, Sittengesch. 
11.,^ p. 533. ^p(ugnarurn) VII. " rudi primae. 

52. d. m., I Muscloso | a. f, r.^ | nat. Tuscus | vie. pal.^ DCLXXXII | 
a,.' Ill p.* V. Y.' II 1 r.'= DCLXXII, | Apuleia Vere|cunda con- 
iunx m. c. p.' 
C. I. L. VI. 10063. Found at Rome, where it still exists. ^ a{gitatori) 
f(actionis)r{ussatae). ''vic{it)pal{mas). '^ a(lba factione) . ^p(rasina). 
^v(eneta). ^r{ussata). '' m(jirito) c{arissimo) p{osuit). 



292 LATm iNSCRIPTiONS 

53. M. Aur. Mollicius Tatianus | nations verna qui vixit ann. | XX 
mens. VIII diebus VII qui | vie. palmas n.' CXXV, sic in 
rus|seo LXXXVIIII in prasino XXIIII | in veneto n. V in 
albo 5. VII praemia XXXX n.' II. 

C. I. L. VI. 10049. Found on the Via Praenestina, Rome, now existing in 
copy. im(Mmero). ^ praemia (_sestertium) XXXX (milium) nQumero) . 



COLUMBAKIA 

54. a) d. m., | Blastus Aug. lib. tabul|arius fecit aedielas | tres 

intrantibus dext|eriore parte a parie|te iunctas duas et terti|a 
in qua titulus fixus est' s[j]bi et | suis 1. libertabusq. posterisq. | 
eorum. 
6) L. Cornelius L. 1. Eegillus | oUam legavit | M. Valerio M. 1. 
Prontoni. 

c) Q. Mudasenus I. 1. Eros | emit de L. Aufidio | Apollonio 
■-_ iui'is I monumenti. 

d) Quintiae | Crispinae | ollae continuae II. 

e) L. Veturi Zophrus(?)^ | L. Pinarius Eufus | dedit ol. I quae 
fuit I L. Viriasi Lali. 

C. I. L. VI. 4889, 4930, 4983; 5013, 5045. Inscriptions from columbaria of 
the Vigna Codini, between the Via Appia and Via Latina. ^ This 
inscription is in tertia, in qua titulus fixus est ; in the other two places 
the name Blastus was painted on the wall. ^ Zophrus has been sub- 
stituted after an erasure. Read L. Veturi(^us) Zopyrus. 

55. Iiilia Erdtis femina optima bic sitast 
Nullum dol6rem ad inferos mecum tuli, 
Viro et patrdno placui et decessi prior. 

C. lulius Blastus C. lulius 

C. lulius Celadus divi Aug. 1. 

Messius. 

C. I. L. VI. 5254. From the columbaria in the Vigna Codini, between 
Via Appia and Via Latina. The inscription belongs to the days of 
Tiberius. Note the iambic senarii. 



SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTIONS 293 

66. Musicd Ti. Caesaris August! | Scurran6 disp. ad fiscum Gallicum | 
provinciae Lugdunensis, | ex vicaris eius qui cum eo Eomae 
cum I decessit fuerunt bene merito, | 

Venustus negot.^ Agathopus medic. Facilis pediseq. 
Decimianus sump.^ Epaphra ab argent. Anthus ab arg. 
Dicaeus a manu Primio ab veste Hedylus cubicu. 

Mutatus a manu Communis a cubic. Firmus cocus 
Creticus a manu Pothus pediseq. Secunda" 

Tiasus cocus C v-)"' ) 

C. I. L. VI. 5197. From the columbaria in the Vigna Codini, now in the 
Lateran Museum. It belongs to the time of Tiberius. ^ negotfjiator). 
^sump(j£uarius). ^FiobaMy a, contubernalis. '' ,r^iii-'--<-~o 



liAnDATIO MUKDIAB 

57. Murdiae L. f. matris. | sed propriis viribus adlevent cetera, qu6 
firmiora | probabilioraque sint.' | Omnes filios aeque fecit bere- 
des, partitione filiae data. Amor | maternus caritate liberum, 
aequalitate partium constat. | Viro certam pecuniam legavit, 
ut ius dotis bonore iudici augeretur. | Mihi, revocata memoria 
patris eaque in cdnsilium et fide sua adjhibita, aestumatione 
facta ^ certas res testamento praelegavit, | neque ea mente, quo 
me fratribus meis quom eorum aliqua | contumeli^ praeferret : 
sed, memor liberalitatis patris mei, | reddenda mihi statuit, 
quae iudicio viri sui ex patrimonio | me6 cepisset, ut ea usu 
suo custodita proprietati meae resti|tuerentur. | Constitit ergo 
in hdc sibi ipsa, ut a parentibus dignis viris data | m9,trimonia 
opsequio probitate retineret, nupta meriteis grajtior fieret, fide 
carior haberetur, iudicio ornatior relinquerejtur, post decessum 
consensu civium laudaretur, quom discriptio | partium babeat 
gratum fidumque animum in viros, aequalita|tem in liberos, 
iustitiam in veritate. | Quibus de eauseis, quom omnium bona- 
rum feminarum simplex simi|lisque esse laudatio soleat, quod 
naturalia bona propria custo|dia servata varietates verborum 
non desiderent, satisque sit | eadem omnes bona fama digna 
fecisse, et quia adquirere | novas laudes mulieri sit arduom, 



294 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

quom minoribus varieta|tibus vita iactetur, necessario com- 
munia esse colenda,' ne quod | ^missum ex iiistis praecepteis 
• cetera turpet. | E6 maiorein laudem omnium carissima mihi 
m^ter meruit, quod | modesti^ probitate pudicitia opsequio 
lanificio diligintia fide | par similisque cetereis probeis feminis 
fuit, neque lilli cessit vir|tutis laboris sapientiae periculorum 

praecipuam aiit certe.* 

C. I. L. VI. 10230. Inscribed in letters of the best period on a large marble 
slab found at Rome, where it still exists in the Palace of the Bondinini. 
Mommsen places this inscription in the Augustan age, not later, because 
of the orthography of quom, meriteis, arduom, not earlier, because of 
the use of apices, which not only mark the long vowels, but, placed 
between the letters, serve as punctuation marks, i Mommsen's comment 
is " Haec quo pertineant, parum perspicitur, nisi qmd, cum- tempore prae- 
senti scriptor utatur, agi videtur nan de matris, sed de suo facto aliquo ; 
puta liberlis maternis quiddam eum erogasse, quod ipsorum contributio- 
nibus ut augeatur desideret." ^ Rather eaque — adhibita et fide — facta. 
Mommsen understands thus, cum in consilium adhibuisset memoriam 
patris etfldem suam. ^ Supply intellegitur. * Mommsen suggests virtutis 
laboris sapientiae periculorum (id est periculorum, quibus virtutem labo- 
rem sapientiam comprobarit) praecipuam aut certe nulli secundam memo- 
riam sibiparans. 

SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTIONS IN VERSE 
Elogia of the Scipio Family 
58. a) \_L. ComeUy) Cn. f. Scipio 

/ / .' .' / .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' / 

/ .' .' / .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' / 

6) Cornelius Lucius Scipio Barbatus, 

Gnaivod patre | prognatus, fortis vir sapiensque, 
Quoins forma virtutei parisuma | fuit, 
Consol, censor, aidilis quei fuit apud vos, 
Taurasia Cisauna | Samnio ' cepit, 
Subigit omne Loucanam opsidesque abdoucit. 
C I L.l. 29, 30 = VI. 1284-5. See page 232. Inscribed on a sarcophagus 
si peperino found at Rome in 1780, outside of the Porta Capena, on the 
Via Appia, now in the Vatican Museum. The name of the dead (a) is 



SEPULCHI^AL INSCRIPTIONS 295 

painted in red coloring {miniuni) on the lid, while the carmen (6) is cut 
on the main part of the sarcophagus. L. Cornelius Cn. f. Scipio was 
consul 456/298, censor 404/290. Ritschl, Opusc. IV, p. 222, has shown 
that the carmen (6) is more recent than (a), and the inscription of the 
son, No. 60. The date is not later than 234 e.g. Another inscription 
which preceded this carmen has been almost entirely erased, only Clesolr 
remaining. The metre is Saturnian, with verses marked by transverse 
lines cut in the stone. ^ Samnio, ablative, according to Lachmann, 
Mommsen and Wilmanns, but see other ablative in d; or accusative, 
according to Ritschl, but note other endings in us. Loucanam, sc. 
' terram. See Cic. Tusc. I. 7, 13 ; Fro Arch. 9, 22 ; De Legg. II. 2, 27. 

Liv. XXXVIII. 56 ; XL. 38. Pliny, N. H. XXXIII. 7, 122. 

59. [i.] Cornelio L. f. Scipio [a]id.iles, cosol,' cesor.^ 

G. I. L. I. 31 = VI. 1286. Inscription painted in red on a fragment of a 
sarcophagus of peperino, found at Rome in 1781, now in the Vatican 
Museum. 1495/259. 2496/258. 

60. Hone oino ploiriime cosentiont K[omai] ^ 
Duonoro optumb fuise viro,^ 

Luciom Scipione. Filios ^ Barbati, 
Consol, censor, aidilis hie fuet a,\^pvjd «os.] 
Hec cepit Corsica Aleriaque urbe,^ 
Dedet Tempestatebus aide mereto ' 



C. I. L. I. 32 = VI. 1287. See page 236. Inscribed on a slab of peperino, 
broken on the right side, found at Rome in 1614, now in the Barberini 
Palace. L. Cornelius L. Batbati f. consul 495/259, censor 496/258, took 
Corsica, destroyed Aleria, and triumphed over the Sardinians, Corsicans, 
Phoenicians (Zonar. VIII. 11; Flor. I. 18, 16). ^ JHomae (Sirmond), 
Momai (Ritschl) ; Bomani (Grotefend), Bomane (Mommsen). ^ Ritschl. 
metri gratia, supplies viroro(m) after viro. ^ Wofflin reads filiom for 
jllios. * Ritschl adds pugnandod. Wolflin {Bevue de Philol. 1890) 
considers no addition necessary. » Grotefend adds lubenter, Ritschl 
reads meretod votam, Wolfflin objects to any addition. Ovid, Fasti, VI. 
193, relates that a temple of the Tempestates was dedicated by a Scipio. 

61. Quei apice insigne' Dial[isj/2]aininis gesistei, | 

Mors perfe[ci<] tua ut assent omnia | brevia, 
Honos fama virtu sque | gloria atque ingenium, 
Quibus sei | in longa licu[i]set tibe utier vita, | 



296 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Facile facteis superases gloriam | maiorum. 
Qua re lubens te in gremiu, | Scipio, recip[i]t 
Terra, Publi, | prognatum Public, Cornell. 

C. I. L. I. 33 = VI. 1288. See page 240. Inscribed on the front of a 
sarcophagus of peperino found in 1780, now in the Vatican Museum. 
P. Cornelius P. f. Scipio, flamen Dialis, who died when a young man, 
has not been identified with certainty. He is believed by some to have 
been the son of Africauus Maior, adoptive fathei of Africanus Minor, 
who is referred to in Cic. Cato Maior, 2, 53 ; De Off. I. 33, 121 ; Brut. 
19, 77. Veil. I. 10. ^insigne is neuter. ^ join tua omnia. ^Cf. the 
Greek 7010 (c6\jrois eSelaro, Cio. De Legg. II. 60. Mommsen places the 
close of his life between 550/204 and 590/154. The double consonants 
in essent and terra, point to the latter part of sixth century a.u.c, 
although note gesistei, superases, licuiset. 

62. L. Cornell. L. f. P.[n] | Scipio, quaist.,^ | tr. mil., annos | 
gnatus XXXIII | mortuos. Pater | regem Antioco subegit. 

C. /. L. I. 33 = VI. 1296. Inscribed on a slab originally forming part of a 
sarcophagus of tufa, now in the Vatican Museum. 1 587/167 (Livy, 
XLV. 44). 

63. Cn. Cornelius Cn. f. Scipio Hispanus | pr., aid. cur., q., tr. mil. II, 

X vir si. iudik. | X vir sacr. fac. 

Virtutes generis mieis moribus accumulavi, 
Progeniem ' genui, facta patris petiei. 
j^jxXjJiiu Maiorum optenui laudem, ut sibei me esse creatum, 
Laetentur; stirpem nobilitavit honor. 

C /. L. I. 38 = VI. 1295. Inscribed on three tablets of peperino found at 
Bome in 1782. The first of these is now lost; the others are in the 
Vatican Museum. Cn. Cornelius Scipio Hispanus, son of Cn. Cornelius 
Scipio Hispallus, cos. 578/176, was sent in 605/139 to receive the arms 
from the Carthaginians (Appian. Lit. 80), became praetor in 615/139 
(Val. Max. I. 3. 3, where he is styled Hispallus). iQn the stone after 
progeniem there is a line which Mommsen joined with the preceding 
letter and read progenie mi = progeniem mihi. Ritschl gives the above 
reading, Opuse. IV., p. 539. 

64. L. Cornelius Cn. f. Cn. n. Scipio 

Magna sapientia | multasque virtutes ^ 



SEPULCHRAL msCRlPTIONS 297 

Aetate quom parva | posidet hoc saxsum. 

Quoiei vita defecit, non | honos honore.^ 

Is hie situs quei nunquam | victus est virtutei. 

Annos gnatus XX is | dfivjeis' ni[an]datus. 

Ne quairatis honore' | quei minus sit mand[a«]u[s]. 

. /. L. I. 34, VIr 1289. See page 235. Inscribed on a tablet of peperino 
from a sarcophagus found at Rome, now in the Vatican Museum. 
Visconti, Mommsen, and Ritschl have conjectured that this Scipio was 
the grandson of Calvus, consul, 532/222 (Livy, XXI. 32), son of His- 
pallus, who died in the consulship 578/176 (Livy, XLI. 20), and the 
younger brother of Cn. Cornelius Scipio Hispanus (No. 63) . i honore, 
accusative according to Lachmann, Ritschl, Buecheler ; dative according 
to others. ^ Mommsen reads loceis = sepulcro, Ritschl, Diteist, Lach- 
mann leto est. 8 Visconti interprets honorem quern non acceperit ; 
Ritschl, cur minus honore sit mandatus. Lachmann {Lucr., p. 245) 
expresses it thus, honore quei minus sit mactus, on the ground that 
the stone cutter has repeated mandatus instead of inscribing maetatus. 



Iambic Senarii 

65. Hospes, quod deico, paullum est, asta ac pellege. 
Heic est sepulcrum hau pulcrum pulcrai feminae. 
Nomen parentes nominarunt Claudiam. 

Suom mareitum corde deilexit souo. 
Gnatos duos creavit. Horune alteram 
In terra linquit, alium ^ sub terra locat. 
Sermone lepido, tum autem ineessu commode. 
Domum servavit. Lanam fecit. Dixi. Abel. 

C. I. L. I. 1007 = VL 15346. Found at Rome, existing in copy. This 
carmen belongs probably to the Gracchan period, i The writer has 
avoided altrum. Buecheler's (Anthologia Latina, Car. Ep. 52) comment 
is par huie exemplum haud facile inveneris apud antiquos, nam differunt 
talia — ex alio terram status excipit alter (Luoret. V. 832, IV. 686). 

Choliambus 

66. luenis ^ Sereni triste cernitis marmor, 
Pater supremis quod sacravit et frater 



298 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Pietate mira perditum dolens fratrem, 
Quern flevit omnis planctibus novis turba. 
Quod interisset ^ forma, Acs, pudor simplex. 
Dole meator, quisquis hoc legis carmen, 
^Et ut meretur anima, lacrimam accomoda. 

0. 1. L. X. 1275. Found at Nola, preserved in copy. Above the verse is 
the inscription, M. St . . . o M. f. Fal(atina) P . . . co Fisio Sereno 
liutilio Caesiano II viro auguri, vixit arm. XXXI mensib. XI diebus 
XVIII. — written below, ipsius pater miserrimus. The inscription dates 
no earlier than the time of Hadrian. ' i Others read iuvenis and interis- 
sent. 2 The last line is iambic trimeter. Buecheler suggests that lacrimam 
adsperge would make a choliambus. 

Iambic Dimeter 

67, Genitor lunonem dedieat 

Alteque Pompeiae locat. 
Levamen hoc doloribus 
Lacrimisque pausam credidit. 
At nunc videndo iugiter 
Et fletum et gemitus integrat. 

C. I. L. VIII. 251. Suppl. 11405. Inscribed on a stone found at SblUa 
(Sufetula) Africa. Note the acrostic Gallae. 



Hexameter 

68. Vidi pyramidas sine te dulcissime frater, 

Et tibi quod potui,' lacrimas hie maesta profudi 
Et nostri memorem luctus hahc sculpo querelam.^ 
Sic nomen Decimi"^entiani pyramide alta 
Pontificis comitisque tuis, Traiane, triumphis 
Lustra[gMe] ' sex intra censoris consulis exst[ei].* 



t 



C. I. L. III. 21 ; Suppl. 6625. Inscribed on a pyramid at Gize, Egypt, 
existing in a copy. ' Catullus 68, 149. Ovid, Fasti, V. 472. " Horace, 
Carm. III. 11, 50. ' These are conjectures of Buecheler. The second 
triumph of Trajan occurred in 106 a.». 



HONORARY INSCRIPTIONS 299 

Elegiac Verse 

69. Viva Philematium sum | Aurelia nominitata, | 

-^ Casta, pudens, volgei | nescia, feida viro | 
", Vir conleibertus fuit | eidem, quo careo | eheu ! | 
Eee fuit ee vero plus | superaque parens. | 
Septem me naatam | annorum gremio | ipse recepit; 
Quadraginta | annos nata necis potior. | 
Ille meo officio | adsiduo florebat ad omnis. 

C I. L. VI. 9499. Inscribed on a tablet of travertine found on the old Via 
Nomentana, Borne, now in the British Museum. 

HONOEARY INSCRIPTIONS 
Elogia 

1. a) L. Aem[i7]ius L. f. Paullus | co[s. /J], cens., augur | tr[«]- 
umphavit ter. 

b) P- Cornelius Paulli f. Scipio | Africanus cos. II, cens., | augur 

triumphavit II. 

c) [Q] Fabius Q. f. Maxsumus | aed. cur. 

d) Q. Fabius Q. f. Maxsumus aed. cur. rest. 

O. I. L. 1.2 xxr^., XXV., XXVI. ; d, vol. VI. 1303. Inscribed on blocks of 
travertine found in the Forum Romanum in 1546, but destroyed in the 
latter part of the sixteenth century, hence existing only in a copy. 
These Inscriptions adorned the Arch of Fabius built by Q. Fabius Maxi- 
mus AUobrogicus, consul 633/121, and restored by Q. Fabius Maximus, 
curule aedile about 698/56. This restitution is referred to by Cicero in 
Oratio in Vatinium 11. 28 : Nihil Maximus fecit alienum out sua virtute 
aut illis darissimis Paullis, Maximis, Africanis, quorum gloriam huius 
virtute renovatum non modo speramus, verum etiam iam videmus. 
Paullus, cos. 572/182 and 586/168, was the father of Q. Fabius Maxi- 
mus Aemilianus, cos. 609/145, and ancestor of Maximus, who restored 
the arch. From his being saluted imperator three times, three triumphs 
are wrongly assigned to him instead of two, as here and in Velleius I. 9. 
Scipio Africanus Minor, cos. 607/147 and 620/134, was the son of 
Paullus, and brother of Fabius Maximus Aemilianus. 

3. Ap. Claudius | q. urb.,^ | cos " cum P. | Servilio Prpsco]. 



300 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

C. I. L. !?■ XXXI. Found at Rome, existing in copy, i Cf. Momm. 
StaaXsr. II.s 533. 2 259/495. 

3. a) [P. Claudius Ap. f. P. n. Pulcher \ colono'Js adscripsit Cales, 

COS.' cum I [i. Porcio, III vir'] coloniam deduxit Graviscam.'' 
6) [C. Claudius Ap. f. G. n. Pulcher] \ q., Ill vir a. a. a. f. f., aed. 
cur., iudex q. veneficis,' pr. | repetundis, curator vis sternendis, 
COS.* cum M. Ferperna. 

O. I. L. I.^ XXXII., XXXIII. Inscribed on a stone formerly used as a door- 
step of the Churoli of S. Martino ai Monti, Rome. Fragments of this 
stone, which are now in the Capitoline Museum, were found near the 
church in 1879. 1 570/184. 2 Cf. Livy, XL. 29. » Cf. Momm. Staatsr. 
II.3 578. 1 662/92. 

4. M. Valerius M. f. M'. [w.] | Messalla, pontife[a;], | tr. mil. II, q., 

pr. urb., co[s.J, | V vir a. d. a. i., interr[ea;] | III, censor. 

C. I. L. 1? XL. Inscribed on travertine, found behind the Basilica of 
Constantine, now in the Palazzo dei Conservator!. It refers to M. 
Valerius Messalla, consul 693/61, guinqiievir agris dandis adsignandis 
iudicandis 695/59 (Cic. De Prov. Cons. 17, 41; Ad. Att. 2, 7, 4); 
interrex 699/55, 701/53, 702/52 ; censor 699/55-700/54. On the same 
stone appears ...... M. n. | .. . inus, referring probably to his son, 

M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, consul 723/31. 

5. C. Octavius C. f. C. n. C. pr[on.J | pater Augusti, | tr. mil. bis., q., 

aed. pi. cum | C. Toranio, | iiidex quaestionum, | pr. pro cos., 
imperator appellatus | ex provincia Macedonia. 

C /. L. 1.2 XXIX. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Rome, existing 
in a copy. The following remnant of another inscription given with the 
above may perhaps be assigned to C. lulius Caesar, father of the Dicta- 
tor, Caesar | i | ic.q. pr. | cos. 

in Asia. C. Octavius, father of Augustus, was praetor in 693/61 ; then 
obtained Macedonia as his province. On his return from his province 
he died (Suet. Aug. 4). This and the two following inscriptions Momm- 
sen believes to have belonged to a sacrarium, of the domus Augustae, 
where the imagines of the imperial and allied families were exhibited. 

6. C. lulius L. f. Caesar | Strabo, | aed. cur., tr. mil. bis, X vir 

agr. dand. adtr. iud., pontif. 



HONOEARY INSCRIPTIONS 301 

O. I. L. 1.2 XXVII. Found at Rome, where it is said by writers of the 
fifteenth and sbcteenth centuries to have been inscribed on a wall near 
the Forum Augusti, existing in copy. Strabo was curule aedile in 
664/90. He is often mentioned by Cicero. Cf. TeuHel-Schwabe-Warr, 
Hist, of Roman Literature, 153, 3. 

M. Livius M. f. C. n. Drusus pontifex, tr. mil., X vir stlit. iudic, 
tr. pi., X vir a. d. a. lege sua et eodem anno V vir a. d. a. leg^ 
Saufe[i]a, in magistratu occisus est. 

C. I. L. 1.2 XXX. Found at Rome, existing in a copy of the sixteenth 
century. This refers to the famous tribune of the plebs of 663/91, in 
regard to whose laws see Liv. Ep. 71 ; Appian, B. G. I. 35 ; Be Viris 
Mlustribus, c. 66. 

Elogia of the Forum of Augustus 

M'. Valerius | Volusi f. | Maximus, | dictator,^ augur. Primus^ 
qu^m ullum magistratum gexeret, | dictator dictus, est. Tri- 
umphavit | de Sabinis et Medullinis. Plebem de Sacror monte 
deduxit, gratiam | cum patribus reconciliavit ; fae|nore gravi 
populum senatus, hoc | eius rei auctore, Hberavit. Sellae | 
curulis locus ipsi posterisque | ad Murcia^ spectandi caussa 
datus I est. Princeps in senatum semel | I^cms est. 
C. I. L. 1.2 V. — XI. 1826. Inscribed on a small marble base, in the upper part 
of which a bust was probably inserted; found at Arezzo (Arretium), where 
it exists in the public museum. 1 260/494 (Liv. II. 30). ^ For jinas. 

Appius Claudius | C. f. Caecus, | censor, cos. bis, diet., interrex 
III,\pr- II, aed. cur. II, q., tr. mil. III. Com|plura oppida de 
Samnitibus cepit ; | Sabmorum et Tuscdrum exerci|tum fudit ; 
pacem fieri cum [Pjyrrbo rege proMbuit. In censura viam | 
Appiam stravit et aquam in | urbem adduxit ; aedem Bellonae | 
fecit. 

C. I. L. 1.2 X = XI. 1827. Inscribed on a small marble base found at 
Arezzo (Arretium), now in the museum at Florence. Fragments con- 
taining a few letters of the original of the above inscription were found 

in the Forum Augusti at Rome in 1889. They are a oppi, — '—m et 

Tus , n CM , { aq , ae fe . Cf. Lanciani, Bull. 

Comun. 1889, p. 77. Appius Claudius was censor in 442/312 and consul 
447/307 and 458/296. Cf. Livy, X. 22 ; Cic. Brut. 14, 55. 



302 LATIN INSCKIPTIONS 

10. C. Marius C. f. | cos. VII, pr., tr. pi., q., augur,^ tr. mil." | Extra' 

sortem bellum cum lugurtha^ ] rege Numid. '* cos. gessit. Eiim 
cepit I et triumplians in secundo consiilatu[ ante ciirrum suum 
duci iussit, [ Tertium c onsul ° apsens° creatus est. | IIII cos. 
Teut onorum exercitum | delevit. V cos. Cimbros fugavit,^ 
ex I ieis ' et Teutonis iterum triumph avit. | Rem p ° turbatam 
seditionibus tr. pi. | et praetor., quei'° arm ati Capitolium | 
occupaverunt, VI cos, vin dicavit. | Post LXX annvim patria 
per arma | civilia expulsus armis restitutus | VII cos. faetus 
est. De manubiis | Cimbris et Teuton, aedem Honor! | et 
Virtuti victor fecit. Vests | triumphali calceis patriciis [in 
senatum venW] . . . 

C. I. L. I.,2 p. 195, and XI. 18.31. This inscription, found at Arezzo 
(Arretium), exists in a copy made in the fourteenth century. Part of 
the original inscription which once stood in the forum Augusti at Eome 
exists on small fragments of marble, one of which was found in the 
fifteenth century and is now at Naples (VI. 1315), the others were dis- 
covered in 1876 in the Villa Aldobrandini (Ephem. Ep. IV. 1817). The 
portions of the inscription which appear on the fragments found at Rome 
are indicated by the lines. The readings of the copy from Arretium 
differ from those given above, as follows : i aug., ^ tr. militum., ^ lugurta, 
^Numidiae, ^cos., ^absens, ''fudit, ^iis, ^pub., ^qui. C. Marius was 
consul seven times, 647/107; 650/104-654/100 ; 668/86, praetor 6.39/115 
(Cic. De Off. 3, 20, 19), tribunus plebis 635/119 (Plutarch, Mar. 4), 
tribunus militum apopulo (Sail. Jug. 63), auguir (Cic. Ad Brut. 1, 5, 3). 
Por the vestis triumphalis cf. Liv. Ep. 67, Mariits triumphali veste in 
senatum venit, quod nemo ante eum fecerat; Plut. Mar. 12. 

Other Elogia op Eaklt Romans 

11. Fert. Erresius,' | rex Aequeicolus. | Is preimus | ius fetiale 

paravit; | inde p. E. | discipleinam excepit. 

C. I. L. I.,^ p. 202. Inscribed in letters of the first century on a little 
column of peperino found on the Pala;tine, now in the Baths of 
Diocletian. This is an inscription of the imperial period affecting 
archaic forms. ^ Mommsen believes that Fertor Besins was intended. 
He is mentioned as the inventor of the ius fetiale in De ^ris Illustribus 
5, and in De Praenominibus, § 1. 



HONORARY INSCRIPTIONS 303 

12. Lavinia Latini ] filia 

Silyius Aeneas, | Aeneae et Lavi|niae filius. 

C. I. L. I.? p. 189 = XIV. 2067, 2068. Inscribed on two pedestals, dating 
probably in the second century a.d., found at Pratica, ancient Lavinium. 

13. E,6mulus Martis | [/]ilius. Urbem E6mam | [cowdj] dit et 

regnavit annds | duodequadragint^ Isque | primus dux duce 
hostium I Acrone rege Caeninensium | interfecto spolia 
opi[ma] ^ I lovi Feretrio consecra[vrt,] receptusque in de- 
oru[m] I numerum Quirinu[s] | appellatu[s esf]. 

C. I. L. 1.,'^ p. 189 = X. 809. Inscribed on a pedestal found at Pompeii, 
now in the public museum at Naples, i Livy, IV. 19. Propert. V. 10. 
Festus under opima, p. 186. Val. Max. III. 2, 3. 

14. Quintus Hortensius. 

C. I. L. I.,2 p. 202 = VI. 1309. Inscribed on a small pedestal now in the 
Villa Albani. This inscription belongs to the first century a.d., or 
perhaps dates somewhat earlier. The praenomen written in full points 
to a Greek workman. 

15. M. Cicero, an, LXIIII. ' 

C. I. L. I. ,2 p. 202 = VI. 1325. Inscribed under a marble bust which is 
preserved at Madrid, Spain. See Bernoulli, Mom. Ikonographie, I., 
p. 135; This inscription dates about the time of Cicero, who was born 
Jan. 8, 648/106, and died Dec. 7, 711/43. 

Elogia of the Fokum op Teajan 

16. M. Claudio [Ti.] f. Q[mV.]*| Prontoni cos.,i | leg. Aug.'pr. pr. 

pr6vinciarum Daciaruja et | super.' simul leg. Aug. pr. pr. 
pr6vincia. | DSiciar. leg. Augg. pr. pr. Moesiae super. | Daciae 
Apulesis,^ simul leg. Augg. pr. pr. pro|vinciae JMoesiae super..^ 
comiti divi Veri | Aug., ddnatd donis militarib. bello Ar|meni- 
ac(5 et Partliic6 ab imperatore Antdnind Aug. et a divo Vero 
Aug. corona | murali item vallari item classica item | aurea 
item hastis puris IIII item v[e]xillis | IIII,^ curatdri operum 



304 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

locdrumq. publicdr., missd ad iuventtitem per Italiam legen-| 
dam/ leg. Augg. pr. pr. exercitus legi<5narii | et auxilidr.^ per 
Orientem in Armeniam | et Osrhoenam et Anthemusiani' ducto-| 
rum, leg. Augg. legioni primae Miiiervi|ae in exspeditionem 
Parthicam deducen|dae, leg. divi Antonini Aug. leg. XI CI., 
prae|t(5ri, aedili curuli, ab actis senatus, quae|st6ri urbano, , X 
viro stlitibus iudicandis. | Huio senatus auctor[e] imperatore 
M. Au|reli(5 Antdnino | Aug. Armeniaco Medico | Parthico 
maximo, quod post aliquot se|cunda proelia adversum Ger- 
manos et lazyges ad postremum pr6 r. p. fortiter | pugnans 
ceciderit,' armatam statuam [pom] | in foro divi Traiani 
I pecunia publica cen[sMiJ]. 

C. I- L. VI. 1.377. Found at Kome in the Forum of Trajan, existing only 
in copy. Claudius Pronto, according to Lucian, -was mentioned in some 
history of the Parthian war of L. Verus. Another inscription found in 
Dacia, referring to him, is given in C. I. L. III. 1457. i He was consul 
suffectus in 166, or somewhat earlier. ^ There appears to be some con- 
fusion and discrepancy- here. Mommsen has suggested as the reading on 
the stone, leg. Aug. pr. pr. provinciarmn Daciarum trium, prov. Daciae 
Maluensis, prov. Daciae PoroUssensis, prov. Daciae Apulesis. For this 
triple division of the province of Dacia see Marquardt, Staatsv. 1.,^ 
p. 309. ^ He appears to have been legatus of Dacia and Moesia Superior 
in 169 and 170. * The number of the dona militaria indicates that 
Fronto was consularis when he received them. ^ gge Momm. Staatsr. 
II.,' p. 850, note 3. ^ xhis legatio was assigned extra ordinem. See 
Momm. Staatsr. II.,' p. 853. ' Anthemusia is a district of Mesopotamia. 
° Borghesi declares that Fronto did not die before 170, but was killed In 
battle while he was in charge of the provinces of Dacia and Moesia. 

17. [_Cl.^ Claudiani v. c.^ | [Cto]udio Glaudiano v. c. tri[6M]no et 
liotario inter ceteras | [dejcentes artes praegloriosissimo | 
|7po]etarum, licet ad memoriam sem|piternam carmina ab 
eodem | scripta sufiB^ciant, adtamen | testimonii gratia ob 
iudicii sui | [/]idem dd. nn. Arcadius et Honorius^ | [/]eli- 
cissimi ac doctissimi | imperatores, senatu petente, | statuam 
in foro divi Traiani | erigi collocarique iusserunt. | — dv en 
/StpyiXtoto voov I Koi /jiovixav 'O/jj^pov | EtA.aijStavoi' Vu)ii.rj Kai | j3a(nXrji 



HONORARY INSCRIPTIONS 305 

C. I. L. "VI. 1710. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Rome, now in the 
museum of Naples, i B(m) c(larissimi). ^ 395-408. In elogia and 
honorary inscriptions of the later period there frequently appears above 
the inscriptions, or in some prominent position on the pedestal, the name 
of the person to whom the inscription refers. This may be simply a 
cognomen, or more rarely the fuller form of the name aS here, and may 
be in the genitive or dative case, so here the first words are separate 
from the remainder of the inscription. The cognomen, if thus placed 
aside, is repeated in some cases or omitted in the repetition of the name 
■which follows. 

/ 

TiTULI HONORAEII 

18. Italicei | L. Cornelium Sc[ip]i[one]m | honoris caussa. 

C. I. L. X. 7459. Found near Castel Tusa in the ruins of old Halaesa, 
existing in a copy. Mommsen believes this is L. Cornelius Scipio, after- 
wards termed Asiagenus, who was praetor in Sicily in 561/193. Livy, 
XXXIV. 54, 55 ; Cic. De Orat. II. 69, 280. This is then the oldest 
honorary inscription attached to a statue. It is in the Greek form. See 
page 243. 

19. L. Manlius L. f . | Acidinus ' triu. vir ^ | Aquileiae coloniae | 

deducundae. 

C I. L. I. 538 = V. 873. Inscribed on a pedestal found at Padua, whither 
it had been carried from Aquileia, existing in two p&rts, of which the 
upper is now in the museum at Cattajo, near Padua, the lower at 
Vicenza. ^ The name appears in thp Fasti, J^. Manlius L. f. Acidinus 
Fulvianus ^cos. 575/179). ^ i,i tjje year 573/181, together with P. Cor- 
nelius Scipio Nasica.and C. Plaminius (Livy, XL. 34, cf. XXXIX. 55). 
The inscription probably dates not long after the founding of the colony, 
judging from th6 form of the name and the nom. case of the name of the 
one honored. 

20. C. lulius Caesar pontif. 

C. I. L. v. 4305. Inscribed on the epistylium of a column found at Brescia 
(Brixia), where it still exists, though broken into five pieces. As there 
is no trace of the abbreviation Max., Mommsen believes that Augustus 
is here referred to, and that the inscription, dating 710/44, was made 
immediately after his adoption by the dictator, for he was appointed 
pontifex in 706/48, after the battle of Pharsalia. 

I-AT. IfTSCKIP, — 20 



306 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS .^j^ 

21. L. Cornelio L. f. | Sullae Felici | dictator!, | vicus laai Fund.' 

O. /. L. I. 584 = VI. 1297. Inscribed on a pedestal of travertine found at 
Eome on tlie Quirinal Hill, now in the museum at Naples. Coins and 
various writers inform us that an equestrian statue was erected in front 
of the rostra to Sulla the dictator in 674/80 or 675/79. Appian, B. O. 
I. 97; Cic. Phil. IX. 6. 13; Veil. II. 61; Suet. Caes. 75.- ^vicus lad 
Fuiid(anii). Another inscj-iption (Henzen, 7272) refers to this locus, 
M. Claudius Pnscus redemptor a laco Fundani. 

22. Cn. Pompeio Cn. f. | Magno | imper. iter. 

C. I. L. XI. 2104. Inscribed on a pedestal of travertine found at Chiusi 
(Ciusium), where it exists to-day in the museum. joo.«*»<»*' 

23. M. Acilio M. f. Canino | q. urb. | negotiatores ex areafSaturni. 
C. I. L. XIV. 153. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found at Ostia, now in 

the Vatican Museum. Mommsen has set the date as earlier than 726/28, 
in which year the cura aerarii Saturni was taken away from the 
quaestors. 

24. P. Silio leg. pro | pr. patrono, | colonel. 

C /. L. II. 3414. Found at Carthagena, Spain, where it is still preserved 
in the public buildings. The reference is to P. Silius Nerva, consul 
734/20. Cf. Velleius, II. 90. The brevity of the inscription, leg. pro pr., 
standing for leg. Aug. pro pr., the form of the letters, and the mention 
of the coloni, point to a date near that of his consulship. 

26. L. Poplilio C. f. | Flacco | poplice statuta. 

C. I. L. X. 5845. Found at Ferentino (Ferentinum), where it still exists. 

26. C. Annio L. f . | Quir. Flavo, | luliobrigens. | ex gente Canta|broruin | 

provincia Hispa|nia Citerior. | ob causas utilita|tesc[ue publicas 
fideliter et con|staiiter defensas. 
C. I. L. II. 4192. Found at Tarragona (Tarraco), Spain, existing only in 

copy. 

27. Aurelio Sym|plioro Aug. lib., | oficiali veteri a inemo|ria et a 

diplomatibus, | exornato ornament. | decurionalibus, | ordo 
splendidissim. | civi | ob amorem et | instantiam erga | patriam | 
civesque. 
C. I. L. X. 1727. Found at Pozzaoli (Puteoli), where it is preserved in the 
public museum. 



HONORARY INSCRIPTIONS 307 

28. L. Gaboni ' Arunculeio | Pacilio ^ Fab. Severe c. v, | iurid. reg. 

Transpad., | pro cos. desig. prov. | Cypri, | avunculo karissimo, | 
O^,,,^,^ suffragiis eius ad fisci | advocationes promotus | L. Valerius | 
\i Marcellinus | 1. d., nepos, d. d. 

G. I. L. V. 4332. Found at Brescia (Brixia), existing now in copy. Cf. 
also V. 4333, an inscription of the father of Arunculeius. ^ The nom. 
case is Gabo. Wilmanns reads P. Acilio. 

29. C. Vallio | Maximiano | proc. provinciar. | Macedoniae Lusi|taniae 
^^ Mauretan. | Tingitanae, fortis|simo duci, | res p. Italicens. ob | 

tf*'^'^^ merita et quor-l provinciam Baetic. | caesis hostibus | paci 
pristinae | restituerit. | (On the right side) Dedicata anno | Licini 
Victoris et | Pabi Aeliani II viror. | pr. kal. lanuar. 

C. I. L. II. 1120. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found at Sevilla (Hispalis), 
Spain, where it is preserved in the museum. Hiibner believes Maximi- 
anus to have been procurator of Marcus and Verus, and refers to the 
words of Capitolinus in Vita Marci, c. 21, cum Mauri Hispanias prope 
omnes vastarent res per legatos bene gestae sunt. Wilmanns, because of 
the form kal, which dates from the time of Commodus, also because of 
e. v., which occurs in another inscription of the same man (II. 2015), 
and dates after the time of the Antonines, places the inscription in the 
reign of Severus and Caracalla. 

30. h onori ^ | M. Gavi M. f . | Pob. Squilliani eq. pub., IIII yir. i. d., | 

Illlvir. a. p., V. b.,^ curatori.^ Vicetinor., | apparitores et 
limocincti | tribunalis eius. 

C. I. L. T. 3401. Inscribed on a large bronze tablet found at "Verona, 
where it still exists in the museum. iThis form belongs to the third 
century. ^ quattuorvir a(_edilicia) p^otestate), v(iri) 6(orei). ^curatoris. 

31. Asterii.' | L. Turcio Aproniano v. c, | filio L. Turci Aproniani v. 

c. I praefecti uibi,^ nepoti | L. Turci Secundi c. v. consulis, | 
quaestori, praetori, quindecem|Tiro sacris faciundis, correc|tori 
Tusciae et Umbriae, omni | virtute praestanti, statuam | ex 
aere ordo Spoletinorum | ad memoriam perpetui nominis | con- 
locavit, I curantibus Flavio Spe v. p. et Codonio Tauro iim. | 
Post Amanti et Albini cons.* 

e«^ J) xo«,A»^ 



308 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

C. I. L. VI. 1768. Inscribed on a marble pedestal found at Rome, where 
it still exists. ^ Per this form of inscription, which dates from the third 
century, and is common after time of Diocletian, see page 305, note. 
"^praefectus urbi in 339 a.d. ' The year 346 is referred to. 

32. singularis integritatis | et bonitatis exsimiae* | M. Aur. Consio 
Quarto | luniori e. v. correctori | Flaminie et Piceni,^ | pontifici 
maiori, | promagistro iterum,^ | duodecim viro ; | Anconitani et 
Fanestres clientes | patrono. 
C. I. L. VI. 1700. Inscribed on a pedestal found at Rome, now in the 
Capitoline Museum, i From the latter part of the third century laudar 
tory words were often placed before the name of the one honored. 
* Correctores Flaminiae et Piceni as viri clarissimi are found from 313 
to about 350 ; afterwards they are termed consulares. The inscription, 
therefore, belongs to the former period. ^ promagister pontificnm; 
from the time of Aurelian they are termed pontiflces maiores or Vestae. 

INSCRIPTIONS ON PUBLIC WORKS 

1. Q. Vibuleius L. f. | L. Statius Sal. f. | duo vir. | balneas reficiund. | 
^Af^fJfi aquam p er publ icum | dueendam d. d. s. | coerayere. 

C. I. L. XIV. 3013. P. L. M. E. LIII. b. Found at Praeneste, in the ruins 
of the baths. ^^6.- 

2. Q. Lutatius Q. f. Q.[n]. Catulus cos. | substructionem et tabida- 

rium I de s. s. faciundum coeravit [eijdeinque | pro|[6a'U«i]. 

C. I. L. VI. 1314. Found in the fifteenth century, in the building known 
as the Tabularium, on the Capitoline Hill. It is now lost. Lanciani 
(Bull. Arch. Mun. III., p. 165) suggests that the suhstruetio was the 
great platform of the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, which temple 
Lutatius Catulus, cos. 676/78, dedicated. Tac. Hist. IIL 72. See 
Jordan, Annali delV 1st. LIII. 1881, p. 60 fl., and Middleton's Bemains 
of Ancient Borne, Vol. I., pp. 366 and 372. 

3. T. Aienus V. f. Med.^ [i] Billucidius L. 1. Billo, | Q. Caesienus 

Q. f. Post.^ 0. Opsius C. f ., I mag. [p]agi de y. s. f." c. i. q. p.' 
C. I. L. IX. 3521. Inscribed in archaic letters on blocks of stone, which 
probably formed the arch of an aqueduct near Barisciano (Furfo), Italy, 
still in existence, i Unknown cognomen. ^ Fost(umits'). ^ mag(istri) 
pagi de v(ici) s{ententia) f^aciundum) c{urarunt) i{dein)q(ue) pr(o- 
barunt). 



INSCEIPTIONS ON PUBLIC WORKS 309 

4. L. Betilienus L. f. Vaams | haec quae infera scripta | sont de 

senatu sententia | facienda coiravit : semitas | in oppido omnis, 
porticum qua | in arcem eitur, campum ubei | ludunt, horologium, 
macelum, | basilicam calecandam, seedes, | [/jacum balinearium, 
lacum ad [p]ortam, aquam in opidum adou ^ (dc) | arduom 
pedes CCCXvl^ fornicesq. | fecit, fistulas soledas fecit, | ob hasce 
res censorem fecere bis, | senatus filio stipendia mereta | ese 
iousit populusque statuam | donavit Censorino.^ 

O. I. L. X. 5807. Found at Alatri (Aletrium), Italy, where it exists to-day. 
The inscription date? before the passage of the Lix Julia de Civitate of 
664/90, since, if citizenship had been received, the local senate could 
not have granted immunity from military service to their fellovf-citizen. 
The doubling of the vowels gives another date, see p. 30. ^ Ritschl sug- 
gests ad que ( = ei ad arduum -^ in arcem) for this word which is not 
understood. ^ xhis word is due to his having held the censorship twice. 

5. a) A. Hirtius A. f. M. Lollius C. f. Ces. fundamenta murosque af-a- 

solo faciunda coeravere eidemque probavere ; in terram funda- ^ 
mentum est pedes altum XXXIII, in terram ad idem exemplum 
quod supra terra[m sUici]. 

b) M. Lollius C. f. A. Hirtius A. f. ces. fuuda. | faciunda coera- 
verunt eidemque probavere. 

c) A. Hirtius A. f. M. Lollius C. f. Ces. fundamenta | fornices 
faciunda coeravere eidemque | probavere. 

C I. L. X. a) 58.38, 6) 5839, c) 5840. These inscriptions are in various 
parts of the old citadel of Ferentinum (Ferentino), where they may be 
seen to-day. The first inscription is repeated on another wall of the 
building. 

6. M. Saufeius M. f. Eutilus | C. Saufeius C. f. Flacus | q." | culinam 
f. d. s.- s. c.^ eisdem|q. locum emerunt de | L. Tondeio L. f. 
publicum ; est longu p. CXii;VIIIS | latum af muro ad | L. 
Tondei vorsu p. XVI. 

C. /. L. XIV. 3002. Found at Praeneste, where it still exists, i g. is in 
the margin between lines 1 and 2. ^ q{uaestores) culinam f(aciundam') 
d(e) s(enatus) s^ententia) c(uraverunt). 



310 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

7. Ansia Tarvi f. | Eufa ex d. d. circ. | lucum macer. | et murum et 

ianu.^ I d. s. p. f. c. 

C. I. L. X. 292. Found at Diano (Tegianum) Lucania, Italy, existing in a 
copy, lianlt(am) or ianu{as). > 

8. s. c. balneum Clodianum | emptum cum suis aedificis | ex pecunia 

Augustal. H-S lii; (J^ I Q. Minuti Ikari, | C. Aufilli Suavis, | C. 
Aiscidi Lepotis {si&j, \ N. Herenni Optati, | M. Caedi Chilonis, | 
M. Ovini Fausti. 

C. I. L. X. 4792. Found in the bell-tower.of a building at Tiano (Teanum 
Sidicinum), where it still exists. The total of sixty thousand sesterces 
points to an individual payment of ten thousand sesterces. 

. 9. M. Herennius M. f. Gallus | Q. Veserius Q. f. duo vir. | quinq. | 
d. d. s. f. c. eidemq. prob.^ | Arcitectus Hospes Appiai ser. 

C. I. L. X. 4587. Found in an old gateway at Cajazzo (Caiatia), Italy, 
where it still exists. ' Die) d(ecurionum) s{ententia) f{aciundum) 
c(urarunt) eidemq{ue) prob(arunt). 

10. C. Aemilius C. f. Serg. HomuUinus | dec. col. Murs. ob hono- 

rem | flaminatus tabernas L cum | porticibus duplicib. in quib. | 
mercatus ageretur pecunia | sua fecit. 

C. 7. L. III. 3288. Found at Eszeg (Mursa), Pannonia, existing now in 
copy. 

11. a) M. Agrippa L. f. cos. tertium fecit. 

6) imp. Caes. L. Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax Aug. Arabicus 
Adiabenicus Parthicus Maximus pontif. max., trib. potest. X, 
imp. XI, COS. Ill, p. p., procos. et | imp. Caes. M. Aurelius 
Antoninus Pius Felix Aug. trib. potestat. V cos., procos. Pan- 
theum vetustate corruptum cum omni cultu restituerunt. 

C. I. L. VI. 896. The first of these, dating 727/27, was originally inlaid 
in bronze in the frieze of the entablature of the Pantheon at Rome. 
The inscription can still be seen, as the sunken matrices remain. The 
second, in smaller characters, is inscribed on the architraye of the 
portico and dates 202 a.d. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON PUBLIC WORKS Sll 

12. M. Holconius Rufus d. v. i. d. tert. ] C. Egnatius Postumus d. v. 

i. d. iter' | ex d. d. ius luminum^ | opstruendorum H-S co co oc | 
redemerunt parietemque | privatum col. Yen. Cor." | usque at 
tegulas I faeiundum coerarunt. 

C. I. L. X. 787. Inscribed on a block of tufa found at Pompeii, now in the 
museum at Naples. ^ Befote 751/3. " Schoen has shown in Bitll. Com. 
1866, p. 11, tliat these lumina were the spaces between ten pillars by 
which the poi'ticus of the temple of Apollo was separated from the forum. 
These spaces are now filled in, so that a continuous wall thus takes the 
place of the row of pillars. " col^oniae) Ven{eriae) Cor{neliae). 

13. Ti. Claudius Drusi f. Caesar | Aug. Germanicus pontif. max., 

trib. potest. VI, cos. design. IIII, imp. XII,' p. p., | fossis 
duetis a Tiberi operis portu[s]^ caussa emissisque in mare 
urbem | inundationis periculo liberavit. 

O. I, L. XIV. 85. Inscribed on a large marble tablet, in letters formerly- 
filled with bronze, found atPoito (Portus Romanus),Ostia, wliere it still 
exists. 1 For date see page 126. ^gee'c. I. L. XIV., pp. 5, 6. Suet. 
Claud. 20. Plin. N. H. XVI. 40, 76, Quintilian, II. 21. 

14. imp. Caesares M. Aurelius Antoninus et | L. Aurelius Commodus 

Aug. Germanici | Sarmatici ' f ortissimi ampMtheatrum | vetus- 

tate corruptum a solo resti|tuerunt per coh. VI Comraag. | a 
Julio Pompilio Pisone Laevillo leg. | Aug. pr. pr. curante Aelio 
Sereno praef. 

C. I. L. VIII. 2488. Found at El Outhaia, in the Province of Numidia, 
Africa, where it still exists. Inscriptions describing the building or renew- 
ing of structures by legions, or cohorts, are very common. ' 177-180, see 
page l.So. 

15. pro sal. imp. Caesaris L. P. Septimi Severi Pertina|cis Aug. 

Pii COS. II, p. p. et M. Aur. | Antonini Caesa.,' Tib. CI. Claudi- 
anus leg. Aug. pr. pr. | praesidium vetustate | coll. mutato 
loco manu | milit. restitui iussit. 

C. I. L. III. 3.387. Found at Erd, near Buda, Pannonia Inferior, now in 
library of the University at Pesth. 1 195-197, for Severus was styled Pius 
from 195, and Caraoalla became Augustus in 198. 



312 LATIN iNSCRIPtiONS 

16. forum populo Romano suo [^dono dederunf] | domini et principes 

nostri [imppp. Caesss] | Valentinianus et Valens et \^Gratianus 
Aiiggg^; \ curante Mavio Eupraxi[o]^ v. c, [praef. urhi]. 

C. I. L. VI. 1177. Pound at Rome, existing only in a copy in the Ms. 
Einsledlensis. i Eupraxius was praef ectus urhi in 374 (CoiJ. Theod. XI. 
29, 5 ; XI. 30, 36 ; XI. 36, 21). 

17. dd. nn. Arcadius et Honor ius [inwicfz ef] \ perpetui Aulggy 
* theatrism Pompei, [^collapso'] exteriore ambitu, magna etiam 

[ea; parte] interior[e] r[Me?i]te, convulsum, [ruderibus] sub- 
ductis et excitatis invice[m/a6riois | novis, restituerimf]. 

C. I. L, VI. 1191. Found at Rome, existing in a copy in Ms. Einsiedlensis. 
This inscription was set up between the year 395, in which Theodosius 
the elder died, and 402, in which Theodosius the younger was styled 
Augustus. 

18. salvis ddd. nnn. Valentiniano Valente et Gratiano | victoriosis- 

simis semper Aug., dispositione luli | v. c. com.,' magistri 
equitum et peditum, fabri|catus est burgus ex fundamento 
mano devo|tissimorum equitum Villi Dalm.,^ s. c. Vahali 
trib., I in consulatum d. n. Gratiani perpetui Aug. iterum | et 
Probi V. c' 

C. I. L. III. 88. Pound at Umm-el-Djem3,l, in the Province of Arabia. 
iD(m) cQarissimi), com{itis). ^equitum Nono-Dalm{atarum) s(uV) 
c(Mm). 3 371. 

Aqueducts 

.19. a) imp. Caesar divi luli f. Augustus | pontifex maximus, cos. 
XII, I tribunic. potestat. XIX,' imp. XIIII | rivos aquarum 
omnium refecit. 

6) imp. Caes. M. Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Aug. Parth. 
max. I Brit, maximus" pontifex maximus | aquam Marciam 
variis kasibus impeditam, purgato fonte, excisis et perforatis | 
montibus, restituta forma, adquisito etiam fonte novo Antoni- 
niano, ] in sacram urbem suam perducendam euravit. 

c) imp. Titus Caesar ' divi f . Vespasianus Aug. pontif . max., | 
tribuniciae potestat. IX, imp. XV, cens., cos. VII desig. IIX,' 



INSCRIPTIONS ON PUBLIC WORKS 313 

p. p. I rivom aquae Marciae vetustate dilapsum refeeit | et 
aquam quae in usu esse desierat reduKit. 

C. I. L. VI. 1244-6. Inscribed on the arcTi of the Maroian aqueduct, over 
the Via Tiburtina. This arch, after the building of the walls of Aurellan, 
became a part of the Porta Tiburtina, now the Porta S. Lorenzo. ' See 
table, p. 124. 2 212 or 213, since Geta, who died in 212, is not mentioned, 
and the cognomen Germanicus is missing, which was assigned to Cara- 
calla in 213. s See table, p. 129. 

20. a) Ti. Claudius Drusi f. Caisar Augustus Germanicus pontif. 

maxim., | tribunicia potestate XII,^ cos. V, imperator XXVII," 
pater patriae, | aquas Claudiam' ex fontibus, qui vocabantur 
Caeruleus et Curtius a milliario XXXXV, | item Anienem 
Novam ^ a milliario LXII sua impensa in urbem perducendas 
cuiavit. 

6) imp. Caesar Vespasianus August, pontif. max., trib. pot. II, 
imp. VI, COS. Ill, desig. IIII,* p. p., | aquas Curtiam et Caeru- 
leam perductas a divo Claudio et postea intermissas dilapsasque | 
per annos novem sua impensa urbi restituit. 

c) imp. T. Caesar divi f. Vespasianus Augustus pontifex maxi- 
mus, tribunic. | potestate X,* imperator XVII, pater patriae, 
censor, cos. VIII | aqiias Curtiam et Caeruleam perductas a 
divo Claudio et postea | a divo Vespasiano patre sue urbi resti- 
tutas, cum a capite aquarum a solo vetustate dilapsae essent, 
nova forma reducendas sua impensa curavit. 

C. I. L. VI. 1256-58. Inscribed on the double arch of the Aqua Claudia, 
above the Via Praenestina and Via Labicana. This arch, after the build- 
ing of the Aurelian walls, was used as the Porta Praenestina, now known as 
Porta Maggiore. ^ See page 126. ^ Claudius had the highest number of 
imperial salutations, with the exception of Constantius, son of Constan- 
tine. ' See Prontinus, De Aquae. 0. 13 ; Jordan, Topog. I., p. 473 ; Middle- 
ton's Bemains of Ancient Borne, II. chap. X. * See page 129. 

21. Aquam Titulensem quam ante annos | plurimos Lambaesitana 

civitas in terverso ductu vi torrentis amiserat, | perforate 
monte instituto etiam a | solo novo ductu, Severinus Apro- 
nianus vp, ppN,^ | pat. col. restituit cur. Aelio Rufo v. e. fl. 
pp., cur. r. p.^ 



314 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

C. I. L. VIII. 2661. Found at Lambaesis, in the Province of Numidia, 
where it still exists in the Praetorium. ' p(j-aeses) p{rovinciae) N(umi- 
diae). ^fl{amine) p(er)p(etuo). 

22. M. M. Lartieni Sabini pater | et Alius quinquennales aquam | in 

fanum sua inpensa perduxerunt, salien|tes quadrifaria suo 
loco restituerunt canales ve|tustate corruptos et dissupatos 
restituerunt, fistu|las omnes et sigilla ahenea posuerunt, tecta 
refe[c]e|ruiit, omnia sua inpensa fecerunt. 

C. I. L. IX. 4130. Found at Fiamignano, near Aequiculum, in the country 
oi: the Aequi, where it still exists in the monastery of the Capuchin 
monks. 

23. Annia L. f. Victorina [o&] | memoriam M. Fulvi Mojderati 

mariti et M. Fulvi | Victorini f . aquam sua omni inpensa per- 
duxsit fac|tis pontibus et fistulis et | lacus cum suis orna|men- 
tis dato epulo | dedicavit. 

C. I. L. II. 3240. Found at S. Esteban del Puerto (Hugo), Spain, where 
it still exists. Mommsen considers lacus an error of the stone-cutter for 
lacubus or lacu. 

Roads ahu Bridges 

24. L. V I cur. viar. | e lege. Visellia* de conl. sent.^ | 

On. Corneli, Q. Marci, L. Hostili, | C. Antoni, C. Fimdani, C. 
Popili, I M. Valeri, C. Anti, Q. Caecili; | opus constat n. 
11 (D±XXII. 

O. I. L. VI. 1299 = I. 593. P. L. M. E. LXXI a. Found on the Caelian Hill, 
Rome, now in the museum of Toulouse. Ritschl suggests L. Volcatius 
or L. Volceius. ' For this Lex Visellia see Mommsen, Staatsr. 11.^ 669. 
2 de eonl{egii). {tribunorum plebis) sent(^entia). The curator viarum 
was chosen from a collegium of the tribunes of the plebs. The inscrip- 
tion dates 683/71, since three of the names here given appear in the 
index of the Lex Antonia de Termessibus of that year. 

25. a) L. Fabricius C. f. cur. viar. | faciundum coeravit. 
6) Eidemque probaveit. 

c) M. Lollius M. f. Q. Lepi[dMS M'. /] cos. ex. s. c. probaverunt.' 



INSCRIPTIONS ON PUBLIC WORKS 315 

C. I. L. VI. 1305. P. L. M. E. LXXXVII. These inscriptions are en- 
graved on the old Pons Fabricius, known in middle ages as Pons ludaeus, 
and to-day as Ponte del Quattro Capi, which crosses from the Island to 
the left hank of the Tiber. It was built by L. Fabricius in 692/B2 b.c. 
and consists of two semicircular arches with a smaller archway over the 
central pier for high water. It is built of peperino and tufa with facings 
of large blocks of travertine. 

Inscription a appears across two arches on each side. Inscription 6 is 
engi-aved over the middle arch on both sides. Inscription c is illegible 
now, but was engraved under a on one of the arches on each side. It is 
given in a copy by Ligorio. '■ The bridge was rebuilt in 733/21 . 

For curatores viarum see Mommsen, Staatsr. II.,' p. 669. For Pons Fabricius 
see Middleton's Bemains of Ancient Borne, II., p. 367. 

26. honoris ] imp. Caesaris divi f. ] Augusti pont. maxim., | patr. 

patriae '■ et munieip. | Magistri Augustales | C. Egnatius M. 1. 
Grlyco, I C. Egnatius C. 1. Musicus, | C. lulius Caesar. 1. Iso- 
chrysus, | Q. Floronius Q. 1. Princeps | viam Augustam ab via | 
Annia extra portam ad | Cereris silica sternendam | curarunt 
pecunia sua | pro ludis. 

C. /. L. XI. 3083. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at CivitJi Castellana 
(Falerii) , existing now in copy, i After February 5th, 752/2, for on 
that date he was styled pater patriae. 

27. ex auctoritate | imp. Caesaris | Traiani Hadri|an. Aug. pontes | 

viae novae Eusi|cadensis r. p. Cir|tensium sua pecu|ma fecit 
Sex. lulio I Maiore leg. Aug. leg. Ill Aug. pr. pr. 

C. I. L. VIII. 10296. Found among the ruins of a bridge between Philippe- 
ville and Constantine, Africa. 

28. imp. Caes. T. Aelio | Hadriano Antonino | Aug. Pio p. p. IIII 

et M. Aurelio Caesare II | cos.^ per Prastina Messalinum^ 
leg. I Aug. pr. pr., vexil. | leg. VI Ferr.' via | fecit. 

C. I. L. VIII. 10230. Cut in the natural rock on the road over Mens 
Aurasius at Tiganimin, Africa. ' 145. ^ p-gr C. Prastina Messalinus see 
VEIL 2535 (144 a.d.), 2536 (145 a.d.). " vexil(latio) leg{ionis) VI 
Ferr(citae'). 



316 LATIN INSCRTPTTON-S 

Milestones 

29. a) M. Aemilius M. f. M. n. | Lepidus cos.^ | CC± XIIX.' 

(_0n the side) XV. 

b) [jr.] Aemilius M. f. M. n. | Lepid.' cos. | CCXXCVI. 

iOn the side) XXI. 

c) M. Aemi[ZiMs M. f. M. m.] | Lepid. [cos.] | CO . . . . 

C /. L. I. 535-536. Three milestones of the Via Aemilia were found near 
Bologna (Bononia), where they are still preserved. in the maseum of the 
University. These cippi- (a and 6) once stood on the Via Aemilia 
separated from each other by a distance of 18 miles. The numerals cut 
on the sides at a later period indicate distances on another road where 
these stones were afterwards set up. i 567/187. Mommsen doubts 
whether these miliaria are of the age indicated, since the letter P is 
closed ; Aemilius is for the earlier Aemilio, cos is for consol, and finally 
a cognomen is added ; the form of the cippi does not conform to that 
of other miliaria of the sixth century of the City. See Miliarium 
Popilianum, p. 251. ^ The number of miles from Rome ; later the miles 
were counted from Ariminum. 

30. S, Postumius S. f. S. n. | Albinus cos.^ [G]/X[J/] Genua 

C[remonaiii] ///XXVII. 

C- 1- L. I. 540 = V. 8045. Inscribed on a milestone of the Via Postumia, 
now at Verona. Borghesi has shown that this refers to the consul of 
606/148. Postumius made a road from Genua to Cremona M • P • CXXII 
and from thence, i.e. from Cremona M ■ P • XXVII to the place where 
the cippus once stood. 

31. T. Quinctius T. f. | Flamininus | cos.' | Pisas XXXW 

O. I. L. I. 559. Inscribed on a milestone found at Pietrafitta near Florence. 
1 631/123. 2 The number is not legible and is known only from a copy. 
The miles are counted to the end of the road, not, as is customary, from 
the beginning, as in Italy from Rome. 

32. L. Caeeili Q. f. | Metel. cos.' | CXIX | Eoma. - 

O. I. L. IX. 5953. Inscribed on a milestone of the Via Salaria found at 
S. Omfero, near Asoulum, where it still exists. The stone appears to 
be out of Its original position, or the road running to the shore of the 
Adriatic once ended at Castrum Novum or Hadria and not at Castrum 
Truentinum. i 637/117. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON PUBLIC WORKS 317 

33. C. Calvisius 0. f. | Sabinus cos. imp. | J.XXVIII.* 

C. I. L. X. 6895. Inscribed on a miliarium of the Via Latina, found near 
Aquino (Aquinum), existing now in copy. ' Miles from Rome. 

34. XXXVIII. I imp. Nerva | Caesar Augustus | pontifex maximus, | 

tribunicia | potestate, cos III,' | pater patriae | faciendam 
curavit. 

C. I. L. IX. 5963. Inscribed on a miliarium of the Via Tiburtlna or 
Valeria, found near Arsoli, where it still exists, i 97 a.d. 

35. Ti. Claudius Drusi f. | Caesar Aug. Germa|nicus pontifex 

maxu|mus, tribuniciq, potesta|te VI, cos. IV,' imp. XI, p. p., | 
censor viam Claudiam | Augustam quam Drusus | pater Alpi- 
bus bello pate|factis derex[e]rat munit ab | Altino usque ad 
fiumen | Danuvium m. p. CCCJ_. 

C. I. L. V. 80C2. Inscribed on a miliarium found six or seven miles from 
Feltre (Feltria), where it still exists, i 47 a.d. 

36. a) X. I imp. Caesar | divi Nervae | filius Nerva | Traianus Aug. | 

Germanicus | Dacicus | pontif. max., | trib. pot. XIIII,' imp. 

VI, COS. V, p. p. XVIIII silice sua pecunia | stravit. | LIII. | 
h) ddd. nnn. FFF. 111.^ | Theodosio Arcadio | et Honorio PPP. 

FFF.^ I semper AAA. ggg.* | bono reip. | natis. 
c) Constantino." 

C. I. L. X. 6839, 6840, 6841. Inscribed on a miliarium found at Terra- 
cina, existing now in copy. ' 109. ^ Fl(avii). ' J'Cii) F{elices). 
* A(u)g(usti). * In inverted letters. 

V 

r 

37. imp. Caesar | divi Traiani Parthici f. divi | Nervae nepos | 

Traianus Hadrianus | Aug. pont. liiax., trib | pot. VII, cos III' | 
viam Appiam per | millia passu^' | XV 9 CCL longa | vetustate 
amis|sam adiectis | HS pC^ XL VII ad | ttS DLXIXC quae | 
possessores agro|rum contiilerunt, | fecit. B^ui ' -'" 

C. I. L. IX. 6075. Inscribed on two cippi found on the Via Appia at 
n Passo di Mirabella, near Beneventum, still in existence. ' 123. 



318 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Milestones of the Protivces 

38. M'. Aquillius M'. f. | cos. | CXXXI ' | [M(£n]os ['A]kAX[i]os 

Mavtov I UTraros 'Tut/jLaituv \ p\a, 
C. I. L. III. 7183. Inscribed on a milestone on the road leading from 
Ephesus to Pergamos, found not far from Pergamos. Similar stones 
have been found on other roads in Asia. (C I. L. III. 479, 6177, 7184, 
7205. ) 1 The number of miles from Ephesus to the location of the stone. 
Strabo XIV., p. 646, states that M'. Aquilius, the consul 625/129, ruled 
Asia after it was brought under the Romans by the will of Attalus. 

39. M'.Sergi M'.[/] | procos. | XXI. 

C. I. L. II. 4956. Inscribed on a miliarium found near Barcelona (Barcino), 
Spain, existing in copy. It is not known when Sergius was proconsul in 
Spain, but the form ISergi for Sergius points to an early date. The road 
to which this milestone belonged is unknown, as well as the place from 
which the distance is reckoned. 



40. imp. Caesar divi f. | Augustus cos. XIII, trib. | potest. XXI, 
pontif . max. | a Baete et lano August. | ad Oceanum | ±XIIII. 

C. I. L. II. 4701. Inscribed on a column which once stood on the road 
leading from the Guadalquivir (Baetis) to Cadiz (Gades), and which 
was found at Cordova, where it is still preserved, The inscription was 
set up in 752/2, before February 5, at which time Augustus accepted 
the title of pater patriae. 



41. imp. Caes. | M. Aurel. Anto|nino Aug. pont | max., tr. pot. XVI, | 

COS. Ill et I imp. Caes. | L. Aurel. Vero Aug. | tr. pot. Il, cos. 
II '; I a col. Agripp | m. p. XXX.^ 

Brambach, Inscrip. Bhen. 1931. Inscribed on a miliarium of a road from 
Cologne (Colonia Agrippinensis) to Kemagen, not far from the last- 
named town. 1 162 A.D. 2 (J GoKfinid) li.gripp(J,nensium) m(ilia) p(as- 
suum) XXX. R'cfo'v-i*:"-* 

42. imp. Caes. P. lHelv\i']o Pertinace | Aug. p. p., trib. p., | cos IT,' 

L. Nae|vio Quadrajtiano leg. A|ug. pr. pr.^; [a] La|mbaese | m. 

P- L/// 
C. I. L. VIII. 10242. Inscribed on a square cippus found at Sba Meghata, 
on the road between Lambaesis and Biskra, Africa. ^ 198 a. d. ^ Other 
stones have curante or ciiram agente. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON PUBLIC WORKS 319 

43. ex auctoritate | imp. Caes. T. Aeli Ha|driani Antonini | Aug. 

Pii ' p. p. via a Mile|vitanis munita ex | indulgentia eius de | 
vectigali rotari. | II. 
C. I. L. VIII. 10327. Inscribed on a column found iiear Mila (Milev), 
Africa, still in existence. ' 138-161 a.d. 

44. imp. Caes. | M. Aurelio Anto|nino Invicto Pio | Felici Aug.' p. 

m., I trib. p., cos., p. p., | procos.,r. p. m. D.^ 
C. I. L. VIII. 10381. Inscribed on a column found at Henschir el Moghrab, 
near 'Ain Zana (Diana), Numidia, Africa. ' Caracalla or Elagabalus. 
^ r(e«) jp(m6Kco) m(unicipU) D{ianensiuni). 

BoDNDARY Stones 

45. C. S[e]mpronius Ti. f. Grac. | Ap. Claudius C. f. Pole, | P. 

Licinius P. f. Cras. | III vir. a. i. a.' 
C /. L. I. 552, X. 3861. A cippus found at Formia (Formiae), above 
Capua, now in Museum of Naples. Tliis boundary stone was set up 
after the death of Ti. Gracchus, 621/183, who had appointed himself, 
his brother C. Gracchus, and Ap. Claudius, his father-in-law, as trium- 
viri agris dividendis. P. Licinius Crassus takes the place of T. Gracchus. 
' tres vir{i) a{gris) i^udicandis) aidsignandis) or adtribuendis. On the 
top there appear the lines and angles of the kardo and decumanus, i.e. 

kardo undecimus, decumanus primus { *^ ]. The date is 622/132- 
623/131. K^Jy 

46. M. Polvius M. f. [i^?]ac. | C. Sempronius Ti. f. Grac. | C. 

Paperius C. f. Carb. | III vire a. i. a. 
C /. L. I. 554 ; IX. 1024. A small round column found in the country of 
the Hirpini, between Aeclanum and Compsa, near Rocca San Felice. 
M. Fulvius Flaccus, consul 629/125, and C. Paperius Carbo, consul 
634/110, were substitutes in place of P. Licinius Crassus and Ap. Clau- 
dius at their death, in 624/130, to which year this inscription may 
belong. It is possible to assign it to the year 625/129, when jurisdiction 
as regards the land was taken away from these triumviri, and they 
ceased to be termed ab agris iudicandis. An inscription found on the 
top has not as yet been explained. 




320 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

47. M. Terentius M. f . | Varro Lucullus | pro pr. terminos | restitu- 

endos | ex s. c. coeravit | qua P. Licinius, | Ap. Claudius, | C. 
Graccus III vir. | a. d. a. i.' statuerunt. 

C. I. L. I. 583. Found between Pesaro (Pisaurum) and Fano (Fanum), 
Umbria. Borghesi VII., p. 350-51, places tbis inscription between the 
praetorship of M. Terentius Varro LuouUus in the year 678/76 and his 
consulship in the year 681/73, when he was in Gallia Cisalpina as pro- 
praetore. Mcmmsen assigns it to the y;ear 672/82 or 673/81, when, as 
an adherent of Sulla, Varro was in charge of the army in Gallia Cisalpina. 
^a^gris) cLiandis) a{dsignand,is) i(udicandis). 

48. a) [i. .GaeiciU']\is Q. f. pro cos. | terminos finigque ex senati 

consulto statui | iousit inter Atestinos | et Patavinos. 
b) L. Caeicilius Q. f. pr|o cos. | . . terminos | finisque ex senati | 
consulto statui | iusit inter Atestinos | Patavinosque. 

C. I. L. I. 547, a, 6, V. 2491. Found on Mt. Venda, one of the Euganean 
hills, in the Atestinian district, dating 613/141 ? or 638/116? 

49. a) I senati [c]o[»isM]lto sta[iMi] | iusit. 

6) L. -Caicilius ' Q. f . | pro cos. | terminos | finisque ex senati con- 
solto I statui iusit inter | Patavinos | et Atestinos. 

C. I. L. I. 548, a, b ; Y. 2492. Inscribed on two columns found on the 
Euganean hills, near Padua, now in the museum at Padua. The larger 
had been hollowed out to receive the smaller. ^ Perhaps L. Caecilius 
Metellus, who was consvil 612/142 (Mommsen). 

Termini of the Pomeeium 

50. Ti Claudius | Drusi f. Caisar | Aug. Germanicus | pont. max., 

trib. pot. VIIII,^ imp XVI, cos IIII, | censor, p. p., | auctis 
populi Romani | finibus pomerium | ampliaJit terminajit q. 

(On the top) Pomerlum. (On the side) VIII. 

Notizie degli Scavi, 1885, p. 475. One of the four known examples of the 
cippi set up by Claudius in marking out the pomerium. (See C. I. L. 
VI. 1231.) This was found in its original location near Monte Testaccio, 
Rome. 1 Jan. 25th, 49-50. See Tac. Ann. XII. 23. For the numbers 
on these cippi see Huelsen, Hermes, XXn., p. 621. See also Detlefsen, 
Hermes, XXI. (1886), p. 497. 0. Kichter, Topographie von Bom, in 
Miiller's Handbitch, Vol. III., pp. 773-775. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON PUBLIC WORKS 321 

51. [imp. Caesar \ Vespasianus Aug. pont. | m]ax., trib. pot. VI/ im[p 
XIV^], p. p., censor, cos VI desig. V[/7] | T. Caesar Aug. 
f • I Vespasianus imp. VI, | pont., trib. pot. IV, censor, | cos. 
IV design. V, auctis p. E. | finibus, pomerium | ampliaverunt 
terminaveruntq. iOn the, nae) XL VII. (On another side) p. CCCXL 
VII. 

C. I. L. VI. 1232. Inscribed on a tall cippus of travertine found between 
Monte Testaccio and tlie Porta San Paolo, i July, 74-75 ; but the num- 
ber of the consulship shows that the inscription was set up in 75. ^ gee 
p. 129. See Pliny iVr. £r. III. 5, 66. 

62. collegium | augurum auctore | imp. Caesare divi | Traiani Parthici 

f. I divi Nervae nepote | Traiano Hadriano | Aug. pont. max., 
trib. I pot. V, cos. III,^ procos. | terminos pomerii | restituendos 

CUravit. (On the right side) V. (On the left side) p. CCCCLXXX. 

C. I. L. VI. 1233. Inscribed on two eippi of travertine found at Rome, one 
of which is still in existence, i 121 a. d. 

Termini between Public and Private Property 

63. C. Clodius Licinus | Cn. Sentius Saturninus | cos.' | tetminarunt 

loc. I publicum ab privato. 

C /. L. VI. 1263. Inscribed on a tablet of travertine cut from a cippus 
found at Rome, existing on a copy, i Consules suffecti in 4 a.d. 

54. [imp, Ojaesar Augustu[s] | a privato in publicum | restituit | in 

partem dexteram recta | regione ad proxim. cippum | ped. 
CLXXXII I et in partem sinistram recta | regione ad proxim. 
cippum I ped. CLXXVIII. 

C. I. L. VI. 1262. Inscribed on a block of travertine found at Rome, 
existing in copy. 

Termini of the Banks of the Tiber 

55. a) P. Servsilius C. f. | Isauricus | M. Valerius M. f. | M'. n. 

Messall. | cens.' | ex. s. c. termin. 
h) M. Valerius M. f. | M'. n. Messall. | P. Serveilius C. f. | 
Isauricus cens. | ex. s. c. termin. | 

LAT. INSgRJP, — 2 J 



322 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

C. I. L. VI. 1234. Inscribed on a number of cippi found on the banks of 
the Tiber, Rome, some of which exist to-day. ' 699/55-700/54. 
Borghesi ( (Euvres, IV. 21) has referred to the fact that the bank of the 
Tiber was finally determined after the flood ta 700/64. Cf. Dio Cassius, 
XXXIX. 61. 

56. C. Marcius L. f. Censorinus | C. Asinius C. f. Gallus | cos. ex s. 

c. termin. r. r.' prox. cipp. p. XX. | Curatores riparmn qui 
primi terminaver. | ex s. c. restituerunt. 

C. /. L. VI. 1235 f . Inscribed on a cippus found on the right bank of the 
Tiber, existing now in copy. Censorinus and Gallus were consuls in 
B.C. 8. 1 r(ecto) r(igore), cf. Bull. Com. 1890, p. 326, and Ulp. Dig. 
XTJII. 15. I. 5, ripa ita recte definietur id quod flumen continet 
naturalem rigorem cursus sui tenens. 

57. imp. Caesar divi f. | Augustus | pontifex maximus, | tribunic. 

potest XVII I ex. s. c. "terminavit ; | r. r. prox. cipp. ped. 
CLXVIS. 

C. I. L. VI. 1236 i. Inscribed on a cippus found at Rome, existing in a 
copy. A number of cippi with similar inscriptions, but different num- 
bers, have been found, some of which exist to-day. The numbers denote 
the distances between the stones. See C. I. L. VI. 1236 a-i, and Notizie 
degli Scavi, 1890, p. 82. 7 b.c. 

58. L. Caninius Gallus,' | L. Volusenus Catulus f., | C. Gaedicius 

Agrippa, | M. Acilius Memmius Glabrio, | Q. Pabius Balbus | 
curatores riparum et alvei Tiberis ex. s. c. | reficiundam cura- 
ver. idemque probaverunt. 

Bull. Com. 1889, p. 165. Inscribed on a large block of travertine, found 
near the bridge Cestio-Graziano, Rome. These are the five curatores oi 
the senatorial order of the collegium established by Tiberius in 15 a.d. 
1 Perhaps the consul of 2 b.c. 

59. ex. auctoritate | imp. Caesaris divii | Nervae fili Nervae | Traiani 

Aug. Germanic. | pontifieis maximi, trib. | potest. V, cos. II II, 
p. p. I Ti. lulius Ferox curat. | alvei et riparum Tiberis et | 
cloacarum urbis terminav. J ripam. r. r. proximo cippo, | p. 
CLXXXIIIIS. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON PUBLIC WORKS 323 

C. I. L. VI. 1239 a. Inscribed on a cippus of travertine found on the bank 
of the Tiber, now in the Vatican Museum. A number of stones with 
similar inscriptions have been found, C. I. L. VL 1239 a-h. 



BouNDAET Stones of Aqueddcts 



60. Virg.' I Ti. Ca esar. Aug. | pontif. maxim., | trib. pot. XXXVIII, | 

COS. V, imp. Vm.^ I nil. I p. CCXL.3 

C. I. L. VI. 1253 b. Inscribed on a cippus of Alban stone found at Rome 
now in the Vatican Museum. ^ Virg(o Aqua). ^ 36-37 a.d. ^ This is 
the fourth stone from the place of the distribution of the water, and 
between the several stones the intervals are 240 feet in length. 

61. lul. Tep. Mar.i | imp. Caesar | divi f. | Augustus | ex s. c. | XXX. | 

p. CCXL. 

C. I. L. VI. 1249 0. Inscribed on a cippus of travertine found at Rome, 
existing now in copy only. ^ Iul(J,a) Tep{ula) Mar(_cid). 

62. imp. Caes[ar] divi f. | Augustus | ex s. c. | ooCU/II p. CCXXJ/.- 

C. I. L. VI. 1251 a. Inscribed on a large cippus of travertine, now at 
TivoU (Tibur). 

63. iussu imp. Caesaris | Augusti circa eum | rivom qui aquae | 

ducendae causa | factus est octonos | ped. ager dextra | sioi- 
straq. vacuus | relictus est. 

C. I. L. X. 4843. Inscribed on several cippi which were found near the 
aqueduct of Venafrum, traces of which still remain, extending over a 
distance of 14 miles from Venafrum to the source of the Voltumus. 
These inscriptions exist in copies. 

64 iussu imp. Caesaris | qua aratrum ductum | est. 

C. /. L. X. 3825. An inscription on several large cippi found at Capna, one 
of which is to be seen in the museum at Naples. These boundary stones 
mark the pomerium of a colony, of. Lex Coloniae Genetivae, c. 73 : ne quis 
intra fines oppidi colon{iae)ve, qua aratro circumductum erU, hominem 
mortuom inferto. Of. Cic. Phil. II. 40, 102. 



324 LATIN LVSCRiPflONS 

65. ex auctoritate | imp. Caesaris | Vespasiani Aug. | loca publica 

a, privatis | possessa T. Suedius Clemens | tribunus, causis 
cognitis et | mensuris factis, rei | publicae Pompeianoriun | 
restituit. 

C. I. Li X. 1018. Inscribed on a tippus found at Pompeii, now in the 
museum at Naples. T. Suedius Clemens in Tac. His^. I. 87 and II. 12 is 
called a, primipilaris and in an Egyptian inscription of 79 a.d. is spoken 
of as praefectus castrorum. 

66. fiii[i]s inter Neditas et Corinienses derectus, | mensuris actis iussu 

I Meceni Gemini ^ leg. per A. Kesium | Maximum legionis 
XI principem | posteriorem co[r.] ^ I et per D. A[e]butium | 
Liberalem eiusdem leg. astatum | posteriorem chor. I. 

C. I. L. III. 2883. Found at Karin (Corinium) in Dalmatia, existing in a 
copy. ' Mommsen reads here A. Duceni Gemini, helieving that he is the 
legatus referred to. Tacitus refers to him as of consular ranis in 62 a.d. 
(^Ann. XV. 18), and as prefect of the city in 69 a.d. (Hist. I. 14). 
^ colr(,tis)^. 

■G7. termini positi inter ] Igilgilitanos in | quorum finibus kas|tellum 
Victoriae | positum est, et Zimiz.^ ut sciant Zimizes | non plus 
in usum | se haber. ex aucto|ritate M. Vetti La|tronis proe. 
Aug. I qua in circuitu | a muro kast. p. | B^; pr.' LXXXIX 
Tor|quato et Libone cos.* 

C. I. L. VIII. 8369. Inscribed on a large stone found at Djidjelli (Igilgili), 
In Africa, where it still exists, i Zimfe(es). '^ p{assvs quingentos). 
^ {anno) pr{ovinciae). * 128 a.d. 

68. ter. Augu|st.' dividit | prat.^ leg. | IIII et agr|um Iulio|brig. 

C. I. L. II. 2916. Inscribed on several cippi found near RetortiUo, in the 
northern part of Spain, i ter(jminus) August(alis). ^prat{vm). Ac- 
cording to Hiibner this is^ legio quarto- Macedonica, known from the 
coins of the colony Caesaraugustana, which was quartered in Spain from 
the time of Augustus until the time of Claudius, who withdrew it to 
Germany. This gives some knowledge of the date. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 325 

INSCEIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 
Weights and Measures 

t„ ffl) «J/ ^) *\ (Om wpper face.) 

C-CAES AVG- P- P (0«V»«6»- edge.) 

C. I. L. II. a) 4962, 1 ; 6) 4962, 4. 

o) A weight of black marble, with bronze handle, weighing 16253 grammes 5 
therefore the libra = 325.06 gr., since the mark denotes quinquaginta 
librae. Another weight, entirely of bronze, found at the same place, is 
marked X and weighs 3254 gr., hence the libra = 325.4. These results 
do not differ much from the normal estimate of the libra = 325.8 gr. 

6) Bronze s(em)K(racio) with inserted letters, found at Cordova. The 
weight is 12.88 gr., so that the libra is 309.12 gr., hence very light. 

2 L.HATILIVS 

X 

FELIX . MAG • NA?i 

DSD 

G. I. L. X. 8067, 11. A ten-pound weight of 3249.6 gr. found at Pompeii, 
now in the museum at Naples. ^ Mommsen reads magnar(ius), 
lu^akiiiwopos, disregarding the point. Dressel reads mag^ister') mar 
o ., not -xplaining the latter. 

a PHILOXENVS-L. 

AED.L-FAM-D-D»- 
C. I. L. X. 8067, 12. A weight of travertine equal to 9.6 kilog., now in the 
museum at Naples. ^l{ibertvs) aed{ituus) L{aribus) fain(iliaribus') 
d(onum) d(_edi(). 

4 \i\Q 

Q . G R/J 

C. I. L. X. 8067, 9. A weight of marble = 9400 gr., found at Pompeii. 
DiphiiW) Q. Grant. 

a IN 

CATAPLVS • L . ET 

L I M E N ■ F • L* 

ET • F • D . D 

C. I. L. X. 8068, 3. A stone weight of 1000 gr., now at the CSgliari 
Museum, Sardinia. 1 Limen f(iUus) l{ibertis) et /(amiliae). 



326 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

6. Ti-CLAVD-CAES-tV ^ 

L-VITELL-III- COS < 

• EXACT AD ARTIC> j 

i VS A E D^ ^ 



C. I. L. XIV. 4124, 1. A marble weight found at La Serpentara (Fidenae). 
^ Artic{uleiana) (pondera). Articuleius was one of the aediles in 47 
A.D. It was the duty of the aediles to examine weights and measures 
(_I)ig. I. 48, 10 ; 32, 1). After Trajan this function fell to the prefect 
of the eity. '^ aed(_ilium). ^ L. Fl{avius) Ana(Jtellon) was the owner. 
The date is 47 a.d. 

7. TI-CLAVD.CAES-rv.L-VIT.rn 

L 
IVSSV . AED . EXACT • AD • ARTIC • I • C 

C. I. L. XIV. 4124, 2. A weight of white marble found at Praeneste, 
1 Perhaps »(») C{apitolio). 

8. T I • C L A V D C A E S //// V I T E L - 
III • COS • EXACTA AD-ARTIQ. 

CVRA-AEDIL 
C. 1. L. X. 8067, 2. On the shaft of a statera found at Herculaneum, dating 

47 A.D. 

9. a)EME ETHABEBIS 
e)/VR.CAVE MALVM 

C. I. L. X. 8067, 5, 6. On lead weights found at Pompeii. 

Gladiatosial Tesserae 
1. MENOPIL.ABI.L-S 

(Figv/re of a Omnderbolt.) 

SPECTAVIT 
C • \Aj • M ■ hER 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 327 

Ephem. Ep. III. p. 203. Found near Terracina, in ancient Latium. 
Date 661/93. Menop{h)il{us) Abi L{u6i) s{ervus). O. Val{erio) M. 
Her^ennio) (eonsulibus). 

2. PILpTIMVS 

H OST 1 LI 
SP • PR • N . SEX- 

p. LEN • CN ■ ORE 

C.I. L. I. 720. Found at Rome. Date 683/71. no8tili(i) (servus). The 
consuls are F. Lentulus and Cn. Orestes. 

a PAMPHILVS 

SERVI LI • M • S 
S P E^ • K • F E B 
C- CAES ■ M • LEP- 

C. I. L. I. 736. Found at Home. Date 708/46. ^ 8erBiU({) M(^arci) 
s(fimus) spe(ctavit). 

4 M A X I M VS 

V A L E R I 

S P I D, I A N 

T-CAES-AVG- F-m.AELIAN.rr 

C. L L. I. 774. Found at Borne. Date 74 aj>. 



Lead Sling Shots 
1. If . P I S • I • F) (COS 

O. I. L. I. 642. From Castro Giovanni (Henna) in Sicily, dating 621/133, 
in which year L. Calpurnius Piso waged war in Sicily and stormed 
the towns of the Mamertines. Valerius Maximus, II. 7-9, states thai 
Piso employed funditores in this war. 



328 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

2. a)FIRi -6)FERI\ /P M P^ c)FVGITIVP 

J \ PERlSTiS 

d)TAMEN e)LEG-XI 
EVOM ES 
M N E M 

C. I. L. IX. 6086. a) vi, 6) ix, c) xii, d) xxviii, e) xxi. Inscriptions 
on lead bullets found near Ascoli (Asculum) and Corropoli, or in 
the Castellano river near Ascoli. In the year 664/90 the Romans 
fought against the people of Picenum who had instigated a revolt among 
the Italians. The Roman leader, Cn. Pompeius Strabo, meeting at first 
with defeat, finally besieged and after a desperate battle captured the 
city of Asculum. The above inscriptions are from some of the lead 
sling shots which were used in this, the Social war, and which have been 
obtained from the neighborhood of the battle. ^ Many glandes with 
this inscription have been found. It is variously explained as Fir{mo 
missa) or Firmani (Junditores) . ^ The reference is to Pompeius Strabo 
the besieger of the town. ^ xhe term fiigitivi was probably applied by 
the Eomans to the rebels. It has been suggested that the term was 
applied by the socii to the libertini who for the first time took part 
in war. 



3. a) k • ANTONI CAKVIIX /C • CAIISARVS 
PIIRISTI / V VICTORIA 



b) L.XI|i\ /PR.PIfr 

SCAEVA/ \ 

C. I. L. I. 685, 700 ; Bphem. Ep. VI., p. 59. Inscriptions on lead bullets 
found at Perugia in Italy. In the year 713/41 L. Antonius, the consul, 
with Fulvia, his brother's wife, betook himself to Perusia, where he 
was besieged by Agrippa and Salvidienus Kutus, and finally by Caesar 
himself. In March 714/40 he surrendered. Appian, V. 36, informs us 
that glandes phtmbeae were used in this war, and his testimony is 
supported by the finding of the above missiles, i l(,egio) XII.- Staeva, 
Pr(imus) pil(us), perhaps M. Caesius Scaeva, honored by Caesar in thi 
Civil War, 706/48. Caesar, B. C. III. 53 ; cf. Valer. Maximus, III. 2, 2S. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 329 



< -; «^ 

w -■ « 

4;! c/) m CQ ^ ~ cc 

O H ^ -. g ^^ 

s I- — 



LU Q O 



I- 



< LLi a: — z ^ y, 



< 



C/3 CC 



*5^ C5 £ 

a, 



t P < H " I- a: 

S "^ o CO o 

_1 < ^ • • 

a -'^ ^fe E2 ^ < -^ 



CO 



<> QClu z— _r C5 — S 

Q-m (/,> zn -s- • ^.ui 



cr —, a. < 



am lli . Q- 






ed 

S 



ft . ^- ^ 

<DQ— t" 'ft _LU_ffl 

HLlJQ-l- C/)-'^ ^ C/)2 

* g ^i =- -8 " K 8- I 



< § < 

■ fv- 2 < -? DC . = ,-. 

£c/5 ^o ^V >1 c^O S 



330 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

3. a) IMP . DOMIT AVG GERM ■ XVI • COS» 
6) IVLI/t MAMI/E MATRIS AVG • N 

c) FAVIA GLYCERA FEC^ 

d) AVR ■ IRENE- FEC^ 

e) CORNELIAE PRAETEXTATAE C F« 

/) PLVTIOR NICEFORI NICEFORIAN ET FILIORV 

Lanciani, Comentarii di Frontino, Silloge Epigraflca Aquaria, Nos. 106, 
324, 563, 131, 402, 50o. Inscriptions on lead pipes found in various 
parts of Rome. i93-4a.d. 2 These women probably owned a plupiber's 
officina, and hired slave labor. ' These are the names of the owners of 
private houses who have water rights. 

4. C • A/REL . AARiN ■ T ■ Q • I • MERCAOR ■ L' ■ F 

O. I. L. XII. 5701, 26. Inscribed on a lead pipe found at D^oines in the 
D6p. de ris6re, Prance, now at Lyons. ' L(ugduni'). 

5. COL • AVG • NEM^ • TIBERINVS ■ L • F • F • S • F 

O. I. L. XII. 5701, 58. Inscribed on a lead pipe found at Balaruc-les-Bains, 
now at Montpellier in the museum, i OoJ(oiuae) Aug(ustae) Nem{au- 
sensium) L. F . . . F . . . g{ervus) f{ecit). 

6. a) RE! • PVB . SALON 

6) REIPVBLICAE ■ MVNICIPIVM • CANVSING 
SVB • CVRA- L. EGGI • MARVLLI 

c) FELIX • PVBL- TERG • F 

Wilmanns, 2818. Inscribed on lead pipes found at (a) Salona, (6) Canosa 
(Cauusium), (n) Trieste (Tergeste). 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 331 

Akticlbs or Bkonze, Silvek, and Gold 

C E R • F (On handle, in raised letters,) 

BRICONIS {Scratahed with a sHlMS.) 

C. I. L. XII. 5698, 4. On a bronze patera found at Forest St. Julien, 
France, i Cer(ialis) /(eci(). 

V RO R 

AMOR 

ET VO 

C. I. L. XII. 6698, 18. On a bronze fibula found at Geneva, where it 
is preserved in the museum. 

CORIIKIA . NYPII • AVRV- ^AIVl(s^•c) XX 

G. I. L. X. 8071, 1. Inscribed in litterae punctatae on the inside of a gold 
bracelet, in form of a serpent with three coils, found at Pompeii, now in 
the museum at Naples. Corelia Ny{m')p{li)e auru{m) piondoy .... 
XX. The bracelet weighs 170.85 gr. and XX Attic didrachma = 174.6 
gr. 1 This word is unintelligible. 

M • MASCAl ■ P ■ Vri' 

C I. L. X. 8071, 12. Inscribed on a silver patera weighing 549.86 grams, 
found at Pompeii, now in the mviseum at Naples. ^p{ondo) Vsemunciam 
{scriptulum) I or 1655 gr., so that three paterae were weighed at the 
same time. 

CORNELIAS- CHEIIDONI 

G. I. L. X. 8071, 38. Stamped on both handles of a bronze urn found at 
Pompeii, now at Naples in the museum. 

IHOVIAIODIN • IdIO -d 
SORS- MERCVRI 

C. I. L. III. 6017, 9. Inscribed on the handle of a large bronze vase found 
on the bed of the river Laibach. A similar motto occurs on a vase 
found at Herculaneum. Bergk {Bull. delV Inst. 1859, p. 229) comment- 
ing on the phrase kXtjpos 'Ep/ioO states that among the Greeks it implied 
the best lot, so here means good luck to the purchaser. 



332 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

7. Tl-ROBILI-Sn 

e. SILI . HANNON 

C. I. L. III. 6017, 12. Inscribed on the handle of a large bronze vase, in 
letters of the best period, found near Teplitz, in Bohemia. The names 
probably indicate the maker and the owner, i Si(ta) . . . 

SiGNACcLA OP Bronze 

1. S EX B A E B VTi 

P YT H I A E 

C. I. L. XII. 5690, 5. Inscription of a bronze stamp found at St. Martin 
de Castillon, France. ITie letters are raised and run from right to left, 
as is common with these signacula. A palm branch is engraved on the 
handle. 

2. EVMOLPIsj 
P es CA LPVRN I 
A T I L I A N I fl5 

C. I. L. XII. 5690, 43. Inscription of a bronze stamp found at G^menos, 
Trance, now at Marseilles. A palm branch is engi'aved on the other side. 

3. PAREGORVS 
COELI • AVIT/E^ 

C. I. L. XII. 5690, 101. Inscription of a bronze stamp found at Toulouse, 
■where it is preserved in the museum, i Coeli{ae) Avitae. 

4. M A R C I A N I 

A V G N ' ja 

O. I. L. X. 8059, 256. A bronze stamp found at Sassari, Sardinia, now in 
possession of Mr. Olcott, Columbia College, New York. The inscription 
given in G. I. L. is a copy and shows S as the last letter, but with com- 
ment postremum signuin corona videtur esse. The original shows a 
wreath and not a letter. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 333 

Oculists' Stamps 

1. M IVL SATYRI DIASMYR|NES POST IMPET LIPPIT» 
M IVL SATYRI PENIJCIL^ LENE EX OVO 

M IVL SATYRI DIA|LEPID0S AD ASPR^ 
M IVL SATYRI DIAL||BANV* AD SVPPVRAT^ 

Bevue Archeologique, 3 Ser., 21, 1893, p. 306. Found in England, now in 
British Museum. ^lippit{udinis). ■'penidlijum'). ' aspr(J,tudinem). 
* dialibanu(m,). ^suppurat(iones'). 

2. L • CAEMI • PATERNI ■ AVTHE|MERi • LEN • EX • 0^ • ACR • EX • AQ» 
L.. CAEMI . PATERNI STAC|T0N AD • C • SC ; ET ■ CL* 

L • CAEMI • PATERNI CROlCOD^ . AD • ASPRITVDIN 
L . CAEMI • PATERNI CHEIlIDs • AD • GENAR ■ CICA? 

Bevue Archeologique, 3 Ser., 22, 1893, p. 30. Found at Lyons, France, exist- 
ing in a copy. ^ authemer(um). ''o{vo'). " acr(e) ex aq{ua). * ad 
g{enaa) sc{abras) et cl{aritatem). " crocod{es). ^chelidipnium). ''ad 
genar^um) 0100(^1^68). 

3. ALBVCI • CHELID I AD CALIG GEN^ SCABR 
ALBVCI • DIAP0BALS2 | AD OMN ■ CALIG DELAC* 
ALBVCI • MELIN | DELAC • EX - EM • PVL* 
ALBVCI ■ TRIT* | AD CLARITVD 

Beviie Archeologique, 3 Ser., 22, 1893, p. 145. Found at Naix (Meuse), now 
in museum at BesanQon. ^ (et) gen(as). " dia(o)pobals(amum) . 'de- 
lacirimatorium). * ex em^endato) pul{ijere). ^ trit(icum). 

Inscriptions on Blocks of Makele 
1. O) C C I I I C) H B CCX X \ (On oneside) 

TTI 

C0RN4 C/CS^ C (On other aide) 

6)N CDXClIi d)PVTEOLANI C/£= 

C. I. L. VIII. a) 14598, 6) 14599, c) 14597, d) 14593. On blocks of marble 
found near quarries at Hr. Schemtn (Simitthus), Africa. The numerals 
indicate the number of the block among those ready at the port to be 
shipped to Rome in a certain year. ^n(umero'). ^ Corinthi(i) Caes(aris) 
(^servi). ^ Ca[^es(aris)'] (seroi) or cae(sura'). 



334 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



2. EX-M-N'.CAESARIS-N-R-D.A^-SVB.CVR.C-CERIALS-PR* 
SVBSEQ^.SERGIO-LONGO-V-LEG-XXII-PRIMIG^PROB 
CRESCENTE- LIB= N Villi 

(On one Hide N Villi 
iOn ar^ther side painted in Tndndwm) CXXX N Villi 

Byuzza, Iserizioni dei Marmi Qrezzi (Annali dell' 1st. 1870), 1. On a block 
of Carystian marble found at the Emporium, Rome, i ex m(etaUo) 
n{ovo). ^n(_ostri) r(ationis) d(ominicae) A(ugustae). ^pr(_ocuratoris). 
*subseq(_uente). ^proh{ante) Grescente lih(erto). 



3. IMP VESPASIANO VI 
TITO C/£S- III! COSi 



(On the other face) EX RAT^ L^T SER 

N' LXXXV 



Bruzza, Iserizioni (Annali, 1870), 147. On a block of Chian marble found 
at the Emporium, Rome. ^7dA.D. ^exra(tione). 'n(umero). 



4 a) C XVI COS^ 
XV 



c) dARO II T SEVER COS* 

loco ccxxx 
b'tert* 

OFF PELA« 



b) M 

RMN III COS* 
XII - 

cxyi cos= ^ 
c xxxxv 

d) LARG T MeSSAL COS' 
LOCO XXXVII REPR« 
OFF ASIAT 



C. /. L. III. a) 7009, 6) 7011, c) 7025, d) 7027. On blocks of Phrygian 
marble found at Itschki Karahissar (Docimum), Phrygia. i C{aesare) 
XVI cos — 92 A.D., i.e. Domitian. ^ [^T~\raiano III co(n)s{ule) = 100 
A.D. ' C(jiesare) XVI cos = 92, i.e. Domitian. Blocks marked with 
two consulates are common in Phrygia. * {Sexto) {Erucio) [^CV^aro II 
et Sever{o) ca(_n)s(^ulibus). ^ b(racchium) tert^ium). ^ Pela{gii)- 
' Larg{p) et Messal{ino'). ^ repr(_obatum)f 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 335 

5. AVGVt^N-COS' (Ononeside) LXXXR 
L- LXXX -R^ i.On Mother Hde) N LXV 

C/E- N 

Bruzza, Iscrisioni (Annali, 1870), 6. On a block of Carystian marble found 
at the Emporium, Rome, i 132. ''r{d)t{ionis). As l{oco) indicates 
the portion of a quarry, this block numbered 80 in the quarry, but 65 at 
the port. 

6. L-AELIO 
CAESARE N II ■¥ BAL 
BINO- COS^ RATIONIS 
VRBICAE SVB CVR IRENAEI 
AVG LIB PROC CAESVRA TVLLI 
SATVRNINI V LEG XXII PRIM 

((M the lower pa/rt of shaft.) 
{On the rmddle part.) ( On the wpp&r part.) 

LOCVS^ N II CIA» OFF PA* N LXXXVI 

LOG XVI B» 

Bruzza, Iscrizioni (Annali, 1870), 258. On a column of Synnadic marble 
found near the Tiber, i 137 a.d. ^ Locus, as well as bracchium, indi- 
cates the section of the quarry ; in this case the section is numbered. 
' CIA and B thus far defy explanation. * Pa(piri). 

7. N CCCV OF' GENII MONTIS 

IMP COMMODO AVG TfTT "E VICTORINO [i]! COS 

CAESVRA MAXIMI PROC 

O, I. L. VIII. 14588. On a large block of marble found at Hr. Schemtii 
(Simitthus), Africa. ^of(^ficina). Date, 183 a.d. 

Pigs of liBAD 

1. M . P'. ROSCIEIS- M ■ F- MAIC' 

G. I. L. II. 34-39. More than thirty pigs of lead, with similar inscriptions, 
have been found in mines near Cartagena, Spain, i M(a»8Ms) (eO 
PQublius). ^ Materia) (tribu). 



336 LATIN I:SSCRIPTI0NS 

2. BRITANNICi- AVG • F|i V-ET-P" 

C. I. L. VII. 1202. Pound near Blagdon, Somerset, England, now in 
British Museum. ^f(iUi). ^ Probably F(eramo) e« P(o»»peJo). Date, 

49 A.D. 

3. NEROhJs NG EX K I A/ MM COS* BRt^ i,o«,,ipperfaee.) 
eXK IVL P ■ M • eS* {Onom,ide.) 
EX ARGENT 

CAPASCAS'' y {On OMoO.^ side.) 

XXX 

C. I. L. VII. 1203. Found near Stockbridge, England ; now in British 
Museum. Date, fiO a.d. '■ex k(alendis) lan^uariis) IIII co(n)s(ulis). 
2 Britannicum. ^ ex k{alendis) Iul{iis) p(fintiflcis) m(jiximi) co(ji)- 
s{ulis). ^ Unintelligible. 

4. MVP • VESP • VTT ■ T • MVP ■ V • COS ' i(M«pper/ace.) 

DE CEA^ (,aii the side.) 

C. I. L. VII. 1205. Found near Lichfield, England, now in British Museum. 
Date, 76 A.D. ^ co{n)s(uUbus). ^de Oea(^ngis). 

5. IMP - CAES • HADRIANI • AVG • MET • LVT» 

C. I.-L. VII. 1208. Found near Matlock, Derbyshire, England, now in 
British Museum. Date 117-138. i met(anorum) Lut(udensium ?). 

Pigs oi' Silveb 

1. E X F F L 

H N R I N I 

C. /. L. VII. 1196. Found in Tower of London together with coins of 
Arcadius and Honorius, now in British Museum, ex of^ficina) Fl^amif). 

2. EX OF PA 

T R I C I 

Q. f. L. VIJ. 1198. Found nt^v Coleraine, Ireland, now in British Museum. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 337 

Inschiptions on Tiles and Bricks 

1. a) COS I CN . OC ■ C • SCI I C • /W^ ' 

b) L ■ NAEV^ . I C02 . t COTT | L • MAN 

c) M . COCCIO I L . GELLIO | COS^ | L l/IAEVI • L • F 

d) M • CRASSO I CN • LNV • COS' • | L • N/£VI • FELIC 

C. I. L. I. a) 777, 6) 784, c) 795, d) 797. Stamped inscriptions on bricks 
found at Veleia, Italy, now in the museum at Parma. ' co(b)s(«K6m») 
On. Oc(tavio) G. Sc(ribonio) , 678/76. ^ c. Mu . . . ., the name of the 
flgulus who alone made stamps T7ith letters sunk beneath the surface 
■while the others made inscriptions in relief. ' L. Naevius figulus of 
686/68-710/44. m8/36. 5740/14. 

Bbicks Found in Home 

1. «a> OP DOL EX PR AlACIA ARM EPAG?I» 

MAXIM ET AVIT COS' 

C. I. L. XV. 9. Impressed on bricks found on the Esquiline, Via Latina, 
and elsewhere in and about Rome. ^expr{aedis) Aiacia(nis) Arul(eni) 
Epagath{i). 2144. 

2. ^ M R Li Q AQVILIO NIGRO M REBVLO 

APRONIANO COS' 

BRV^ 

G. I. L. XV. 25. Impressed on bricks found in walls between the Pantheon 
and Baths of Agrippa. 1 M. B{utili) L{upi). 2 117. 3 Bru{tiana). 

3. O a) OP DOL EX PR. C FVL PLAVT PR PR 

C yi COS II FIG BVCCONIA 

IZHft) L-NVMER 

IVSTVS ■ FEC 

C. I. L. XV. 47. Impressed on bricks found in tearing down the church of 
S. Peter and Marcellinus, near the Lateran. ^ ex pr{aedis) C. FulQui) 
PlautQiani) pr{aefeoti) pr(aetorio') e(larissimi) v(iri). The date is 
between 203 and 205. 6 is on the same brick as a, but in a differently 
shaped stamp. 

L4.T. IlfgCEIP. — ^ 



338 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

4. EX PRAEDI ANNI LIBO ■ OPV 

IZD SALA.1 EX OF ANNI DECEMB^ 

SERVIAN Til ET VARO 

C. I. L. XV. 512. Impressed on bricks found in the Gardens of Sallust 
and elsewlxere in Rome, also at Ostia. i opu(s) Sala^rese). " ex 
of(Jicina') Anni Decembiris). The date is 134. 

6. ^ EX • OFIC • OP • DOL ■ EX . PR • CAES -N 
Q. OPPI • PROdVLI' 

C. I. L. XV. 364. Impressed on bricks found in many places in and about 
Eome, e.g. on the Esquiline, Via Appia. i op{m) dol{iare) ex pr{aedis) 
Oaes{aris) n(ostri), {ex officina) Q Oppi Froculi. 

6. ^ OP - DOL . EX- PRAED AVG N FIG 

OCEANAS MAIORES 

C. I. L. XV. 371. Impressed on bricks found on the Esquiline, on the Via 
Ardeatina, Via Appia, etc. This dates in the time of Severus. 

7. O EX • PRAEDIS HEREDVM ■ CC VV PASSENI 

AE PETRONIAE • NEG ■ VAL ■ CATVLLO 
C F 

C. I. L. XV. 419. Impressed on bricks found, among other places in Rome 
on the banks and in the bed of the Titer, in the cemetery of S. Peter 
and Marcellinus, also in the Stadium of Domitian, near the temple of 
Juppiter Stator. ex praedis heredum (duorum) c^larissimorum) v{ir- 
orum) Passeniae Fetroniae c{larissimae) f{eminae), neg{otiatore') Val- 
(erio) Catullo. This dates in the time of Commodus. 

8. EXFIGDOMITIAE 

DOMITIANI SVLPICIANV 

C. I. L. XV. 550. Impressed in litterae cavae on bricks found in the 
Forum Romanura near Basilica lulia, near the Baths of Diocletian, 
and elsewhere in and about Eome. i Sulpicianu^m) {opus). The date 
i? about 123 a. p. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 339 

9. ^ DE FIG PEDANIES QVINTILL/E CONDV 

C LABERIVS ZOSIMV 

C /. L. XV. 643. Impressed on bricks found on the Palatine, and on tlie 
banks and in the bed of the Tiber. This dates in the early part of the 
reign of Hadrian. ^ ' conduotor or {quas) conduQcit). 

10. ^ TEG • TVN • DOL' • EVTVCHVS • SE • 

IVLIAE PR0CVL/£2 

C. I. L. XV. 647. Impressed on bricks found on the Palatine and Esquiline, 
also in and about the Tiber, i teg{ula) Tun{neiana) dol(iaris). 
2 se{rvus) luUae Proculae (fecit'). 

11. ^ VALER NICE! EX PR PL • AVG" OP • D 

P/£TIN ET APRON 
SOD 

C. I. L. XV. 692. Impressed on bricks found in extensive ruins perhaps of 
the baths of Agrippa or of the temple of Minerva, in the Gardens of 
Sallust, and elsewhere in Rome. The date is 123. ^ Valer(iae) 
Nice(nis). ^ Pl(ptinae) Aug{ustae) or Aug{usti). 

12. ^ OPVS DOL EX • PR AVRELI CAES T FAVS 

TINAE AVG • VLPI ■ ANE 

CETIANI 

C. I. L. XV. 719. Impressed on a brick now in museum at Paris. The 
date is about 160. 

13. ^ DOL • ANTEROTIS SEVERP 

CAESARIS N 
C. I. L. XV. 811. Impressed on bricks from the Pantheon. * Severi(cini). 

14. \^ EX . FIG • Q ■ ASmi • MARCELLI 

D ■ OP • F • C • NVNFORTVNA.i 

Q • ART P/E ET /PRON'A 

COS 



340 LAtiN INSCRIPtlOlJg 

O. I. L. XV. 847. Impressed on bricks found on the Palatine, in the 
Gardens of Sallust, on the Esqulline and elsewhere in Rome, i C. 
Nun{nidius) Fortuna(tus'). The date is 123. 

15. OP . DOL • EX • P . DOM • LVC • EX 

FIG • QVARTIONIS 

O. I. L. XV. 1063. Impressed on a brick found on the Via Tiburtina. The 
date is about 140. 

16. (a) VAL QVI . FEC* 

CN DOIVT • AAANDI 

C. /. L. XV. 1097. Impressed on bricks found on the Palatine. The date 
is about 75-108. ' val{eat} quifec^if). 



17. a) LEG II ADI P F 

6) LEG II ADI P F ANT^ 

C. I. L. III. 3750. Impressed on bricks found in many places in Fannonia 
Inferior, principally at Buda and S^tfey. ^ Ant{oniniana). 

18. a) LEG X • G • P • F 
6) LEG XIII GUM IV 

c) LEG • XIII • GE • 1VFI» 

C. I. L. III. a) 4659, 6) and c) 4660. Impressed on bricks found in 
Pannonia Superior, i The ofBcer in charge of the manufacture of bricks. 

19. a) LEG XXII P • P • F> 

IVL • PRIMVS • F^ 

Brambaoh, Inser. Bhen. 1491. Impressed on bricks found in the neighbor- 
hood of Mainz. ^p{rimigenia) p{ia) fiidelis). ^/(ecit). That Julius 
Primus was figulus for this legion is shown by the frequent occurrence 
of his name on the bricks stamped XXII. 

20. VEXIL^ • LEGIONVM 



I . VIII • XI • Xllll • XXI 
Bull. Epigraph., Vol. IV. 1884, p. 66. Impressed on bricks found at 
Mirebeau. ^ vexU{lationes). 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 



341 



21. a) COH . I • \LP . P> 

6) COH • VII BR AN 2 

O. I. L. III. 3756, 3757. Impressed on bricks found' at Buda in Pannonia 
Inferior, i F{annoniorum?). ^ Br{eucorum) An(toniniana). 



Dolia. 
1. 



Vessels op Clay 



(Caduomi) 


D . F' . C • CLVENTI * 
A M P L 1 A T 1 ^ 










aim branch, 
ath) 


CORINTHVS • S • F^ 



{_Cad/ucm^ 



{Crescent, pahti branch, 
toreaih) 



C. I. L. X. 8047, 7. Impressed on dolia found at Pompeii. ^ def{iglinis)9 
''■ s(ervus) /(ficif). 

2. PHILEROS 
M-FVLVI-SER 

C I. L. X. 8047, 15. Impressed on a dolium found at Pompeii. 

3. S E R • A L L^ 

/ECIT 

C I. L. XII. 5684, 1. Impressed on a dolium found at Nismes. ^ Unknown 
nomen. 



Amphorae. 
4. 



M . S/E N A rj SS"* 



C I. L. XII. 5683, 267. Stamped on an amphora found at Ste-Colombe, 
now at Lyons, i Sat{urnira). 



5. SAXOFERREO 

O. I. L. XII. 5683, 272. Stamped on an amphora in the museum at Aries. 



342 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

6. M . "f C C I • L . F . "^ 0' 

G A- E N V S'' . 

C. /. L. XII. 5683, 296. Stamped on an amphora found at Uzfes (Ucetia), 
France, perhaps brought from Italy, i Tro{mentina). ^ Qaleonlils. 

7. C- POMPONIO . C • ANICIO COS 

EX • FVNDO BADIANO 
BISF- ID ■ AVQ • BIMVM 

C /. L. IV. 2551. Painted in white coloring on the fragment of an amphora 
found at Pompeii, where it is still preserved. It is unknown to what 
year the consuls should be assigned. An Anicius Cerialis was consul in 
65 A.D., and his colleague is not known, hence some assign the amphora 
to this date. The third line seems to indicate that the wine, already two 
years old, was placed in the amphora on the Ides of August. Cf. Hor. 
Car. III. 8, 9. BISF is inexplicable. Schoene suggests DIFF (usum). 

8. F A V S 



Ti . c LAV D 1 rm 

COS 
L-VITELLIO TTT 

C. I. L. IV. 2553. Painted in red on an amphora found in Pompeii, where 
it still remains. We know from Pliny, N. H. XIV. 62, that the Faus{ti- 
anum) vinum was the best kind of Falemian wine. The date is 47 a.d. 

SV?R 

XXI 
VESPASIANO III 
E T • F I L I • C v' S 

C /. L. IV. 2555. Painted on the neck of an amphora found at Pompeii, 
existing in copy. Sijice Vespasian was consul III in 71, with Cocceius 
Nerva as colleague, and Domitianus and Pedius Oascus were the suffecti 
of the same year, Mommsen suggests that II should stand in place of 
III. But in Pliny, JV. S. II. 57, we find impcratoribus Vespasianis 
patre tertiumfiUo II or iterum (Paris Ms. eius) consulibus. Henzen has 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 343 

suggested that Pliny and the writer of the inscription carelessly named 
as colleagues those who, though consuls of the same year, did not hold 
oflBce at the same time. In the quotation from Pliny, // or iterwm must 
be rejected. 

10. L I Q V A M E N 
P T I M V M 

C. I. L. IV. 2592. Painted in black coloring on a small pitcher found at 
Pompeii, now in museum at Naples. 

11. PRESTA • Ml . SINCERV. SIC • TEAMET • QVECVSTO- 

DIT ■ ORTVVENVS 

C. I. L. IV. 2776. Inscribed with a graphium in the clay before baking on 
the bowl of a vase found at Pompeii, now at Naples. Presta mi sin- 
ceru{ni) ; sic te amet qu{a')e custodit (li)ortu{m) Venus. Cf. Varro, De 
M. S. I. 1, 6. Item advenfror Minervam et Venerem quarum uniuspro- 
curatio oliveti alterius hor(orum. 

12. G E N I P 

P V L I F E 
L I C I T E R 

C. I. L. XII. 5687, 44. Stamped on the flange of a red earthen vase found 
at Vienne, France. Similar expressions are found on other vases, e.g. 
mihi et meis felieiter .(46), Sequanis feliciter (50). 

On one aide. {M<'''^ayas stanza playing on a doiibUfiuU. Apollo^ aitting, Jiolde the 
lyre wnd plectrwtn. Goda and goddesses are gathered about.) 

13. PALLADOS EN STVDIO DID! 
CIST! MARSYAS CANTV DV 
MQVE TIB! TITVLVM QVAE 
RIS MALA POENA REMAS' 

On the other side. {Hercules ; BaeeMoa and Ariadne sitting on a couch ; two aaiyrSf 
SH&n/us, a Bacchanei; on the right leg of Hercules is inscribed the following:') 

APOLLINAR^ 
CERA 



344 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

C I. L. XII. 5687, 9. Stamped on a large flask which was probahly found 
in the south of Gaul, now in the museum of S. Germain. ' Cantu^m). 
'^ remain) s{it'). ^ Apollinar{is),ih% name of the artist. 

14. (OrioneMe) OSPITA REPLE LAGONA CERVESA 

(^on.theothe,-Me) COPO CNODITV ABES EST REPLE DA 

Mowat, Inscriptions de Paris, p. 69. Painted on a vase found at Paris. 
(H)ospita, reple lagona(m) cerves(i)at Copo, conditu(m) (Ji)abes, est 
replenda. 

Paterae. 

15. a) SEX - I ANN I, SEX ■ ANN, ANNVS etc. 

b) CN • ATEI, CNAEI, GN • /£, ATEI, ATE etc. 

c) ATTICVS I L ANNI, OF ATICI, /STI etc. 

d) FELIX ■ F, FELICIS NAN, FELICIS M, FELIX FEC etc. 

Wilmanns, 2833. Stamped inscriptions found on paterae and other clay 
vessels, particularly throughout Spain and Italy. 

16. a) ALBINVS, ALBINI, ALBINI MA, ALBINVS FE etc. 

b) OF . CALVI 

c) GERMANVS, GERMAN • F 

d) IVCVNDVS, OF IVCVND 

e) PRISCVS, PRISCI MAN 

Wilmanns, 2833. Stamped inscriptions found in general in Britain, Gaul, 
Germany, and lUyria. 

Pdves. 

17. APOLLONI-ET 

(Palm branch) JSMARI-CN CN (.Palmiranoh) 

DOMITIORVM 
C. I. L. X. 8048, 7. Stamped on a shallow bowl found at Pompeii. 

18. CN-DOMITIVS 
sECVN DVS- FEC 

C. I. L. X. 8048, 18. Stamped on the flange of a bowl found at Pompeii 



iNSCRIPTIOIfS UN MOVABLE OBJECTS 345 

Lamps. 

19. a) C ■ OPPI ■ RES 6) C COR VRS c) L CAE SAE 

d) FORTIS 

C. I. L. a) II. 4969, 41 ; 6) IX. 6081, 22 ; c) 6081, l.S ; d) 6081, 33. 
Stamped inscriptions on lamps found generally in Italy and Spain. 
, They frequently exhibit the tria nomina. 

20. o) FORTIS 6) STROBILI c) ATIMETI 

d) COMVNIS e) CRESCE 

8 

0. I. L. XII. 5682. a) 50 ; 6) 110 ; c) 9 ; d) VII. 1380, 10 ; e) HI. 12012, 6. 
Stamped inscriptions on lamps found generally in Britain, Gaul, and 
Illyricum. 

21. OB 

CI V I S 

S E Ri 

C. I. L. n. 4969, 2. Stamped inscription on a lamp fonnd in Sevilla 
(Hispalls), Spain ; also found in Italy. ^ ser(yatoa). 

22. . A N N V M 

N OV M • ¥ N 

STV M ■ FE L 

I C E M . M I H 

H VC» 

C. I. L. II. 4969, 3. Stamped on lamps found frequently in Italy and 
Spain. 1 mih(J,) ftM(re)c. 

23. EX 

Fr VIC 

T OR I S 

C. I. L. II. 4969, 54. Stamped in a circle on a lamp found at Tarragona 
(Tarraco>, in Spain, i ofi{cina). 



346 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Vascula Galena. 

34. a) ], ■ CANotEloS ■ 1^ • F • FECIT • CAtENoS 

6) C • GABINIO/ /- T • N • CALIINO 

c) RIITVS • GABINIO • C • S • CAHIBVS ■ IMIC • TIM 

d) RIITVS • GABINIO • C • s ■ CAI^EBVS • FECIT ■ E 

e) L- GABINIVS • L- F ■ FIICIT 

/) SIIRVIO QABINIO . T • S • I'llCIT 

G. I. L. X. 8054. These inscriptions are stamped with has reliefs on the 
inside of the bowls or paterae found at Calvi (Cales in Campania), now 
in various museums at Kome, Paris, and St. Petersburg. The form of 
the letters points to a period prior to the second Punic war. i Perhaps 
fec(it) te(stam). 

THE DUENOS INSCRIPTION 

love Sat. deivos qoi med mitat, nei ted. endo cosmis yirco sied, 
asted, noisi Ope Toitesiai pakari vols. Duenos med feced en manom, 
einom dze noine med mano stated. 

An earthen vase found in 1880 at Rome on the Quirinal, now at Rome in the 
possession of H. Dressel. The purpose of the bowl and its inscription has been 
variously explained by scholars, but without satisfactory and conclusive results. 
See page 16. 

H. Dressel in Ann. dell' 1st. 1880, p. 158. H. Jordan, Bull. delV 1st. 1881, 
p. 81; Hermes, XVI. 1881, p. 225; Vindiciae Sermonis Latini AntiquUsimi, 
Konigsberg, 1882. Pr. Buecheler, Bhein. Mus. XXXVI. 1881, p. 235. H. Ost- 
hoff, Rhein. Mus. XXX-VI. 1881, p. 481. M. Brgal, Onmptes-rendus des 
Seances de VAcademie des Inscriptions et Belles- Lettres, Paris, 1882, IV series, 
vol. X. p. 23 ; Bevue Archeol. VII. 1882, p. 82. C. Pauli, Altitalische Studien, 
I. Hannover, 1883. E. Baehrens, Neue Idhrb. 129, 1885, p. 833. 

Comparetti, L' Iscrizione de Vaso Dressel, Museo Italiano I. Firenze, 1885. 

The various interpretations are as follows : 

qoi med mitat = qui me mittat Dressel, Buecheler, Osthoff, Jordan. 
mittat = optative, Dressel ; futiire, Buecheler ; potential = quisquis mittat, 
Jordan. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MOVABLE OBJECTS 347 

love Sat. deivos = lovi 8at{urno) deis, Dressel, Buecheler ; = lovei, Jordan ; 
= Iove(m) Sat{urnom) deos, Osthoff ; loveis at deivos = luppiter aut deus I 
Br^al. 

nei ted endo cosmis virco sied = ne te intus comes virgo sit, Dressel, Kue- 
cheler ; ne in te comis virgo sit, Jordan ; netted endo cosmis vir cosied = nitat, 
i.e. nitatur {euret) intus comis vir consit, Osthoff ; nei ted endo cosmisu irco, 
sied, i.e. ne te endo, commissi ergo, sit, Br^al. 

asted noisi ope toitesiai pakari vois, i.e. adstet, nisi Opi Tiitesiae pacari vis, 
Dressel, Buecheler, Osthoff ; ast nisi, etc. = Jordan ; ast ted nois, io peto, ites 
iai pakari vois = ast te nobis, eo penso, Xn-ais iis, pacari vdis, Br^al. 

Duenos med feced = Duenus me fecit, Dressel, Buecheler, Jordan, Br^al ; en 
manom, i.e. propter mortuum, Dressel, Buecheler ; ad manium sacrum, Jordan ; 
in honum, Br^al. 

einom dze noine med mano statod = et die nono me mortuo sistlto, Dressel, 
Buecheler ; igitur die noni me mano sistito, Jordan ; einom duenoi ne med malo 
statod = nunc Dueno ne me malo sistito, Br^al. 

Conway, in the American Journal of Philology, X. 1889, p. 445, regards the 
inscription as an exsecratio, and interprets thus : 

Io. Vei. Sat. deivos qoi med mitat nei ted endo cosmis virco sied. Asted noisi 
Ope Toitesiai pacari vois. Duenos med feced en Manom, einom Duenoi ne med 
malo statod. 

May the gods Jove, Vejove, Saturn (grant) that Proserpine, to whom they 
suffer this vase to be dispatched, show thee no favour. Unless thou, indeed, art 
willing to make thy peace with Ops Toitesia. Duenos made' me (as a curse) 
against Manus, and let not evil fall to Duenos from me. 






CHAPTER VIII 

DOCUMEN'TS 

INSTKUMENTA 

Epigbaphic material may be divided, as has been shown above, 
into two great classes. The iirst class, tituli, has been treated in 
what has just preceded. It now remains to consider the second 
class, instrumenta. 

These are documents which have been placed for publication and 
preservation on stone and metal, and which have an importance in 
themselves and in the information which they convey, apart from 
the objects upon which they appear. They are, however, of such 
a character, as to place them in the field of Eoman literature and 
law, rather than in the domain of epigraphy. 

Since, however, such docimients have been preserved for us in 
inscriptions, as well as in the works of ancient writers, it belongs to 
the student of epigraphy to consider what documents have thus 
come down to us, their formal presentation as well as the principles 
which appear to have controlled their individual form and arrange- 
ment. 

Laws and Plebiscites 

{Leges et Flebi Sdta) 

The word lex, originally a special term denoting the enactments 
of the comitia centuriata, after the equalization of the legislative 
authority of the comitia tributa with that of the patrician comitia, 
and the recognition of plebi sdta as leges through the passage of the 
Lex Hortensia, 467/287, became a generic term applicable alike to 
the enactments of both bodies. Hence we find in the Lex Latina 
Tabulae Bantinae, 7 (dating between 621/133-636/118), and the Lex 
Agraria, 2 (643/111), the phrase ex hace legeplebeive scito. 

318 



LAWS AND PLEBISCITES 349 

Leges and plebi scita are arranged in three divisions. I. Index or 
Praescriptio ; II. Bogatio, the body of the law; III. Sanctio, the 
conchision. 

I. The index or praescriptio sets forth in stereotyped form the 
name of the proposer (rogator) of the law, the office of. the same, the 
place, the day of the month, and, finally, the name of the body 
(penturia, tribus) entitled to Tote first, and the name of the man 
casting the first vote. 

As no complete praescriptio has been preserved for us in the 
inscriptions, we obtain our knowledge of its form from that of the 
Lex Quinctia de Aquaeductibus ' given by lulius Frontiniis in c. 129. 

T. Quinctius Grispinus consul [d(e) s(enatus) s(ententia)'] populum 
iure rogavit populusque iure scivit in foro pro rostris aedis divi lulii 
pr(idie) [Zc.] luUas. Tribus Sergia principium fuit, pro tribu Sex. 
L. f. Virro \^primus saimt]. 

When the law, a plebi scitum, was proposed by a plebeian magis- 
trate, i.e. tribunus plebis, the expression in the praescriptio was 
plebem rogare. 

The first line of the praescriptio was written in larger letters than 
the body of the law." 

II. Bogatio.- The text of the law was divided into sections or 
chapters which were indicated either by spaces, after which, in some 
cases, the first word or a part of the first word of the paragraph 
extended into the margin (Lex Cornelia de XX Quaestoribus *) or by • 
numbers adjoining the spaces as in Lex Bubria.* The titles of the 
sections were in some instances introduced by the letter E == rubrica, 
as in the municipal law kno%vn as Lex Malacitana (see p. 351). 

III. Sanctio. This is in reality the conclusion of the law, and 
contains provisions against its Infraction, and states the penalties 
for those who transgress. The sanctio might also contain a declara- 

1 Bruns, Forties luris Bomani Antiqui,^ 1893, p. 115. 

" See Eitschl, P. L. M. E., for representations of bronze law plates. 

8 C. I. L. I. 202. Bltschl, P. i. M. E. tab. 29. 

« C. /. L. I. 205 ; XI. 1146 ; P. L. M. E. tab. 32. 



350 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

tion making void any future enactment contravening tlie present 
statute.' The lex was then termed perfecta, but if such a decla^ 
ration were lacking it was termed imperfecta. Non-interference 
with previous enactments was denoted by the formula EX • H • L • 
N • R = ea; h{ac) l{ege) n{ihilum) r(ogatur). See Lex Eubria/ 
XXI. 24. 

The principal laws and plebiscites which have come down to us 
in inscriptional form are : 

Lex Acilia BepetuJidarum, 631/123 or 682/122. This was engraved on a 
bronze plate and provided for the institution of a court where charges of extor- 
tion brought by the socii against Boman magistrates might be considered. 
C. I. L. I. 198 ; P. X. M. E. tab. 2.3-25. 

Lex Agraria, 643/111. This is engraved on the reverse of the bronze 
tablet on which the Lex Acilia is preserved. It is the last of the three laws 
passed after the death of C . Gracchus annulling his agrarian laws. O. L L. I. 
200 ; P. L. M. E. tab. 26-28. 

Lex Cornelia de XX Qiiaestoribus, 673/81. This law, engraved on a bronze 
tablet, was the eighth of the laws of Sulla and referred to the introduction of 
additional quaestors. C J. L. I. 202 ; P. L. M. E. tab. 29. 

Lex Antonia de Termessibus, 683/71. A phbi scitum on a bronze tablet by 
which tile autonomy of Termessus was confirmed. O. I. L. I. 204 ; P. L. M. E. 
tab. 31. 

Lex Rubria de Oivitate Oalliae Oisalpinae, 705/49. A bronze tablet found 
among the ruins of Veleia, near Piaoenza. By means of thi^ law, jurisdiction 
of municipal magistrates in Gallia Cisalpina was established. C. L L. I. 205 = 
XI. 1146 ; P. L. M. E. tab. 32. 

Lex lulia Munieipalis, 709/45. This law, commonly termed Tabula Hera- 
cleensis from the place of its discovery, Heraclea, is engraved upon a bronze 
tablet, on the opposite side of which is a Greek psephisma. It treats of the dis- 
tribution of corn, duties of aediles in Rome, and rules of municipal government. 
C. L L. I. 206 ; P. L. M. E. tab. 38 and 34. 

In the imperial period legislation was in the hands of the senate 
and emperor, so that the leges assumed the form of senatus consulta 
and constitutiones of the emperors. 

1 Dig. XLVIII. 19, 41 Sanctio legum quae novissime poenam irrogat iis qui 
praeceptis legis non obtemperaverint. Cicero, Ad Att. III. 23. 
=* Bruns, Pontes luris Somani, p. 101. 



, , LAWS AND PLEBISCITES 351 

The Lex de Imperio Vespasiani (69 a.d.), a specimen of the leges de imperio 
which conferred the various powers of the priucipate upon the emperor on his 
accession to the throne, sets forth the decree of the senate as a senatus consuUum 
and yet assumes in some respects the character of a lex.^ 

The term lex was also applied to the constitutions given by those 
in authority to civitates, based upon traditional principles once 
applied to the government of coloniae and municipia. They are 
similar to the leges which were given to the people of Campania 
when they became Roman citizens, by L. Furius, praetor 436/318 
(Livy, IX. 20, 5;. 

The following are of this character : . 

Lex Coloniae Genetivae luliae sive Ursonensis, 710/44. A colony of Roman 
citizens, known as Colonia Genetiva Tulia, was established by M. Antonius, 
under the direction of Julius Caesar, at Urso (now Osuna) in Spain. The lex 
given by Antonius to this colony originally consisted of no less than eight 
tabulae, of which only four remain, and those in a fragmentary state. C. L L. 
II. 5439 ; Ephem. Ep. II. 105, 221. 

Lex Municipalis Salpensana, 81-84 a.d. A portion of a lex municipalis 
given by the emperor Domitian to the municipium Salpensa, inscribed on a 
bronze tablet found near Malaga, Spain. C. L L. II. 1963. 

Lex Municipalis Malacitana, 81-84 a.d. A similar law given by Domitian 
to the municipium Malaca, inscribed also on bronze and found in the same 
place. C /. L. II. 1964. 

Lex Metalli Vipascensis. Given by one of the Flavian emperoi-s as a con- 
stitution for a mining settlement in Portugal. Ephem. Ep. HI. 165. 

yps^—^i CO V.JT1 1 ^4f XB £ N/ £) 1 5 

£X iNI KiS Q^fI NvmC-Wwt jTIASf XUqjsii 
1^ BEINCEPS-In-Eo-NaMMj ClPlO.Tr\]i?.i.ER\JN-f 

A portion of the Lex Sfalnciiana. 

B(ubrica) LIT. De comitiis habendis. \ Ex II viris qui nunc sunt, item ex is, 

qui I deinceps in eo municipia II viri erunt, | uter maior natu erit 

comitia II vii-(is), item aedilibus, item quaestoribus rogandis subrogandis 
hiac) l{ege) habeto. 

iThis is termed Senatus ConsuUum de Imperio Vespasiani in Bruns, Pontes 
luris Bomnni. See Momm. Staatsr. 2^, 876-9, as to whether it is a lex or 
senatus consuUum. C. L L- VI, 930, 



362 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Decrees of the Senatk 

(Senatus GonsuUa) 

These decrees of the senate of the Roman people, ■written down 
undei the direction of the presiding officer in presence of witnesses, 
have been preserved for us in literature and in small numbers in a 
monumental form. They are arranged as follows : 

I. Introductory portion, consisting of the name of the relator with 
the phrase senatum consuluit, the date, i.e. day and month (not later, 
however, than 707/47), and place of assembly, names of witnesses^ 
with phrase scribundo adfuerunt. ''^^ 

[Q]. Marcius L.f.,'S(p.) PostumiusL.f. cos. senatum consoluerwnt 
n(pnis) Octob. apud aedem Duelonai. — Sc(ribundo) arfiuerunt) M. 
(Jlaudi(s) M. /., L. Valeri(s) P. f., Q. Minuci(s), C. f. (Senatus 
Consultum de Bacchanalibus, 568/186 ; C. I. L. I. 196). 

II. The statement of the relatio, i.e. the question proposed, intro- 
duced by the formula quod (ille) consul verba fecit or quod verba facta 
sunt de ilia re. This formula verba fecit may be followed by an 
infinitive clause expressing the purpose of the relatio. The formulaic 
ending of this statement, quid de ea re fieri placeret, Q • D • E • R • F • P, 
occurs first in decrees of the Augustan period. 

III. The sententia of the senate, introduced by the formula de ea 
re ita censuerunt, D • E • R • I • C. At the close of the consultum the 
word censuerunt (censuere) is repeated either in full or represented 
by the letter C. The same word occurs after each section when the 
vote was taken upon each article. 

The senatus consulta which had reference to Greek people were 
translated into that language,^ and these are the oldest documents of 
thife kind which have been preserved to our time. 

The earliest senatus consultum written in Latin which has been preserved is 
a fragment of the Latin version of the S. C. de Asclepiade Clazomenio Sociisque, 
676/78, of which the Greek translation has also been preserved. It refers to 

iFor list of these documents see Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique, 
1887, p. 225 ; and for' the formulae, the vol. of 1885, p. 455. Paul Viereck, 
Sermo Graecus quo S. P. Q. M. usque ad Tiberii Caesaris aetatem in scriptis 
publicis list sunt e^aminntur. Gpttingen, 1888. 



IMPERIAL DOCUMENTS 353 

three Greek captains who, on account of their services to the state, are declared 
amicipopuli Eomani. O. I. L. I. 203. 

Other senatus consuUa date from the latter part of the first century b.c. 

Two fragments of these documents, referring to the ludi saeculares, are pre- 
served on marble tablets. They date May 23, 737/17. S.OC. de Ludis 
Saeeiilaribus. Ephem. Ep. VIII. 225. See also G. I. L. VI. 877. 

S. CC. de Aedificiis non Diruendis. Two decrees inscribed on the same tablet 
which refer to the destruction and rebuilding of houses in Rome, the first dating 
between 44-46 a.d., the second in the year 56. C. I. L. X. 1401. ' 

8.C. de Nundinis Saltus Beguensis, 138 a.d. Inscribed on two stones found 
at Henschir Begar, Africa, containing a permit for a market in the district 
I Saltus Beguensis. C. I. L. VIII. 270, and Sup: 11451. 

S.G. de Cyzicenis, 138-160 a.d. Inscribed on a stone tablet found in the 
ruins of Cyzicus, now in the British Museum. C. I. L. III., Sup. 7060. 

S.C. de Sumptibus Ludorum Gladiatorum Minuendis, 176-7 a.d. Inscribed 
on a bronze tablet found in 1888 near Italica, a city of Hispania Baetica. 
C. /. L. II., Sup. 6278 ; Momm. Ephem. Ep. VII. 388. 

The two documents ^familiarly known as S.C. de Baccliancdibus 
and S.O. de Tihurtibus are letters of magistrates written in the form 
of senatus consulta. See page 359. 

Imperial Documents 
(Instrumenta Imperatorum) 

Many state documents of imperial authorship, embodying the 
enactments of the Roman emperors when acting with legislative 
authority, form most valuable and interesting epigr^phic remains. 
' These documents assume several forms : 

Orationes. These were addresses before the senate made in per- 
son or by messenger, which formed the means whereby the emperor 
presented a bill or proposition to the senate as the legislative 
body, so that in the form of a senatus consuUum it might become a 
law. Subsequently the oratio itself was recognized as' a law when 
the empty formality of reference to the senate was appreciated. 
A certain form of oratio is seen in the speech of the Emperor Clau- 
dius in the senate, bearing upon the admission of Gallic citizens to 
the^/ionores. This was engraved upon a bronze tablet,^ a portion of 

1 Boisseau, Inscriptions de Lyon, p. 136 ; Bulletin iSpigraphique, vol. 2, 1882 ; 
Dessau, p. 52. 

lAT. INSCKIP. — 23 



354 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

which was discovered at Lyons, where it is still preserved. An 
abstract is given by Tacitus in Anncdes, XI. 23-25. 

A small portion of an oratio of Vespasian appears in the sepul- 
chral inscription of Ti. Plautius, upon whom the emperor proposes 
to confer triumphal honors. G. I. L. XIV. 3608. 

Constitutiones. 

1. Edicta. These were general directions of legislative force 
made on the analogy of the republican magisterial edicts. They 
were introduced by names and titles of the emperors, followed by 
dixit. 

Edictum Augusti de Aquaeductu Venafrano, giving water privileges to the 
colonia established by Augustus at Venafrum. This is inscribed on a marble 
tablet found at Venafrum, where it is still preserved. C. I. L. X. 4842. 

Edictum Glaudii de Civitate Anaunorum, 46 a.d. Inscribed on a bronze 
tablet found near Tridentum. C. /. L. V. 5050. 
— Edictum, Diocletiani e.t Gollegarum, de Fretiis Merum Venaltum (301 a.d.) is 
written in Latin and Greek, and gives the prices of all kinds of merchandise 
throughout the Ronlan Empire. O. I. L. III., p. 801 ; Ephern. Ep. V., p. 87 fi ; 
Sermes XXV. 1890, p. 17. 

2. Decreta. Decisions of the emperor in his judicial capacity. 

Decretum of Commodus relating to the colonists of the Saltus Burunitanug 
in Africa. C. I. L. VIII. 10570, Sup. 14464 ; Ephem. Ep. V. 470. 

Decretum M. Aurelii et Commodi (176-180) propter controversias quae inter 
mercatores ortae erant. Copies of this decree were probably placed at each one 
of the gates of Rome. The one found before the Porta Salaria has come down 
to us entire. C. I. L. VI. 1016 ; Ephem- Ep. IV. 787. 

3. Rescripta. Provisional decisions on consultation with magis- 
trates or private persons. These take the form of epistulae, intro- 
duced by (ille) salutem dicit, and closing with vodete. 

Epistula Vespasiani ad Vanacinos (72 a.d.). Inscribed on a bronze plate 
foundin Corsica. It refers to a boundary dispute. G. I. L. X. 8038. 

Epistula Vespasiani ad Saborenses (78 a.d.). Inscribed on a bronze plate 
found in the town Canete, between Malaga and Sevilla, Spain. O. I. L. II. 
1423. 

Epistula Domitiani ad Falerienses (82 a.d). Addressed to the inhabitants 
of F^rlerii and referring to their difficulties with the Firmani. C. I. L. IX. 5420. 



MILITARY DIPLOMAS 355 

Epistula Severi et Caracallae ad Tyranos (201 a.d.)- A marble tablet found 
on'the bank of the river Dniester, in Bessarabia, containing directions to the 
officials Heraclitus and TertuUus, and relating to the confirmation of privileges 
granted to the Tyraui, a people of lUyria. 0. I. L. III. 781, and p. 1009. 

4. Instruments Conferring Eights of Citizeuship and Marriage 
upon Veteran Soldiers (Privilegia Militum Veteranorum de Oivitate 
et Conubio). 

Among the constitutiones of the emperor should also be classed the 
documents familiarly known as diplomata militaria. These were 
formal documents issued upon completion of the term of service, 
conferring upon foreign soldiers the privileges of citizenship, and 
upon Roman citizens legal marriage even with foreign women. 
These constitutiones were engraved upon bronze tablets and set up at 
first on the Capitol, but after the time of Domitian on the Palatine. 
The names of the soldiers to whom the constitutio applied were 
written underneath. These bronze tablets ^ have perished, but special 
certified copies of many of them which were made for the individual 
soldiers have been preserved; they differed from the original in 
that they contained only the name of the soldier for whom the copy 
had been made. 

These copies were engraved on two tablets of bronze of oblong 
shape, about 4| inches by 6 inches, bound together into diptychs by 
bronze rings passing through two holes set in the edge.^ Two other 

' Some fragments remain, because those who made the copies of constitutiones 
of the years 24.3 and 248 used, the original tablets of eax]ieT constitutiones which, 
though cut in pieces, still show traces of the earlier writing. 

Those diptychs which are extant are given in G. I. L. III. p. 844 seq. ; 
Ephem. Ep. II. p. 452-466 ; IV. p. 181-187, 495-515 ; V. p. 92-100, 610-617, 
652, and C /. L. III. Sup. See also Arneth, Zw'dlf Romische Militardiplome, 
Vienna, 1843, and Leo Renler, Becueil de Diplomes Militaires, Paris, 1876. 

The fac-slmile on p. 358 is from Cagnat's Cours d' Mpigraphie, p. 269, origi- 
nally from Renier's work just mentioned. 

2 Paulus, Sent. V, 25, 6. Amplissimus ordo decrevit, eas tabulas, quae publici 
vel privati contractus scripturam continent, adhibitis testibus ita signari, ut in 
summa marginis ad mediam partem perforatae triplici lino constringantur, atque 
impositae supra linum cerae signa imprimantur, ut exteriori scripturae fidem 
interior servet ; aliter tabulae prolatae nihil momenti habent. 



356 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

holes were used for fastening and sealing the diptych. Through 
these holes bronze threads of triple thickness were drawn, and 
fastened on the outside by the seals of seven Eoman citizens whose 
names were engraved alongside of the seals. While the seals them- 
selves have perished, parts of the thread are still seen in the holes 
of some diptychs. This was the legal method of fastening these 
documents. 

The text of the constitutio was written both on the inside and 
outside of the diptych. On the outside of the second tablet the lines 
run in the direction of the shorter side, on the inside of both tablets, 
in the direction of the longer side. The outside of the first tablet 
held the names of the witnesses, the groove for the threads and seals 
dividing each name into two parts. Probably in the earliest diptychs 
only one copy of the constitutio was given, and that on the inside. 
One of these diptychs (Dessau, Inscriptiones Lqfinae, 1994) is still in 
existence. The object of the repetition of the constitutio outside was 
the avoidance of the opening of the diptych. This custom seems to 
have resulted in the gradual neglect of the inner copy which in real- 
ity was the important part of the document, for some diptychs are 
found in which the inside inscription is scarcely legible. The largest 
number of these documents which remain to us are assigned to vet- 
erans from the cdae and the auxiliary cohorts, a much smaller num- 
ber belong to the clasBiariiy and still fewer relate to Eoman citizens 
discharged from the praetorian and urban cohorts. No diplomata of 
this kind seem to have been given to the legionary soldiers if we 
except those of the two legions. Prima Adiutrix and Secunda Adiutrix, 
who were enrolled from the classici. 

The formal arrangement of the constitutio was as follows : 

1. The name and titles of the emperor. 

2. The class of soldiers and the special body to whom the privilegium was 
granted, also the department of service and the name of the commander-in-chief, 
i.e. the governor of the province. 

3. The number of the years of service. 

The phrase item dimissis honesta missione emeritis stipendiis occurs in certain 
diplomata, thus extending the privilegium so as to include those who have been 
previously discharged honesta missione. After Trajan honesta, missio is always 



l'^ 1 ^ h 







1 'f > k 
J- FL AVI ^\-% ''>Si^VNDI J 

'i£X- CAo^Hi::jL ■' k- CKl LI STI 
r'rLA>?l > I ! ABASCANTl 



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1^ 



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li VftX.^ ' - la - 



- »A-"-L^,„,, i;;;;;?-,j^'| 



Fac-simile of military diploma of the year 98; Soe p. 355. 



358 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

given before the bestowal of these privilegia, and hence the form becomes — 
militibus qui militaverunt quinis et vicenis pluribusve stipendiis emeritis dimissis 
honesta missione. 

4. The formula quorum nomina subscripta sunt followed by the formal exten- 
sion o£ these privileges to their descendants, — ipsis, liberis, posterisque eorum, a 
formula appearing before 145 a.d., and then not until 178.1 

When the privilegia were conferred upon soldiers of the praetorian or urban 
cohorts, the formula following the name of the emperor was nomina militum 
quiin praetorio meo militaverunt . . . subieci. 

5. The privileges conferred — civitas and conubium i.e. a legal Homan mar- 
riage upoii those already married, or upon those who may marry. Civitatem 
dedit et conubium cum uxoribus quas tunc habuissent cum est civitas iis 
data aut, si qui caelibes essent, cum iis quas postea duxissent, dumtaxat singuli 



The formula reads somewhat differently in the constitutiones of soldiers of 
the praetorian or urban cohorts, quibus, fortiter etpie militia functis, ius tribuo 
conubi dumtaxat cum singulis et primis uxoribus, ut etiam si peregrini iuris 
feminas matrimonio sua iunxerint proinde liberos tollant ac si ex duobus civibus 
Somanis natos. The right of citizenship is not referred to, because the urban 
soldiers had already obtained ius civitatis before entering service. These cohorts 
were reoruited'mainly from the inhabitants of Italy. 

6., The date — day, month, year. 

7. The name, in the dative case, of the soldier, together with the designation 
of his country. This name .may be preceded by that of his cohort and that of his 
commander, cohort(is') Lusitanorum cui praeest 0. Cisso O. f. Ste. Monoratus ; ' 
also by a phrase indicating the rank of the soldier, ex pedite, introduced thus by 
ex when the soldier has received honesta missio. 

8. The formula, descriptum et recognitum ex tabula aenea quae fixa est — 
Bomae in muro post templum divi Augusti ad Minervam or in Capitolio post 
aedem Fideipopuli Bomani in muro. 

Decrees of Magistbateb 
Decreta Magistratuum 

The instrumenta of magistrates, like the constitutiones of the 
emperors, assume the form of edicta, decreta, and rescripta. 

Edicta were voluntary statements of the rules which the magis- 
trate intended to follow in the interpretation of the law. 

Sescripta were replies to special requests. 

^Ephem. Ep. IV., p. 510 ft. 



Decrees of magistrates 



359 



Decreta were the decisions of the magistrate in , any particular 
case within his jurisdiction. 

The oldest document of this kind known is the decretum of L. 
Aemilius Paulus, the victor at Pydna, as proconsul of Hispania 
Ulterior. It is cut in a bronze plate which was found in Spain, 
at Alcaic de los Gazules, near Cadiz, in ancient Baetica, and is now 



VIE f-Qy£/'HA5T£N-n VM^^J^Vfei 

'f NT: VREsIiASCVTANf A'H AB ) T ApviEN t 

IBIB ER ET- ESSBN r-'ACRVM'OrP[B VMON 

=— ^^avop'fA.rEMnEJrTATE'Po^EDI^ENT 

TTEAA^PQ5J70ERE>ffAB0R0aY£ 

.f oys'/r p vaA'P op ivS'SBMhT yy avE 

p.0MAfv/V5<VELlETAC7 fNCASTREIi 
■ AP'XU-kfEBf^ 



J 



Decreiwm of L, Aemilius Paulus, 56.5/189. 



"Wwi** oUvU^ c«vi»« 



preserved in the Louvre, Paris. It belongs to the early life of 
Paulus, when he was praetor in Spain. The object of the decree is 
the setting free of the Lascutani of southern Spain from the control 
of their neighbors of Hasta.' 

With these instrumenta should also be classed the following : 
Epistula Consulum ad Teuranos de Bacchanalihtis, familiarly known as 
Senatus Oonsultum de Bacchanalibus, dating 568/186. This letter, engraved on 
a bronze plate according to directions found on line 26, contains the substance 
of a senatus consuUum directed agauist the Bacchanales in Italy. It was sent 
by the consuls to the Teurani, a, people of the Brutii. C. /. L. I. 196 ; X. 104. 
The epistula of L. Cornelius the praetor, commonly known as the Senatus 
ConsuUum de Tiburtibns, was engraved upon a bronze tablet found at Tibur, 
but now lost. It dates 595/159. It was addressed to the people of Tibur, and 
referred to some suspicion under which they had fallen. 0. I. L. I. 201, XIV. 
3584. 

1 Livy, XXXV. 24 ; XXXVI. 2 ; XXXVII. 2, and 46. 



360 



LAfiN INSCRIPtlOiVfS 



A number of these documents belong to the imperial period. Decretum 
Proconsulis Sardiniae, 69 a.b. This was the sententia of L. Helvius Agrippa, 
engraved on a bronze plate referring to a boundary dispute between two people 
of Sardinia. C. I. L. X. 7852. Epistula Praefectorum Fraetorio, 168 a.d. 
This epistula was addressed to the magistrates of Saepinum and Bovianum by 
the praefecti praetorio Bassaeus Rufus and Macrinus Vindex, for the purpose 
of preventing the ill treatment of the conductores gregum oviaricorum of the 
emperor. It is inscribed on a stone which is still to be found at Saepinum, 
near the gate leading to Bovianum, through which runs the sheep-path to-day. 
C. /. L. IX. 2438. ♦ 

We may add to these, the sententia of C. Avidius Nigrinus, the legatus 
Augusti propraetore of Trajan inscribed on a marble tablet, C. I. L. III. 067 ; 
and the rescript of Claudius Quartirius inscribed. on bronze, dating 119 a.d., 
addressed to the duoviri of Pompaelo, Spain, O. I. L. II. 2959. 



IVD1CEAKCAE-FERR.AR 

)4vO V. 

VIDVC'SACSIDOT 
R'SECTM-GRAAITAT 

IVEVS'PRoPoSITo-HOR 
ADVI D3sDVMVE:>INVRBM-V3MIT 





From an inscription giving the letters of Claudius Faulinns, propraetore of Lnsltania, and 
Aedinius lulianus, praefecfua praetorio, on a large marble pedestal found at Vienx 
in Aremoiicae, now in the Castle Thorigny. 

Hiibner's Msempla^ p. 208. 



- adsedit etiam in provmcicL.Luq\dunense M. Valeria Flora trib(uno) 
mil(itum) leg(ionis) III Awff(ustae) | iudicr arcae^ ferrar(iarum) \ tres 

prov{ineiae') Gall{iae) \ pr. . . . . sua voVUntf^atti^- posuervM 

Sollemnem istum oriimdmn-\-ex^ewitate Viduc(assium) sacei'dot^eat^ quern 
propter sectam gravitatem(que) — Sollemnis iste mens proposito eorum f 
restitit. — is certus honoris mei erga | se ad videndum me in vrbem venit. 
Creuly in Memoires de la Societe des Antiqiiaires de France, 1876, p. 27 ff. 



PUBLIC AND SACRED DOCUMENTS 361 

A number of formal letters, such as the above, and official state- 
ments of various authorities have been preserved in the inscriptions. 

The libellus of L. Septimius Adrastus with its accompanying exemplaria 
litterarum of the rationales of Severus relating to the erection of a huilding by 
Adrastus, inscribed on a marble cippus, dating 193 a.d., O. I. L. VI. 1585 ; 
and the interlocutinnes of the praefecti vigilum bearing upon the refusal of the 
collegium of fullones to pay either ground rent or more probably for water 
rights, inscribed on an altar of Hercules and dating 244 a.d., C. I. L. VI. 266. 



PUBLIC AND SACRED DOCUMENTS 

Ada Publica et Sacra 

It will be convenient and consistent as well to describe under this 
title all documents associated in a general way with public interests 
and related also, in however slight degree, to religion and religious 
worship. 

Fasti i 

The most important of these inscriptions are the fasti. This 
word, in its earliest sense restricted to the days upon which legal 
business could be transacted, was later applied to the lists of these 
days and finally denoted calendars and chronological records in 
general. These fasti are represented in the inscriptions by two 
great classes of records. 

Annual records and chronicles of events intended for the eyes of 
people in general, containing the names of the chief magistrates of 
the year, mainly the eponymous magistrates, and brief statements 
of the principal occurrences and events, are represented by the Fasti 
Consulares and Acta Triumphorum. 

The lists of days for legal business which became Tcalendaria, 
containing an enumeration of the days and months and festivals of 
the year as well as brief notices of a religious and historical char- 
acter, are represented to-day by the Fasti Anni luliani. 

1 This subject is treated fully in C /. L. vol. I. and in the editio altera of the 
same volume published in 1893. 



862 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Fasti Consulares and Acta Triumphorum 

The first of these give the names of consuls, dictators with their 
magistri equitum, the tribuni militares with consular power, and the 
censors with the lustrum which they completed. These data are 
arranged in chronological order accompanied by their dates (accord- 
ing to the Catonian era) at intervals of ten years. 

The Acta Triumphorum give the names of the triumphatores with 
a statement of the people over whom they have triumphed and the 
date of triumph, and at times some brief description of the victory. 

These Fasti and Acta are arranged in G. I. L. I.^ in two sub- 
divisions. I) Fragmenta Quae Dicuntur Capitolina, II) Cetera Quae 
Supersunt Fragmenta. 

1. As early as the latter part of the fifteenth century a few frag- 
ments of these fasti were known to Italian scholars. In the year 
1546, however, many fragments were discovered which were collected 
and arranged by Delphinius and other scholars under the direction 
of Cardinal Farnese, who transferred them from his own gardens 
to the Capitoline and placed them in the Palace of the Conservatori, 
where they remain to-day. This disposition of the fragments ac- 
counts for the name Fasti Capitolini, by which they have ever since 
been known. Other fragments were discovered in 1816-1818 while 
excavations were being made in the Forum under the direction of 
Carlo Fea, of the Kircherian Museum. Again, in the extensive and 
systematic investigations which were carried on between 1872-78 
ten fragments were discovered, and finally in 1888 another frag- 
ment of the fasti triumphales which referred to the years 567-569 
was taken from the bed of the Tiber. 

These fasti of the magistrates and triumphatores were engraved on 
solid blocks of marble over a foot and a half in thickness, which had 
evidently formed part of the walls of some prominent building, in 
all probability of the Regia of the pontifex maximus. 

The date of the engraving of these fasti is set by Borghesi ^ 
between 718/36 and 724/30. Hirschfeld^ believes that they were 
inscribed in 742/12, when Augustus assumed the office of pontifex 

1 CEuv. IX. 1. p. 6. See C. I. L. J.^, p. 10.- ^ Hermes, IX., p. 93. 



FASTI CONSULARES 363 

maximus. It is probable that the tabulae of the fasti consulares were 
engraved in 718/36, when Domitius Calvinus dedicated the new 
Regia, and that separate supplementa were added up to about the 
year 766 = a.d. 13. Although the fasti were disregarded in the City- 
after this period, they were still maintained in the municipalities. 
The axta triumpJialia, however, were set up in 742/12, when Augustus 
became pontifex maximus. 

The following is a portion of the fasti consulares running from 
624/230-532/222. 

M-AIMILIVS-L.F-Q-N BARBVLA M-IVNIVS-D-F-D-N PERA 

CENS Q.FABIVS.Q.F-Q-N-MAXIM VERRVCOS-M.SEMPRONIVS-CF.M.N-TVDITAN.L 
L-POSTVMIVS.A-F.A-N ALBlNVS-JT CN-FVLVIVS-CN F-CN-N-CENIVMALVS 

SP.CARVILIVS.SP.F-C.N-MAXIMVS.JT Q-FABIVS-Q-F-Q-N-MAXIM-VERRVCO 

P-VALERIVS-LF-M-N FLACCVS M-ATlLIVS-M-F-M-N REGVLVS 

M-VALERIVS-lvV-F-M-N MESSALLA L-APVSTIVS-L-F C-N FVLLO 

BELLVM-GALLICVM-CISALPlNVM 

L-AIMILIVS-Q.F-CN.N PAPVS C-ATlLIVS-M-F-M-N REGVLVS 

CENS-C-CLAVDIVS-AP-F-CN-CENTHO M.IVNIVS-D-F-D.N-PERA-L-F-XXXXII 

T-MANLIVS.T-F-T-N.TORQVATVS.IT Q-FVLVIVS-M-F-Q-N FLACVS-M 

L-CAECILIVS-L-F-C-N-METELLVS DICT ^^„,-, ,,.„ ^.„,^. 

COMIT-HAB-CAVSSA 
N-FABIVS-M-F-M-N BVTEO MAG-EQ 

L^X-C-FLAMINIVS.C-F-L NEPOS P-FVPIVS.SP.F-M-N PERILVS 

CN-CORNELIVS-L-F-L-N-SClPIO-CALV M-CLAVDIVS.M-F-M-N.MARCELLVS 

524. M. Aimilius L. /(ilius) Q. n(epos) Sarbula, M. lunius D. f(iUus) D. 
n(_epos) Pera — Gens{ores) Q. Fabius Q. f (ilius) Q. ii(epos) Maxim^us) 
Vemicos(us), M. Sempronius O. /(ilius) M. n(epos) Tuditan(us) l(ustrum) 

f(ecerunt) XLI. 

525. L. Postumius A. f(ilius) A. n(epos) Albinus II, On. Fulvius Cn. /(ilius) 
On. n(epos) Centumalus. . 

626. 8p. CarvUius Sp. /(ilius) 0. n(epos) Maximus 11, Q. Fabius Q. /(ilius) 

Q. n(epos) 'Maxim(us) Verrucos(us) II. 
5Sl1. p. Valerius L. /(ilius) M. n(epos) Flaccus, M. Atilius M. /(ilius) M. 

n(epos) Begulus. 
528. M. Valerius M'. /(ilius) M. n(epos) Messalla, L. Apustius L. /(ilius) O. 

n(epos) Fullo. 



364 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



Bellum Cfallicum Cisalpinum. 

529. L. Aimilius Q. /(ilius) Cn. n{epos) Papus, G. Atilius M. f{Uius) M. 
n{epos) Begulus. — Oensor(_es) C. Claudius Ap. f (ilius) C. n(epos) Centho, 
M. Junius D. /{ilius) D. n{epos) Pera l(ustrum) f^ecerunt) XXXXII. 

530. T. Manlius T. /(ilius) T. n(epos) Torquatus 11, Q. Fulvius M. /(ilius) 
Q. n(epos) Flaccus II. — L. Caecilius L. /(ilius) C. n(epos) Metellus, 
dict(ator), N. Fabius M. /(ilius) M. n(epos) Buteo, mag(ister\eq(uiturn), 
eomit(iorum) hab(endorum) caussa. 

531. (Anno) 9XXX. O. Flamini[us O. /(ilius) L. n]epo$, P. Furius Sp. /(ilius) 
M. n(epos) Perilus. 

632. Cn. Cornel[ius L. /(ilius) L. n(epos) Sc\ipio Calv(us), M. Claudius M. 
/(ilius) M. n(epos) Marcellus. 

The following are portions of the Acta Triumphorum of the years 
494, 495, and 632. 






ItRVRfLIVStFtNORESrESfFlOANBi 
QOSmShKDlMlk'VaSNSDBq 

494/260. C Duilius M. /(ilius) M. n(epos) eo(n)s(ul) primus navalem 

(triumphum) de Sicul(is) et classe Poenica egit, an(no) CDXCIII k(alendis) 

interkalar(ibus). 
495/259. L. Cornelius L. /(ilius) Cn. n(epos) Scipio co(n)s(ul), de Poeneis 

et Sardin(ia) Corsica, an(no) CDXCIV V id(us) Mart(ias). 
632/122. L. Aurelius L. /. L. n. Orestes pro cos., ex Sardin(ia), an(no) 

DC[XXXI] VI idus Dec(embres). 

II. The second class of the fasti consulares and acta triumphorum 
includes the fragments of the fasti, which various priestly colleges 
and Italian municipalities framed for their own use, as a means of 
recordiAg and dating public events. These ate named from their 
origin or from circumstances associated with their discovery or 
preservation, e.g. Fasti Amiternini. 



FASTI ANNI lULIANI 365 

BEILVMACTIESCLASS 

CVMMANtONlO 

WrCAtSAUDlVlf fit MVMi!UVy«£SJW.COM|W 

A portion of the Fasti Oo'nsulares of Ainlternum. 

Hubner's Msem/pla, No. 952. 

723/31. Bellum Actie{n)s{e) class (iarium) cum M. Antonio, Imp. Caesar divif. 
Ill M. Valerius MessaKJa) Conin(_us), suf. M. Titus L. f. Gn. Pompeius 
Q-f- 

Fasti Anni luliani 

These calendars, which, are essentially religious documents, repre- 
sent the early lists of days and festivals which were kept at first 
exclusively by the priests, but were afterward (450/304) published 
through the efforts of Cn. Flavius, who placed a copy of the calendar 
iu the Forum. From this time the custom prevailed of exposing in a. 
public place the list of days and festivals, which was determined 
by the priests. 

The municipalities and collegia adopted a similar custom, and set 
up in cities, temples, and even private houses, copies of the calen- 
dars, the originals of which were made by the pontifices at Eoine. 

There are in existence to-day thirty of these calendars, engraved 
or painted on stone, and in a more or less fragmentary state, with 
the exception of the Kalendarium Maffeianum, which is almost com- 
plete. They are all of about the same age, arranged according to 
the Julian year, which brings the date later than 709/46. They 
were all made, however, in the time of the Julian and Claudian 
emperors, since the oldest belongs to the middle of the reign of 
Augustus, while the latest dates in 804 a.u.c, 51 a.d. 

The Roman calendars as they appear in. these fasti consist of a 
series of cplumns of which the first indicates the eight days of the 
week by the litterae nundinales ABCDEFGH, which are repeated 
for the successive weeks. Certain days of the Soman year have 
names which belong to themselves alone, while the remaining days 
are named from these and specialized by the addition of a numeral. 
The days thus named recur every month or year. Those recurring 
every month are the Kalends, (K); Nones, (NON) ; Ides, (EID). 



^66 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



A FORD'lhP''OED,.c 

f LOEDI-C 
LOEDIC 



LOED-CERINr 



— April 14, Loedi C(ereri) 

IS, Ford(icidia). Loedi C(,ereri) 

16, 

17, 

18, 

19, Cer(ialia). Loedi Cer(eri) in 



R.OMACONB 
FEI>!COR.O»iATIS OM 

EC 



EG 

jp" ^^ LDEBIPlOBi FER,QEDSIG 
(TTC^LOED-P VESTINBOMOP 
: C^tOEDFj 



21, Parilia. Soma cond(ita) 

22, Feriae coronatis om(nibus') 

23, Fei>i(aKa). Veneri 
24, 
25, i2o6(29'a2ia) 

26, 

27, 

28, ioedi Flor(ae). Fer(iae) q(uod) 
e(o) (i(ie) si9'(mMm)| Vest{ae) 
in domo F(alatina) \ dedic{atum) 

29, Loed{i) Fljorae) 

30, " " 
Fasti Caeretani. 

April. 

Hllbner's Xxempla. No. 976. 

Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Caere, now in the Palazzo del Conser- 

vatori at Rome. The date is about 34 a. d. 

The names of the days which recur yearly are the following : 



20, 



c(ij'co) 



Jan. 9 Agonalia 

" 11 Carmentalia 

" 15 Carmentalia 

Feb. 15 Lupercalia 

" 17 Quirinalia 

" 21 -Feralia 

" 23 Terminalia 

" 24 Regifugium 

" 27 Equirria 

Mar. 14 Equirria 

" 17 Liberalia Agonalia 



Mar. 19 Quinquatrus 

" 23 Tnbilustrium 

Apr. 15 Fordioidia 

" 19 Cerialia 

Apr. 21 Parilia 

" 23 Vinalia 

" 25 Robigalia 

May 9 Lemurla 

" 11 Lemuria 

" 13 Lemuria 

" 21 Agonalia 



May 23 Tubllustrium 

June 9 Vestalia 

" 11 Matralia 

Quinot. 5 Poplifugium 

" 19 Lucaria 

" 21 Lucaria 

" 23 Neptunalia 

" 25 Furrinalia 

Sext. 17 Portunalia 

" 19 Vinalia 

" 21 Consualia 



FASTI- ANNI lULIANI 367 

Sext. 23 Volcanalia Oct. 13 Fontinalia Dec. 17 Saturnalia 

" 25 Opiconsiva " 19 Armilustrium " 19 Opalia 

" 27 Voltumalia Dec. 11 AgonaliaIn(ualia?) " 21 Divalia 

Oct. 11 Meditrinalia " 15 Consualia " 23 Larentalia 

In addition to the litterae nundinales and the names of certain days 
the calendars contain letters indicating the ius et natura of the days. 

These are as follows : F = fastus, whicl). marked the days on 
which the praetor might say the words do, dico, addico, and legal 
business might be transacted. F ■ P. This is of uncertain mean- 
ing, perhaps equal to f{astus) p(rincipio), i.e. fastus in the first part 
of the day. 

Q • R ■ C • F = q(uandoc) r{ex) c(omitiavit), f(as), i.e. the day was 
fastus after the rex sacriflculus, had presided in the comitia calata 
called twice a year for the making of wills. These letters are 
attached to March 24th and May 24th. 

Q • S • T • D • F = q(uandoc) s(tercus) dielatum) f(as), i.e. the day 
is fastus after the rubbish has been carried from the temple of Vesta. 
These letters are attached to June 15th. 

N = n(efastus). The courts are closed, hence no legal business 
may be transacted. 

NP in many fasti, but NF in Fasti Pighiani. This also signifies 
nefastus, but these days are nefasti (hilares) because of some festival, 
and not nefasti (tristes) as the preceding, connected with religious 
observances. Mommsen explains NP as originating in an N of four 
strokes ma,de, as av for Manios, for the sake of differentiation. Some 
explain hF as equal to n(efastus) f(ericutus) or n{e)f(astus). 

EN = endotercisus or intercisus} The day on which the victim 
for sacrifice was slain in the morning, and the exta offered in the 
evening, the intervening time was fastus. 

C = c{omitiaiis dies).' 

' Varro L.L. 6, 31. Intercisi dies sunt, per quos mane et vesperi est nefas, 
medio tempore inter hostiam caesam et exta porrecta fas, a quo, quod fag tum 
intercedit aut eo est intercisum nefas, intercisum. 

2 Maorob. Sat. 1, 16, 14. Oomitiales sunt quibus cum populo agi licet, et 
fastis quidem lege agi potest, cum populo non potest, comitialibus utrumque 
potest. 



368 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

E K AVGVS TA E 5PI I a D.FORVM:HOIITOX.1VM. 
P lUI N F£8aAfcqyODHOCDI|.]Mr-CAr5A.lH13PA>JIAM. 

r\ III C cirrB.ioREM.victT 

H "^ C 

ANO KI AE SA-lVTl-INCOtUQi/IM NAlE'JAca.mC>V3yV. 
5 >mi P tVBllCVM 

A portion of the Jf'asti Vallensee. 

August. 

Hubner'a Mcempla, No. 978. 

Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Rome, now in the museum at Naples. 
The date is prior to 14 a.d. 

Aug. 1. Jc(alendae) Augustas. Spei ad forum hoUtorium. \ Natal(is) T.Glaudii 
Germanici. 
" 2. ' Feriae quod hoc die imp(erator) Caesar Sispaniam citeriorem vicit. 
" 5. Nonae.. Saluti in colle Quirinale sacriflcium publicum. 

O. I. L. I.,2 p. 240. 

Menologia Busticd 

Another form of calendar is that which is represented to-day by 
the Menologiu'm Rusticum Colotianum ^ and Menologium ■ Rustkum 
Vallehse.^ They were prepared for the guidance of farmers, and 
therefore state facts of value to that particular class. The former 
of these was discovered in Rome, and is still preserved in the 
museum at Naples. The calendar is engraved on the sides of a 
cubical marble altar in twelve columns, each containing the list of 
days for the month. At the head of each column is a sign of the 
zodiac, underneath which is the name of the month, the number of 
days,^ the day of the nones, the hours of the day and nighty the 
name of the sign through which the sun, the god of the month, 
passed, the agricultural labors appropriate to the month, and the 
principal festivals. See pp. 36i9, 370. 

iC. I.L. I.,2p. 282. 



MENOLOGIUM RUSTICUM 



369 



I ' vy^v "^".'y 




lAT, INSCRIP. 



-24 



370 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



IIUHJL <l«.p,j; 



^T^ 




1«.'.JM'IIJP 



^- ' ^ F ^ ^'^ \£ '? &" S 5 ^ £ ^ i 



) Lj ^ ty^ >^ ' ' V—, "" 1 . ' ■ ~j 

<; O c; i 3 ^- '^ { .'^ ^ o 









SACRED DOCUMENTS . 371 

Sacred Docdments 

The documents, relating to the consecration of temples and con- 
nected with objects of religious worship, such as altars and conse- 
crated treasures, form another class of acta. 

I. The first to be mentioned are the leges templorum, referring to 
the consecration of temples and altars, of which the following are 
examples. 

1. The lex fani of the temple of Juppiter Liber at Furfo, a Sabine town, 
dating 696/58. 0. /. L. I. 603 = IX. 351.3. The introductory form is, 
L. Aienus L.f., Q. Baebatius Sex. f. aedem dedicarunt lovis Liberi Furfone a. d. 
Ill idus Quinetileis, L. Fisone A. Gabiuio cos. 



TSTATinOTAvx. 



cos^»>ocroB]^. 

NVMINI-MCySTT YOTVM 
SVSCEPTVMMLEBE'NARBO 
NENSIVM INPERPETVOM 

Introductory portion of one of the Zegee Arae Ntirbonenais dating 11 a.d. 
Hubner's Exmrvplci^ No. 1099, 

0. The laws dedicating an altar at Narbo to the divinity of Augustus, prob- 
ably inscribed in the time of the Antonines, when the altar was rebuilt. C /. L. 
XII. 4333. The first sentence of the lex on the front of the altar is given above.- 
The lex on the side is introduced as follows : 

[Plep]s Narbonesis a[ram] | numinis- Augusti deldi}cavit legibus 

lis q(uae) i(nfra) s{criptae) siunt): 
Numen Caesaris Aug{usti) p(atris) p{atriae'), quando tibi hodie hanc aram 
dabo dedicaboque, his legibus hisque regionibus dabo dedicaboque, quas hie 
hodie palam dixero, uti infimum solum huiusque arae titulorumque est. 

3. A law dedicating an altar of Jupiter at Salona in Dalmatia, dating 137 
A.D. O. I. L. III. 1933. 

C. Domitius Valens II vir i(ure) d(icundo), praeleunte O. lulio Severe pon- 
tif(ice),'] legem dixit in ea verbcC quae infra scripta sunt. 



372 LATIN mscRiPTiosrs 

VESBINVS AVG' h PHETR][\M' 

MVNICIPI'CAERJTVM'LOCO- 

SVMNPENSA'OM N J -EXORN ATVM 

MrONTIVSCaSViDICTATORETCSVETONlVfCLA.VDIANVSDECVBj:ONESINTEMrLODIVOa 

Portion of a lex iem/pU inscribed on a marble tablet found at Caere, dating 114 A.D. 

Hiibner'a Eme/mpla^ No. 1074. 

Veshinus Aug(usti) l(ibertus) phetrium, Augustalibus \ munieipi Caeritum loco 
accepto a re p(uhlica) \ sua inpensa omni exornatum donum dedit. \ De- 
scriptum recognitum factum in pronao aedis Martis \ ex commentario quern 
iussit prnferri Guperius Hostillanus per T. Mustium Lysiponum | scriham, 
in quo scriptum erat- id quod infra scriptum est : | L. Publilio C'elso II C. 
Clodio Crispino co(^n)s{ulibus) idibus Aprilib(_us), | M. Pontio Celso 
dictatore, C. Suetonio Claudiano aedile iuri dicundo, praef(ecto') aerari. 
Commentarium cottidianum munieipi | Caeritum, inde pagina XXVII 
kapite VI: \ M. Pontius Celsus dictator et C. Suetonius Claudianus 
decuriones in templo Divor(um) corrogaverunt . . . 

Act{um)idib{us') lunis Q. Ninnio Hasta P. Manilio Vopisco co{n)s(ulibus).\ 
Dedicatum K^alendis) Aug(ustis) isdem co(n)s(uUbus). C. I. L. XI. 3614. 

II. Enumeration of offerings or ornaments belonging to a sanctuary 
or attached to the statues of divinities. 

1. An inscription on marble from the temple of Diana Nemorensis, giving 
the res traditae fanis, e.g. signa n(_umero) XVII; caput Soils I; imagines 
argenteas IIII, etc. O. I. L. XIV. 2215. 

2. A list of ornaments on a statue of Isis, in Spain, e.g. in digito minimo 
anuli duo gemmis adamant{ibus) . C. I. L. II. 3386. 

3. Two marble tablets containing an inventory of the res sacrae of the 
people of Cirta. 

Synopsis — lovis Victor argenteus in Kapitolio habens in capite coronam 
argenteam. ■ C. I. L. VIII. 6981-82. 

4. A list of offerings dedicated to the god Aesculapius, found at Riez, in 
Gallia Narbonensis. C. I. L. XII. 354. 

III. With these inscriptions belonging to sacred objects, we 
should also class the sortes ^ or lots supposed to be given by divini- 

» C. /. L. I., p. 268 fE., and also XI. 1129 a^c. 



SACRED DOCUMENTS 373 

ties, and serving as oracular responses in the practice of divination. 
These were little tablets of wood or bronze, upon which some 
proverb or wish was written, regarded as an omen when the tablet 
was properly drawn. Seventeen of these lamellae, made of bronze, 
oblong in shape, provided with a handle for carrying, were discov- 
ered at Padua, not far from Fons Aponus, a seat of divination. 



i 



LAETVS ■ LVBENS • PETITO • QVOD 
DABITVR-GAVDEBIS- SEMPER 



a I. L. I. 1448. 

IV. Monumentum Ancyranum.* 

This famous inscription, engraved upon the walls of a temple, but 
not in a religious sense associated with the sacred building, is, with 
difficulty, classed with any other inscription. Some ^ regard it as 
an epitaph, but Mommsen ^ likens it to the inscription on the tomb 
of Antiochus of Commagene on the Nimrud Dagh, in Mesopotamia. 
The Monumentum Ancyranum, as termed by Suetonius, an index 
rerum a se gestarum, is most valuable in giving information as to the 
history of the early Empire. It was originally cut on bronze tab- 
lets, so as to be placed in front of the mausoleum of Augustus in 
Rome, quem inddi vellet (Augustus) in aeneis tabulis quae ailte 
Mausoleum statuerentur,* and was reproduced in Latin on the inner 
wall of the vestibule, and in Greek on the outer wall of the temple 
of Augustus and Eoma at Ancyra in Gfalatia, Asia Minor. This 
copy is still in great part in existence, so that the substance of the 
whole may be, with few exceptions, fully determined. Selections 
from the praescripf 10 and capita I and XIX are given below. 

1 C. /. L. III., p. 769 ff. ; Mommsen, Bes Gestae Dim Augxtsti, 1883. 

2 Bormann, Bemerkungen zum Schriftliehen Naehlasse de.s Kaisers Augustus, 
p. 15 fi. Philologus, 1885, p. 157 ff. ; p. 170 fC. Bullettino Comunale, 1889, 
p. 1 ff. ; p. 57 ff. 

s Historisdie Zeitschrift, 1887, p. 385. 
' Suet. Aug. 101 ; Dio Cass. LVI. 33. 



374 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 




ANNOi-\nJDF^CINn-MaVi!DCERCITVMmivXlO^CONJlllO-tTfRJVATMMI«ffiC' 



Cs/RtAM!ffCOOTININMCHA.lCtDlCVMTEMriVMQVEATOlUNlJIN ' 

From the Monumentnm Ancyranum. 
Hubner's Exemplar No. 1090. 

Praescriptio : Serum gestarum dim Augusti, quibus orbem terralrum] imperio 
popnli Bom(ani) \ suMecit et inpensarum, quas in rem puhlicam populum- 
que Mo\ma'\num fecit, incisarum | in duabus aheneis pilis, quae su[n']t 
Momae positae, exemplar subiectum. 

Caput I: Annas undeviginti natus exercitum private consilio et privata im- 
peusa I comparavi, per quern . . . 

Caput XIX : Curiam et continens ei Chalcidicum, templumque ApoUinis in \ 
Palatio cum porticibus .... feci. 

V. Documents of the Collegia of Priests. 

The documents belonging to the various sacerdotal colleges are 
represented in the inscriptions by fragments which, with one excep- 
tion, namely, the acta of the Arval brotherhood, are of comparatively 
small account.^ 

Acta Collegii Fratrum ArvaKum. 

The corporation or brotherhood of the fratres arvales is believed 
to have been an ancient institution dating from the time of the 
kings, which, becoming obsolete, was revived by Augustus. It was 
a company of priests, twelve in number, whose' original purpose 
appears to have been to offer sacrifices and prayers for the fertility 
of the fields. They presided at the festival of Dea Dia in. May, for 
which function alone they were regarded as priests. 

1 See Fasti, Acta, Tituli Sacerdotum Publieorum Populi Bomani, C. I. L. VL, 
p. 439. 



MILITARY DOCUMENTS Sl6 

The members of the brotherhood were chosen by cooptation and 
held position for life. Their place of worship was in luco Deae Diae 
ora Campana apud lapidem V. (C. I. L. VI. p. 675.) 

The acta of this priestly college have been preserved for us in a 
large number of inscriptions which have been discovered in the 
Vigna Ceccarelli, near the fifth milestone from Eome, on the Via 
Portuensis. 

There are in existence to-day acta dating from the time of 
Augustus to the reign of Gordian, 241 a.d. These contain various 
details, e.g. the names of those attending, the date, place, method 
of procedure, etc., of various ceremonies associated with events in 
the lives of the reigning emperor and members of his family. They 
are of great value in the determination of dates. 

A number of these inscriptions were published at Eome in 1795 
by Gaetano Marini in Atti e Monumenti de' FratelU Arvcdi. The 
modern work' on this subject is Acta Fratrum Arvalium Quae 
Supersunt, W. Henzen, Berlin, 1874. 

In the account of the ceremonies as found in the acta of the year 
218 A.D. of the reign of Elagabalus, there occurs the famous chant,^ 
which has tested the ingenuity of many scholars. 

VI. Commentarium of the Secular Games. 

Among these instrumenta sacra there should also be mentioned 
the recently discovered acta, of the Secular Games (commentarium 
licdorum saecularium), dating 737/17, and containing the famous 
reference to the poem of Horace, the Carmen 8aeculare? 

Documents relating to the Armt* 
The most important documents associated in their origin with 
the Roman army are the lists of soldiers Qatercula militum) which 

1 See also C. I. L. VI. 2023-2119 ; Bullet. Comunale, 1889, p. 116 ff.; Ephem. 
Ep. II., p. 211 ff. ; Vin., p. 316. 

2 C. I. L. VI. 2104, 1. 32. G. I. L. I. 28. 

' Monumenti Antichi of the Acoad. Lincei, I., 1891, p. 618 ff. E. Lanciam, 
Pagan and Christian Borne, p. 73. 

* Latercula of soldiers stationed at Rome are given in G. I. L. VI. See also 
Ephem. Ep. IV., p. 305 fi. Kellerman, Vigilum Bomanorum Latercula Duo 



376 



LATIN IXSCRIPTIONS 



appear often as additions to other inscriptions either dedicatory 
or honorary in their character. The names of the soldiers, accom- 
panied by the name of the tribus and native town, and in some 
cases by indications of rank, are arranged in sections according to 
centuries, with the name of the centurion in the genitive case, head- 
ing each section. Probably with the intention of making a docu- 
ment regular and orderly in appearance, the final letters of the 
nomen and cognomen, as well as of the indications of origin, are 
separated from these words.- 

V MAXIMINI 



TORQVATO ET 
SEX BAEBIV S 

®®C VASENV S 
T ENNIV S 

""sex PATVLCIVS 
T CALINIV S 
'C ARMINIV S 
C VALERIV S 



TVB, 



ATTICO 
SECVNDV S 
PROCVLV S 
SEDATV S 
IVLIANV S 
MARCELLV S 
PROBV S 
SECVNDV S 



COS 

TICIN 

VRVIN O 

lADE R 

PVTEO L 
FANO FOR T 
VOLATE R 
VERO N 



C(^enturia) Maximini 
Torquato et Attico co{n)s(ulibiis) (143 a.d.) 
Sex. Baebius Secundjts Tieiho 
Tess(erarius), C. Vasenus Proculus Uroino 
T. Ennius Sedatus lader 
M(edieus) 0(rdinarius) Sex. Patulcins luUanus Puteol(is) 

T. Calinius Marcellus Fano Fort(una) 
Tuhiiceri) C. Arminius Prohus Volater(ris) 
C. Valerius Secundus Veron^a) 

The above is a portion of a register of praetorian soldiers. It was inscribed 
on a large marble tablet found at Kome, now in the Vatican. C I. L. VI. 
2379 6. 



Coelimontana, Rome, 1835. Lists of legionary soldiers have been found else- 
where, notably at Lambaesis, in Africa (C. /. L. VIII., pp. 296-301) ; in Pan- 
nonia, Noricum, and Dacia, C. I. L. III. 



DOCUMENTS OF THE MUNICIPALITIES 377 

At the camp discovered at Lambaesis, in Africa, there have been 
found a number of interesting inscriptions connected with the 
army : ' 

1. Register of centurions of the legion III Augusta, dating 162 a.d. Ephem. 
Ep. V. 1276. 

2. Address of Hadrian at the time of his visit in June or July, 128 a.d. 
This is extant in a fragmentary state. C. I. L. VIII. 2532. 

3. Regulations of the collegia of under officers established in the camp of 
the legion III Augusta, dating in the time of Septimius Severus. O. I. L. 
Vni. 2552-2557. 

Documents of the Municipalities 

I. Decrees of the Decuriones. 

The decrees of the municipal senate are closely related in their 
character to the senatus considta of the general government at Rome, 
and hence are similar in form, giving the date, place of assembly, 
and the usual formulae, scribundo adfuere with names of wit- 
nesses, and q(uid) d(e) e{a) r(e)f(ieri) pQaceret}, d(e) e{a) r(e) i(ta) 
c(ensuere). 

A number of these documents have been preserved in the inscrip- 
tions, of which the following are examples : 

1. The most ancient is the Lex Parieti Faeiendo of Puteoli, dating 649/105, 
which, however, in its present form, is a restoration of the second century a.d. 
C /. i. X. 1781. See page 378. 

2. Cenotaphia Pisana of 3 a.d. inscribed on a marble tablet. These are 
decrees of the Senate of Pisa relating to the honores given to Lucius and Gains 
Caesar, the grandsons of Augustus. 0. /. L. XI. 1420. 

3. The decree of the Senate of Gabii on a marble tablet dating 140 a.d. 
This refers to memorial honores given to Domitia, wife of Domitian. C. /. i. 
XIV. 2795. 

4. The Decretum Terpestinum. This decree refers to L. Fabius Severus, 
quaestor urbanus, who has rendered service to the decuriones and people of 
Tergeste. The date is 138-161. C. I. L. V. 532. 

1 Cagnat, VArmee Bomaine d'Afrique. Mommsen, Bulletin des Antiquites 
Africaines, 1884, p. 282. 



tn 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 












I5§|sii||^ 



mmmMMmmE 



■ a 



5i^^^ 



M tw S rJ' ^ els' "-"taujbi^.S, t. *- 



5 2 < < i^ ^ ? 2^< » £; KtS ^ R S riS y 5 a S' 









iiliiiilii&iis 






h--^ tj '-' "-^ :$$•-- 



Willis 



■ ^ — - u: (z»i 



<t^tc '—'<' t—, '-> ^ ~r i-' <~i ^.'' 






■7 S 2 S=- o p-y !*>; ?:-<S=^ o '^ ^ 













"; 5 < tf^l 



n;?mt 



'6 > 



^-^ 



^ CJ C o ^ 

I y -^ S. ^J ■ 






cz u ^ ^ -^ '-^ -< * 












Q&^y^§§2^§gg? 



Is-'':? =r* ts 5 ><}• 2= i^ $ ■& H % v i 



0^ I 



8 



DOCUMENTS OF THE MUNICIPALITIES 879 

II. Registers of Decuriones. 

There are also in existence two examples of the lists of municipal 
senators. 

, 1. A bronze tablet from Canusium (Canosa), dating 223 a.d. C. I. L. IX. 

338. L. Mario Maximo II, L. Boscio Aeliano cos // viri 

quinqueiin(ales) nomina deeurionum in aere incidenda curaverunt. 

The names are classified as olpatroni c. c. v. v., patroni e. e. q. q. It.ll., quin- 
quennalicii, allecti inter quinq., II viralicii, aedilicii, quaestoricii, pedani, prae- 
tPxtati. 

2. The album ordiais Thamugadensis, dating in the last years of Constantine 
or iu the time of Julian. C- I L. VIII. 2403. 

The names are classified as of v. v. c. c, sacerdotales, curator, duo viri, ponti- 
fices, augures, ediles, quaestores, duoviralicii. 

III. Tabulae Patronatus. 

Mention has already been made of the customs associated with 
hospitium and the gift of tokens in portable form, tesserae hospitales, 
denoting such relation. 

Similar to this custom was that which led communities to present 
to distinguished persons whom they made their patroni, bronze 
tabulae patronatus et hospitii, which could be placed in the atrium of 
the house or in some public position. 

These inscriptions assume either the character of decrees or have 
a form peculiar to themselves. 

One class of the less formal of these documents,! in which senattcs populusque 
or a similar phrase forms the subject of the verb, may be illustrated by the decree 
of the Fagus Gurzensium in Africa, by which L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, grand- 
father of Nero, is made patron. " 

P. Sulpicio Quirinio C. Valgio co(n)s(ulibus). Senatus populusque civita- 
tium stipendiarioritm pago Cftirzenses hospitium fecerunt quom L. Domitio 
On. f. L. n. Ahenobarbo proco(ji)s{ule) eumque . . . patronum co(o)ptaverunt, 
isque eos . . in fldem elientelam suam reeepit. Fadundum coeraverunt ille, 
ille, ille. C. 7. L. VIII. 68-69. 

In another class ^ -the name of the person honored is the subject of the phrase 
hospitium fecit. 

iQf this character are the tabulae patronatus found at Rome, C. I. L. -VI. 
1685-1G87 ; at Brixia, V. 4919, 4922 ; in Sardinia, X. 7845. 
2 C. I. L. VIII. 8837 i II. 1343. 



380 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



croMPoNiN 




C Pomponiuls . . . .] | hospitium tesseramlque hospitalem quom] | 

senatu populoque Cur[uhitano .... fecit eidemque] | eius studio benir 
flcieis,[. . . . devincti publice} preivatimque O. Pom,pon[ium . . . posteros- 
que] eius patronum sibei po\_sterisq(ue) sueis cooptaverumt decretumque 9] | 
quom hospitale tessera [■ ■ • attulerunt legati . . . ?] | Himilconis /(ilius) 

Z'eniuc{. .. .) [. . . . ■] | suffetes Muihunilim Hi\_ ] | Milcatonis 

f{ilius) Bario{. . . .) H[ ] | Ammicaris f {ilius) Zecenor. Ammi'- 

earis /(ilius) Lilva(. . . .), Mil ] I aet(a) d(ie) K(alendas) 

Mai{as) O. Caesar[e ] co(n)s{ulibus). 

Inscribed, on a bronze tablet, dating 695/59 or 706/48 or. 708/46. O. I. L. 

VIII. 10525. 

DoCtTMENTS OF THE COLLEGIA > 

The instrumenta of the collegia recall the documents of the nmnici- 
palities which they resemble in character and form. The most im- 
portant of these acta are the following : 

I. Registers of Members. 

1. A register (album) of the ordo corporatorum lenunculanor(um) 

tabulariorum auxiliariorum Ostiensium is inscribed on marble 
tablets which date 152-192 a.d. 0. I. L. XIV. 250, 251. The 
names are arranged in classes as in the album of the decuriones, 
e.g. patroni, quinqueimales, plebs. 

2. A register of a collegium of Hereulaneum. O. I. L. X. 1403. 

3. A register of the dendrophori dating 251 a.d. C. I. L. X. 3699. 

4. A roll of afamilia of gladiators of C. Salvias Capito lanista, arranged 

in categories according to the classes of gladiators, e.g. equites, 
Thraeces, murmillones, retiarii, sagittarii. C. I. L. IX. 465-466. 

II. Decrees. 

1. Lex CoUegii Aesculapi et Hygiae, of the year 153. C /. L. VI. 10234. 

2. Decretum of the dendrophori of Puteoli, of 196 a.d. O. I. L. X. 1786. 

1 W. Liebenam, Decrete der Collegien, Leipzig, 1890. 



bOCtJMENfS OF THE COLLEGIA 38l 



VT£^j^JfORt/CV/^APAGAN^ 
^^ tovNlAM-CoMSyMERENTEX LKtrAGAN/ 
KRBiT RATV-CN-LAETO R I GNF-MACISTRBI" 
tPACeiEl > VTEJ aVPElCOMLEGJOSEiVFMAGSTF 
'^/VMOVElCO/ArAGElLOCVSl/N/TE^RG 
^BSET-TA^oyA^El-SElTiVOOS FECIS5 e NT 

I b AVEVSTIY5 Ut-STB. ATO-GANTO Nl VS N\ L 
.Nie©CNAVlV<rCN-U.^GAtHOCU£S(iBLOS5! 

A^•L•^ROTE^^vs•AA•RA/sA^/'vs^■u piorANr 

T-SVL riaV5r.arV-L Q;N0V{ V^-O^L-rROTEA/v 
M-rACClV5-iVv-X PHiLE/AM-LlCCVLElvSAA L 
H(L!M CA/ HoRDEONIV^fCN-L'EVnHHA/JO 

roLLiv^r L aIexamd^/vaavnm fVS-NL 

NTIOCVS GGGEUO-eF CA LDO 

Zeas Pagcma of Herculaneum. 660/94. 
Eitschl's P. X. Jf. E. Tab. LXV. 

Pagus H^rculaneus scivit a. [(?]. X Termina\lia\, \ conlegium, seive magistrei 
lovei Compagei [sunt], utei in porticum paganam refidendam \ pequniam 
consumerent ex lege pagana, | arbitratu On. Laefori On. f. magistrei | 
pagleil, uteiqne ei eonlegio, seive magistri \ sunt lovei Compagei, locus in 
teatro \ esset tarn quasei sei lu[d}os fecissent. — 0. 1. L. I. 571 = X. 3772. 

This is a decree of the magisti-i pagi directing tlie of&cers of the 
collegium of libertini, named from Jiippiter Compagus, the god of 
brotherhood, to spend money in public improvements rather than 
on games. 



382 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

PiiiTATE Documents 

Epigraphic remains of this character are" comparativ«ly rare be- 
cause of the absence of the necessity of preservation and publication 
which naturally belonged to documents of a public character. Hence 
whatever has been preserved to us of any importance has been asso- 
ciated with other inscriptioiis such as tituli honorarii or tituli sepul- 
crales. The acta adsepulcrdles spectantia mentioned above and given 
in 0. I. L. vol. VI. are examples of such inscriptions. 

Wax Tablets. 

" There still remain to us, however, very interesting inscriptions of 
a prixate.iiature on the wax tablets of Dacia and Pompeii. 

As early as 1786 and also in more recent years there have been dis- 
covered in the mining regions of Dacia, at modern Verespatak, wax 
tablets which extend in date over a period of forty years, 131-167 
A.D. These are preserved to-day in the Museum of Pesth.'' 

Other wax tablets have also been found at Pompeii in the house 
of L. Gaecilius lucandus, the banker.^ 

These wax tablets, similar in form to the bronze tablets mentioned 
above, with the exception that most of the former are triptychs, i.e. 
of three tablets, while the latter are diptychs, are made of wood 
with inner sides covered with black wax and sunk below the surface. 
The rim or border of each tablet is pierced with holes for binding 
purposes. Across the middle of the second page of the second 
tablet, i.e. the fourth of the triptych, a groove is cut parallel to the 
shorter edge. At the ends of the groove holes are pierced, through 
which triple strings were drawn which were fastened in the groove. 
The third tablet was not fastened, in order that an abstract of the 
deed, which in Dacian tablets appeared on the fifth and a part of 
the fourth page, but in the Pompeian triptychs only on the fifth, 

1 C. I. L. III., p. 921, Tnstrumenta Dacica in Tabulis Geratls Conscripta. 

2 G. de fetra, Le Tavole Cerate Pompei in Atti dell' Academia dei Lincei, 
vol. III. 1876. Mommsen, Hermes, XII. 1877, p. 88. Overbeck, Pompeii, 4th 
ed. by Mau, 1884, pp. 489 ff. Mtizie degli Scavi, 1887, pp. 415-420. 



PRIVATE DOCUMENTS 



383 




Inner fiuje of the first taJmla of a Dacian triptych. The second tabula is shown on pages 
^ 384, 385 ; the third has disappeared. 
i 
Maximus Batonis puellam nomine \ Passiam, sive ea quo alio nomine est, 
an\norum, circiter p(lus) m{inus) sex, empta sportellaria,^ \ emit manci- 
pioque accepit | de Dasio Verzonis Pirusta ex Kavieretilol \ X ducentis 
quinque \ lam puellam sanam esse a furtis noxisque \ sohitam,, fxigitiiim 
erronem non esse, \ praestari. Quot si quis e\^a']m puellam \ partemve quam 
ex eo ' quis evicerit, | quominus Maximum Batonis quo \ ve ea res pertinebit, 
habere possi\dereque recte liceat, turn quanti \ eapuella empta est, {tan^tam 
pecunila^m. C. I. L. III. p. 937. - ■\ Wv • £t 

This is a eautio de puella empta, dating March 17, 139 a.d., now in the 
museum at Pesth. 



^ Mommsen believes that the words empta sportellaria impiy that the girl was, 
sportulae causa, given with her mother without additional charge, sportula 
having the meaning of gratuity. 



384 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

might be seen without disturbing the seals. The Dacian tablets 
have wax surfaces on all but the first and sixth pages, which were 
not used. In the Pompeian tablets the fi^st, fourth, and sixth pages 




Inner face of second ttibvla of the Dacian triptych shown on p. SS3. 

Et alterum tantum dari, fide rogavit | Maximus Batonis, fide promisit Dasius \ 
Verzonis, Pirusta ex KaviereH[o']. | JProque eapuella, quae s(upra) s^cripta) 
est, 5£ duceiiltns quinque accepisse et habere | se dixit Dasius Verzonis a 
Maximo Batonis. \ Actum Karto XVI k. Apriles, \ Tito Aelio Caesare 
Antonino Pio II et Bruttio \ Praesente II cos. 

are plain wooden surfaces, so that the nanles of the witnesses which 
are written in both eases on the fourth page appear on the wooden 
surface of the Pompeian triptychs. 

These tablets are inscribed in cursive letters and contain business 
docuijieiits of yarious kuld§- 



PRIVATE DOCUMENTS 38fi 



Devotiones. 



We may also class witL. these private docmnents the devotiones 
OT'defixiones which contain phrases of ill wishing directed against 




Outer face of the second tabula of the Dacian triptych shown on pp. 388, 384. 

Maximi Ve\neti princi\pis \, Masuri Messi \ dec(urionis) | Anneses An\dunoc- 
netis, I Plani Verzo \ nis Sclaietis | , Liccai Epicadi | Marciniesi \ , Epicadi 
Plareii\tis qui et Mico, \ Dasi Verzonis \ ipsius vendiltoris. 

The abstract of the deed in the above is the same as the deed on the first 
tabula except that it is not completed, running only to ea res ; et is inserted in 
line 9, earn takes the place of torn, and a is omitted in line 10, noocaque appears 
for noxisque, fugitivam for fugitium, earn for em. 

personal enemies or those guilty of some offence. . They consist of 
formulaic expressions consigning the one disliked to some sinister 
deity to whom the dejixio is addressed. Most of these devotiones 

LAT. INSCKIP. 35 



386 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

are written in a rude cursive style on tablets of lead or bronze which 
were placed in sanctuaries or tombs. 

A few of them are in monumental form, as e.g. one^ found in Spain addressed 
to Dea Ataecina, Dea Ataecina Turibrig(ensis), Proserpina, per tuam maies- 
tatem te rogo oro obsecro, uti vindices quot mihi furti factum est. 



' "'M }%^-^ 'VkJAAAtqgVA 

BSsiLATCVc-ASVNjC^l-l^ 
MOpsVNAf^^i/ASVrAC 

V&fi/x^ inscribed on a lead tablet found at Bath, England, The words, with 

few exceptions, are in retrograde order. 

Hiibner's Msi&m'pla^ No. 947. 

^(ui) mihi ma(n)teliu(m) inlv^olavit, | 
sio liquat (c) com aqua | ella mlu^ta, ni q(jui) eam \sa']lv\avU 
Anniu(_s) vel exs\nper e(i)us [V^erianus, Se\verinus, A(u)grtstalts, 
Com\itianus, Catusminianus, \ Germanilla, lovina 

See also Zangemeister, Sermes, XV., p. 588. 

Wall Inscriptions 
Inscriptiones Parietariae 

It is diificult to classify either as tituli or instrumenta the inscrip- 
tions which appear -upon walls of buildings such as those of Pompeii 
and, in less number, those of Rome ; for in reality they partake of 
the nature of both, so diverse is their character and purpose. 

The inscriptions which are painted or scratched with a graphmm 
upon the clay walls of the houses of Pompeii are edited by C. 
Zangemeister in C. I. L. vol. IV. and Ephem. Ep. I. 49, 177 ff. 

1 C. I. L. II. 462. 



WALL INSCRIPTIONS 38'i 

The earliest of these Pompeian inscriptions belonging to the pre 
Augustan period are those painted in red on the tufa walls of th« 
houses, and consist mainly of recommendations for election oi 
candidates for municipal offices. 

N • BARCHA . II . V • V • BO . VFITA V BEIS • VENVS • POMP • SACRA. 

N{umerium) Barcha(m) irv{irum) v(irum) b(onurn) o^ro) v(_os) f(aciatis) 
ita vl_o']beis Venus Pomp{eiana) sacra [sancta propitia sW]. C. I. L. IV. 26. 

Some of these are advertisements of various kinds, e.g. for a vase that haf 
been stolen (No. 64), and again others give lists of officers, as the magistri vie 
et compiti (No. 60, 707/47). 

The painted inscriptions of a later date (Nos. 84-1176) contain informatior 
of a similar character to those just mentioned. 

A large number of these wall inscriptions are announcements of gladiatoria' 
games (Nos. 1176-1204). They are introduced at times by sovae formula as pre 
salute domus Augustae, giving the alleged caiise for the holding of the contests 
This statement is followed by the name of the man to whom thefamilia gladia- 
toria belongs, the number of pairs matched, the place, time, other events, aiic 
additional attractions, as sparsiones, vela, etc. 

Lu\creti]i Valentis ftaminis Neronis Aug(usti) f(ilii) perpetui, D. Luereti(i] 
Valentis flU(i), [fam{ilia) glad(iatoria) pugn{abit) Pompeis'^ V k{alendas] 
April{es) ; venatio et vela erunt, p. colonia ... C. I. L. IV. 1185. 

The inscriptions scratched with a graphium on the walls of the 
houses are mainly of a private character. 

Xinc{alendas) Maias tuniicarn) pal(lium), nonis Mais fas (darn), Vlllidui 
Ma(ia)s tunicas duas {lavandas dedi or accepi). C. I. L. IV. 1393. 

Others illustrated by the following contain verses from well-known poets. 










a I. L. IV. 1895-6. 



^- Ojt^^^y^i 'Ltt.itJ^ 4- & dO^oo vvo CU^^=-«^^ (£*vw_ , 1^ U t^ , 



388 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

1. Quid pote tan durum saxso aut quid mollius unda 

Dura tamen molli saxsa cavantur aqua. Ovid. A. A. I. 475. 
The Ms. reading is quid magis est saxo durum, quid mollius unda ? 

2. Ubiperna cocta est si convivae apponitur 

Non gustatpernam lingit ollam aut caccabum. Cf. Plautus, Persa I. 3, 25. 

Itr-rel'^ "^ « f ^1( MN-I rpA^ r EVb l <:tvj\x j f) Lvr ^^' 

C. 7. L. IV. 1891-98-94. 

Littera Theorianis semper dictura salutem 

Nomine nunc dextri tempus in omne manet 

Surda sit oranti tua ianun, laxa ferenti. 

Audiat exclusi verba receptus [am^a[ns']. Ovid. Am. I. 8, 77. 

lanitor ad dantis vigilet, si pulsat inanis 

Surdus in obductam somniet usqluel seram. Propert. IV. 5, 47. 

■ Consular Dipttchs* 

(Diptycha Consularia) 

In the later empire it became the custom for consuls when entering 
upon their official duties to present to senators and other prominent 
persons, carved ivory tablets. These contained representations of 
the spectacles which marked their entrance to office, together with 
ihe names and portraits of the consuls. They were in all probability 
a sort of invitation to the initiatory festivals. The oldest of these 
diptychs dates 406 a.d. and the latest 541. 

1 C. /. X. V. 6836, 8120 ; XII. 133. W. Meyer, Zvoei Antike Elfenbein- 
tafeln, Abhandlung der K. Bayer, Akad. I., cl., vol. XV., Munich, 1879. 
H^ron' de Villefosse, Feuille de Diptyque Consulaire Conservee an Louvre in 
Gazette Archeologique, 1884. 



DOCUMENTS 389 

DOCUMENTS 

Lex Antonia de Termessibus 

de Termesi(bus) Pisid(is) mai(oribus). 

C. Antonius M. f., Cn. Corne[Zms] j 

C. Fundanius C. f. tr(ibmiei) pl(ebei), de s(eiiatus) s(ententia) 
plebem | preimus scivit. | 

Qaei Thermeses maiores Peisidae fuerunt, queique | eorum legibus 
Tbermesium maiorum Pisidarum | ante k. April., quae fuerunt 
L. Gellio Cn. Lentulo cos.,'' | Thermeses maiores Pisidae factei 
sunt, queique | ab ie'is prognati sunt erunt, iei omnes | postereique 
eorum Thermeses maiores Peisidae | leiberei amicei socieique 
populi Komani sunto, | eique legibus sueis ita utunto, itaque 
ieis I omnibus sueis legibus Thermensis maioribus | Pisideis 
utei liceto, quod advorsus hanc legem | non fiat. | 

Quel agrei quae loca aedificia publica preivatave | Thermensiun 
maiorum Pisidarum intra fineis | eorum sunt fueruntve L. 
Marcio Sex. lulio cos.,^ | quaeque insulae eorum sunt fueruntve 
I ieis consolibus, quel supra scriptei sunt, quodque | earum 
rerum ieis consulibus iei habuerunt | possederunt us[et fruct- 
eique] sunt, quae de ieis rebus | locata non B\unt, utei antea 
Jwibeant possideant ; gjuaeque | de ieis rebu[s agreis loceis 
' aedificieis locata sujnt ac ne | locentur \_sancitum est sanctione, 
g]uae facta | est e[a;] l[eg'e rogata L. Qellio Cn. Lentulo cos., 
e]a omnia | Ther[meses maiores Pisidae habean'jt possideant ; | 
ieisque [rebus loceis agreis aedificieis utantur /r]uantur | ita, 
utei ant[e Mitridatis bellum, quod jsjreimum | fuit,^ habueru[m* 
possederunt Msei/rwci] eique sunt. | 

Quae Thermensorum m[aiorM]m Pisidarum publica | preivatave 
praeter [locata'] loca agros aedificia sunt | fueruntve ante bellum 
Mitridatis, quod preimum 1 factum est, quodque earum rerum 
iei antea | habuerunt possederunt usei fructeive sunt, | quod 
eius ipsei sua voluntate ab se non abalienarunt, | ea omnia 
Termensium maiorum Pisidarum, utei sunt | fuerunt, ita sunto, 
itemque ieis ea omnia | habere possidere uutei frueique liceto. | 



390 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



Quos Thermenses maiores Pisidae leiberos servosve | bello Mitri- 
datis ameiserunt, magistratus pr[c>'ye] | magistratu, quoia de ea 
re iuris dictio erit qu[ogMe] | de ea re in ious aditum errfc, ita de 

UUjafc</fv-» ea re ious deicunto indicia recuperationes danto, utei iei eos 
recuperare possint. | 
Nei quis magistratus prove magistratu legatus iie[i«e] | quis alius 
meilites in oppidum Thefmesum maiorum | Pisidarum agrumve 
Thermensium maiorum | Pisidarum hiemandi caussa introdu- 
cito, neive | facito, quo quis eo meilites introducat quove ibei. | 
meilites hiement, nisei senatus nominatim, utei Thermesum 
maiorum Pisidarum in Mbernacula meilites | deducantur, de- 
creverit: neive, quis magistratus | prove magistratu legatus 
neive quis alius facito | neive in^erato, quo quid magis iei 
dent praebeant | ab ieisve auferatur, nisei quod eos ex lege 
Porcia | dare praebere oportet oportebit. | 
Quae leges quodque ious quaeque consuetude L. Marcio | Sex. 
lulio cos. inter civeis Eomanos et Termenses | maiores Pisidas 
fuit, eaedem leges eidemque ious | eademque consuetudo inter 
ceives Eomanos et Termenses maiores Pisidas esto; quodque 
quibusque | in rebus loceis agreis aedifieieis oppideis iouris | 
Termensium maiorum Pisidarum ieis consulibus, | quel supra 
scriptei sunt, fuit, quod eius praeter | [locata] loca agros aedi- 
ficia ipsei sua voluntate ab se non | abalienarunt, idem in eisdem 
rebus loceis agreis | aedifieieis oppideis Termensium maibrum 
Pisidarum | ious esto; et quo minus ea quae in hoc capite 
1 1 scripta | sunt ita sint fiant, eius hac lege nihilum rogatur. | 
Quam legem portorieis terrestribus maritumeisque Termenses 
maiores Phisidae capiundeis intra suos | fineis deixserint, ea 
lex ieis portorieis capiundeis | esto, dum nei quid portori ab 
, ieis capiatur, quel publica | populi Eomani vectigalia redempta 

Iwwv {)*•'»• habebunt. Quos | per eorum fineis publicanei ex eo vectigali 

transportabunt [eorum fructuum portorium T.ermenses ne 
capiunioj- 

C. I. L. I. 204, P. L. M. E. tab. XXXI. Inscribed on a bronze tablet found 
at Eome in the sixteenth century, now at Naples. This is a part of the 
law of C. Antonius (cos. 691/63), tribune of the plebs, and his colleagues. 



DOCUMENTS 391 

establishing the autonomy of Termessus Maior, a town of Pisidia. It 
dates in 683/71, at least not long after 682/72. i 682/72. 2 603/91. 
3 It began in 666/88. The portion printed in Italics is known from a 
copy of the sixteenth century, as it has disappeared from the plate.' 

Senatus Consultum de Nundinis Saltus Beguensis 

SO. de nundinis ^altiis ^ Beguensis in t(erritorio) Casensi, descrip- 
tum et recognitum ex libro sententiarum in senatu die [to] rum 
k(apite) VI T. luni Nigri, C. Pomponi Camerini co(Ti)s(uhim), 
in quo scripta erant A[/rica]ni^ iura" et id quod i(nfra) 
s(criptum) est. 

In comitio in curia.'* . . . 

[/Scrjibundo adfuerunt Q. Sa[Z]onius Q. f. Ouf. [iojngus, . . . 
[^]ni Quar[<]inus, C. Oppius C. f. Vel. Severus, C. For (?) . . 
C. f . . . . [_Sex. ^rM]ciu[s]^, M. f . Quir. Claras, P. Cassius L. f, 
Aem. Dexter q(uaestor), P. Nonius M. f. Ou[/]. Macrinus 
q(uaestor).* In senatu fuerunt C. 

SC. per discessionem factum. 

Quod P. Cassius Secundus, P. Delphius Peregrinus Aleius 
Alennius Maximus Curtius Valerianus Proculus M. Nonius 
Mucianus coss. verba fecerunt de desiderio amicorum Lucili 
Africani c(larissimi) v(iri), qui petunt: ut ei permittatur in 
■ provincia Afrie(a), regione Beguensi, territorio Musulamiorum/ 
ad Casas, nundinas IIII nonas Novemb. et XII k. Dec, ex eo 
omnibus mensibus IIII non. et XII k. sui cuiusq(ue) mensis 
instituere habere, quid fieri placeret, 

de ea re ita censuerunt : permittendum Lucilio Afrieano, e. v., in 
provincia Afric(a), regione Beguensi, territorio Musulamiorum, 
ad Casas, nundinas IIII non. Novemb. et XII k. Decembr. et 
ex eo omnibus mensibus IIII non. et XII k. sui cuiusq(ue) 
mensis instituere et habere, eoque vicinis advenisq(ue) nun- 
dinandi dumtaxat causa coire eonvenije sine iniuria et incom- 
mode cuiusquam liceat. 

Actum idibus Octobr. P. Cassio Secundo, M. Nonio Muciano. 
Eodem exemplo de eadem re duae tabellae signatae sunt. 
Signatores; T. Fl(avi) Comini scrib(ae), C. Iul(i) Fortunati 



392 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

scrib(ae), M. Caesi Helvi Euhelpisti, Q. Metili Onesimi, C. Iul(i] 
Periblepti, L. Verati Philerotis, T. Fla(vi) Crescentis. 

O. I. L. VIII. 11451. Inscribed on two tablets of stone found at Hr. el 
Begar, Africa, dating 138 a.d. On nundinae, see Pliny Ep. "V. 4. Suet 
Claud. 12. O. I. L. III. 4121. Imp. — Gonstantinus — nundinas die soli 
perpeti .anno eonstituit. i Frontinus, Qromi 53. In Africa saltus not 
minores habent privati, quam res publica terriioria, immo — longe maiores 
2 i.e. of Lucilius Africanus mentioned below. ^ i.e. possessiones et lati 
fundia, in which he had asked that it might be granted him to hold nun 
dinae. " In the curia lulia built where the curia Hostilia had been 
i.e. in the comilium. ^ See Ephem. Ep. II. p. 283. ^ Xao. Ann. II. 52. 

Epistula op Vespasian to the Saeokenses 

Imp. Cae. Vespasianus Aug. pontifex maximus tribuniciae potes 
tatis Vim, imp. XIIX, consul VIII, p(ater) p(atriae), saluten 
dicit IIII viris et deeurionibus Saborensium. 
^ Cum multis diffioultatibus infirmitatem vestram premi indicetis 
peimitto Yobis oppidum sub nomine meo, ut Toltis, in planun 
extruere. Vectigalia, quae ab dive Aug. accepisse dicitis 
custodio ;- si qua nova adicere voltis de his prooo(n)s(ulem' 
adire debebitis; ego enim nullo respondente constituere ni 
possum. Decretum vestrum acoepi VIII. ka. August. ; legatoi 
dimisi IIII. ka. easdem. Valete. 
IlYiii C. Cornelius Severus et M. Septimius Severus publici 
pecunia in aere inciderunt. 

C. I. L. II. 1423. Inscribed on a bronze plate found in the town of Caneti 
between Malaga and Sevilla, existing in copy. The date is 78 a.d. 

MiLiTART Diplomas 

1. Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Aug. pent, max., tr. pot. II, imperatc 
VI, p. p., cos. III,^ desig. IIII, veteranis, qui militaverunt i 
classe Eavennate sub Sex. Lucilio Basso,^ qui sena et vicen 
stipendia aut plura meruerunt et sunt dedueti in Pannonian 
quorum nomina subscripta sunt, ipsis Uberis posterisque eorui 
civitatem dedit et conubium cum uxoribus, quas tunc liabi 
issent, cum est civitas is data, aut si qui caelibes essent cue 



DOCUMENTS 393 

lis, quas postea duxissent dumtaxat sing^li singulas. Non. 
April., Caesare Aug. f. Domitiano, On. Pedio Casco cos.' Platori 
Veneti f., centurioni, Maezeio. 
Descriptum et recognitum ex tabula aenea, quae est fixa Eomae 
in Capitolio ad aram gentis luliae, de foras podio sinisteriore, 
tab. I pag. II, loc XXXXIIII. T. luli Eufi Salonit. eq. E. 
P. Vibi Maximi Epitaur. eq. E. T. Faui Celeris ladestin. dec. 
C. Marci Proculi ladestin. dec. P. Caetenni Clementis Salon. 
P. Luri Moderati Risinitan. Q. Poblici Crescentis ladestin. 

C. I. L. III. , p. 850. Inscribed on a bronze diptych found at Salona, in 
Dalmatia, now in Berlin. ^ See page 129. ^ Tacitus, Hist. II. 100. 
3 April 5, 71. 

2. Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus, pontifex maximus, tribu- 
nicia potestat. VIII, imp. XVIII, p. p., censor, cos. VII, 
design. NTH} 

Nomina speculatorum qui in praetorio meo militaverunt, item 
militum qui in cohortibus novem praetoriis et quattuor urbanis 
subieci, quibus fortiter et pie militia functis ius tribuo conubi 
dumtaxat cum singulis et primis uxoribus, ut .etiamsi pere- 
grini iuris feminas matrimonio suo iunxerint, proinde liberos 
tollant, ac si ex duobus ciyibus Eomanis natos. A. d. IIII. 
non. Decembr., Galeone Tettieno Petroniano, M. Fulvio Gillone 
cos. 

Cob. VI pr., L. Ennio L. f. Tro. Peroci, Aquis Statellis. 

Descriptum et recognitum ex tabula aenea, quae fixa est Eomae 
in Capitolio in basi lovis Africi. 

C. I. L. III., p. 853. Inscribed on a bronze tablet once forming part of a 
diptych, found near Kustendje (Tomos) , now at Vienna, i See page 129. 

Lots 
(Sortes) 

1. Conrigi vix tandem quod | curTom * est factum [c]rede.^ 

2. Credis quod deicunt : non | sunt ita ; credere stultu.^ 

3. De incerto certa ne fiant,'' | si sapis caveas. 



394 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

4. Est equos perpulcer, sed tu | vehi non potes istoc. 

5. Formidat omnes, quod | metuit, id sequi satiust. 

6. Qur petis pos tempus consilium ? quod rogas* non est. 

C. I. L. I. 1438, 1439, 1440, 1442, 1444, 1454. Maxims or proverbial expres- 
sions inscribed on bronze lamellae found at Barbarano, between Vicetia 
and Padua (Patavium), but afterwards lost. They were probably used 
at Fons Aponus, a seat of divination near Patavium. They date in the 
seventh century of the city. The inscriptions of seventeen of these sortei 
have come down to us. See Suetonius, Tiberius, 14. See also Stoll, 
De Sortibus JPraenestinis, Philologus, XI. 1856, p. 304. Ritschl, Die 
Lateinischen Sortes, Op. IV., p. 395. i Another reading is c^irum. 
2 Inscription has rede. ^ Inscription has ne fore stultu. llitsch), 7ion 
scin te ita re fore atultu(m). Mommsen, non sunt ita, credere stultu(m'). 

* Mommsen, certum — fiat. ^ Mommsen prefers rages. 

From the Acta of the Fratees Abvales 

1. Isdem cos.' Ill idus Octobr.^ L. Salvius Otho Titianus' mag. 

collegi fratrum Arvaliiim nomine | immolavit in Capitolio ob 
t^ fjn/u^hi I imperium Neronis Claudi Caesaris Aug. 'Germanici lovi 
^C^^t^fy-^^-"'^^. b(ovem) | marem, lunoni vaccam, Minervae vacc(am), Felicitati 
'*>^'^> -J. publieae vacc(am), Genio ipsius taurum, ] divo Aug(usto) 
w**^**^ b(oTem) marem, divae Aug(ustae) vaccam, divo Claudio 

i * b(ovem) marem. In collegio adfuerunt : | L. Salvius Otho 

Titianus mag., C. Piso, C. Vipstanus Apronianus, M. Valerius 

Messalla Corvinus, | A. Vitellius,* Sulpieius Camerinus, P, 

Memmius Eegulus, T. Sextius Africanus. | 

C. I. L. VI. 2041. Inscribed on a marble tablet found in the Vigna 
Ceccarelli, where was located the grove of the Fratres Arvales. lA, 
Paconius Sabinus, A. Petronius Lurco consules svffecti in 58 a.d. 2 Tli< 
day Nero received the imperium. * The brother of the Empefor Otho, 

* The emperor of 69 a.d. 

2. Isdem co(n)sulibus * pr(idie) idus Mart(ias) | vota numcupata pre 

s[ar|ute et reditu [Fi'teWi] Germanici imp(eratoris),^ praeeunte 

L. Maecio | Postumo,' mag(isterio) [ ViteUi'\ Germanici imp(era' 
toris), promag(istro) Maecio Postumo, coll(egi) fra(trum) 



DOCUMENTS 395 

Arval(ivmi) nomine: lov(i) b(ovem) m(arem), Iun(oni) vac- 
c(am), Min(ervae.) vaco(am), divo Aug(usto) [b(ovem) m(arem)^, 
I divae Aug(ustae) vacc(am), divo Claudi(j b(ovem) in(areni). 
In colleg(io) adf(uerunt) L. Maecius Postumus. | 

C. I- L. VI. 2051. Inscribed on a marble tablet found In the Vigna Cecca- 
relli. 1 Galba and Vinius, the consuls, were slain Jan. 15, 69. Otho and 
his brother Titianus succeeded them. ^ On the 14th of March, on which 
day Tacitus {Hist. I. 90) declares that Otho departed from the city. 
These iiota were made for the safe return of Otho and not Vitellius, but 
when Otho was defeated, since the acta of this day had not yet been 
written down, the name of Vitellius was substituted for that of Otho, and 
was afterwards erased. For the name Germanicus given to Vitellius, see 
Tac. Hist. I. 62 ; II. 64. " He seems to have been put in the place of 
Otho Titianus, who accompanied his brother to the war, cf. Tacitus, 

Tabulae PATRONATns 

1. M. Crasso Frugi L. Calpurnio Pisone | cos.' | III non. Febr., | 

civitas Themetra ex Africa hospitium | fecit cum G. Silio C. f. 
Pab. Aviola [eitjm | liberos posterosque eiiis sibi liberis | 
posterisque suis patronum cooptave|runt. | C. Silius C. f. Fab. 
Aviola civitatem Tlieme|trensem liberos posterosque eorum | 
sibi liberis posterisque suis in fidem | clientelamque suam 
recepit ; | egerunt | Banno Himilis f . suf es, | Azdrubal Baisillecis 
f. I Iddibal Bosibaris f. | leg. 

C. I. L. V. 4919. Inscribed on a bronze tablet found at Brescia, now lost. 
Ia.d.27. 

2. Nerone Claudio Caesare | Aug. Germanico L. Antistio Vetere | 

COS.' I k. Augustis | Q. lulius Q. f. Qui. Secundus,^ legatus pro | 
praetore hospitium fecit cum | deeurionibus et colonis colonia | 
lulia Aug. legionis VII Tupusuctu sibi-j liberis posterisque suis 
eosque pa|trocinio suo tuendos recepit, | agentibus legatis | Q. 
Caecilio Q. f. Palatina Firmano | M. Pomponio M. f. Quir. 
Vindice. 

C. I. L. VIII. 8837. Inscribed on a bronze tablet found near Constantine 
(Cirta), Africa, now in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, ^a.d. 55. 
^ Secundus was perhaps the legatus of the Province of Baetica. 



396 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

PRIVATE DOCUMENTS 

PUHCHASE OF A HOUSE 

Andueia Batonis emit manci[jpiogMe] accepit domus partem 
dimidiam, interantibus partem [dea;]tram, que est Alb(uriio) 
maiori vico Pirustar [itm m] t[er] aA[Jines Platorem AccepJ- 
tianum et Ingenum Callisti 5£ trecentis de Veturi[o Valente]. 
Earn domus partem dimidiam, q(ua) d(e) a(gitur), cum su[is 
s]aepibus saepimentis, finibus, aditibus, claustris, fienestris, 
ita uti clao fixsa et optima maximaque est, h.(abere) r(ecte) 
l(iceat) ; [e]t si quis earn domum partemve quam quis [e]x 
[ea] evicerit q(uo) m(inus) Andueia Batonis e(ive), a(d) 
q(uem) e(a) r(es) p(ertinebit), h(abere) p(ossidere) u(suque) 
c(apere) r(ecte) l(iceat) ; qu[o]d ita licitum n[o]n erit, t(aiitam) 
p(ecuniam) r(ecte) d(ari), fide r(ogavit) Andueia Batonis, fide 
promisit, Veturius Valens. Proque ea do[mM partem dm]idiam 
pretium 3C GCC Vetur [ms F]ales a[6 ^]n[dM3ei[a Bajtonis 
accepiss[e ef] ab[ere se dixit]. Convenitq(ue) int[e]r eos, [uti'] 
Veturius Va[fe»s pro ea] domo tributa usque ad recensum 
dep[e]n[daf]. 

Act(um) Alb(urno) maiori prid. nonas Maias Qui[n]tillo et 
Prisco COS. 

L. Vasidius V[i]ctor sig(naYit). T. Fl. Felicis. M. Lueani 
Melioris. Platoris Carpi. T. Aureli Prisci. Batonis Annaei. 
Veturi Valentis venditoris. 

C. I. L. IIIh-944. Bruns, Pontes luris Bomani,^ p. 291. Inscribed on the 
inner face of a wax tablet found at Verespatak, in Dacia. Sqoaxe 
brackets indicate supplements from outside copy. 

Execrations 
Devotiones 
1. Quomodo mortuos'qui istic | sepultus est nee loqui | nee sermonare 
potest, seic | Rhodine apud M. Licinium | Faustum mortua sit 
nee I loqui sermonare possit. | Ita uti mortuos nee ad deos | nee 
ad homines acceptus est, | seic Ehodine aput M. Licinium | 
accepta sit et tantum valeat, | quantum ille mortuos, quei | iatio 



WALL msCRIPTIONS 397 

sepultus est. Dite Pater, Rhodine | tibei commendo uti semper 
I odio sit M. Licinio Fausto, | item M. Hedium Amphionem, | 
item C. Popillium AppoUonium, | item Vemionia Hermiona, | 
item Sergia Grlycinna. 

O. I. L. I. 818. Inscribed on a lead lamina found in a tomb near Borne, 
now in tlie Kiroheriau Museum, Eome, 

2. Dii i(n)feri, vobis com(m)e(n)do, si quic(q)ua(m) sactitates 
(=;: sanctitatis) h[a]betes (= habetis), ac tadro (= trado) 
Tieene (= Tychenem, Tychen) | Carisi, quodqu[o]d agat, 
quod i(ii)cida(ii)t | omnia in adversa. Dii i(n)feri, vobis | 
com(m)e(n)do il(l)ius mem(b)ra, colore(m), figura(m), caput, 
capilla ( = capillos), umbra(m), cereb|ru(m), fru(n)te(m), 
supe[rc!7]ia, os, nasu(m), | me(n)tu(m), bucas, la[6ra, w]rba, 
(h.)alitu(m), col(l)u(m),^ iocur, umeros, cor, pulmones, i(n)tes- 
tinas (= intestina), Te(n)tre(m), brac(li)ia, digitos, inanus, 
u(m)b(i)licu(m), visica ( = vesicam), femena ( = femina), 
genua, crura, talos, planta(s), tigidos (= digitos). Dii i(n)feri, 
si illa(m) videro tabesce(n)te(m), vobis sacrificiu(m) lubens ob 
an(n)uversariu(m) facere^ dibus parentibus il(l)iu[s] voveo(?) 
peculiu(m)(?) ta[6e]scas-! 

C. I. L. X. 8249. Inscribed on a lead plate folded up and pierced with a 
nail, found in a tomb near the amphitheatre of Minturnae. iThis is 
Zangemeister's suggestion for the letters on the plate which seem to read 
vitucolu. Bormann suggests visu colu. ^ gcjmeider reads sacru(m) 
il{V)ud v(oturn) venio [o]6 anuversariu(m) fatere, making venio facere 
=/aciam. 

Wall Insceiptions of Pompeii 
Painted Inscriptions 

1. M. Marium | aed. faci.* | ore vos. 

2. Q. Caecil. q. v. benific." o. v. 

3. A. Vettium Tirmum | aed. o. v. f., dign. est, | Caprasia cum 

Nymphio rog. | una et vicini o. f. 

4. Sabinum aed. I Procule fac et ille I te faciet. 



3^8 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

5. pro salute | Caesaris Augu[si«]' li[6]e[ro]ruinqu[e | 

eius et o&] dedieationem arae \^fam. gladiat.^ Cn. [^Zfjei 
Mgidi Mai flaiiii[n*s] . . . Caesaris Augusti pugn. Pompeis 
sine Tilia dilatione | IIII non lul., venatio Tela erunt. 

6. A. Suetti Certi | aedilis familia gladiatoria pugnab. Pompeis | pr. 

k. Imiias, venatio et vela erunt.* 

7. Otiosis locus Mc non est, discede morator. 

a I. L.. IV. 61, 29, 171, 635, 1180, 1189, 813. ^aediUem) faci(^atis). 
" q{uaestorem) v(irum) benific(jam) o(ro) v{os). ^ Either imp. Caesaris 
Augusti or imp. Ti. Caesaris Augusti. * Suettlus probably gave gladia- 
torial exhibitions under the direction of Nero between 54-69 a.d. 

Engraved with a Stilus 

8. Nucerinis | infelicia.' 

9. Ill idus Aprilis | tunica ^ 3€ I | IHi 

10. Amianthus, Epaphra, Tertius ludant* ; cum Hedysto lucundus 
Nolanus petat ; nu[m]ere[%]t Citus et Acus, Amianth['«s]. 

^ ' ^ - C.I.L. IV. 1329, 1392, 1936. i Tac. Ann. XIV. 17. 2 tunica (lauta) denario 

"bi • uno. "The reference is to a game of ball (tn'sroB). Cf. Seneca, .Sp. 36, 1, 

> » ***^ si vero pilicrepiis supervenit et numerare coepit pilas, actum est. Cf. 

Marquardt, Privatleben, p. 822. 

Consular Diptychs 

1. Fl. Felicis' v. c, com. ac mag. utrq. mil., patr. et cos. ord. 

2. Fl. Astyrius* v. c. et inl. com., ex mag. utriusq. mil., cons. ord. 

3. Nar. Manl. Boethius ' v. c. et inl. ex p. p., p. u. sec.,* cons. ord. et 

patric. 

Dessau, Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, 1298, 1300, 1301 = O. I. L. V. 8120. 1. 
Inscribed on ivory diptychs on which are also drawn the figures of consuls. 
^ Felix, consul ordinarius in 428 a.d. 2 Consul of 449 a.d. mentioned by 
Sidonius, .BjP^ VIII. 6, 5. ^Consul ordinarius of 487. * ex p(raefeeto) 
p(jraetorio), p(faefectus) ^(jrbi) sec{undo). 



CHAPTER IX 

RESTORATION AND DATING OF INSCRIPTIONS 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

Restoration of Defective Inscriptions. 

An account of the science of Latin Epigraphy ■wotild be incom- 
plete if no attention were paid to the renewal of inscriptions which 
remain to ns in imperfect' form, for it is a fact readily understood 
that epigraphic material consists, in a very large degree, of frag- 
ments which would be of little service and value were it not possible 
for scholars to make restorations more or less satisfactory, and which 
in many cases have been shown, by subsequent discoveries, to be 
correct. 

It would be manifestly impossible to suggest a method of treat- 
ment which would be useful in every case, since this depends almost 
absolutely upon the character of the individual inscription itself. 
Nevertheless, certain general principles may be stated which will be 
of assistance in this most important and most interesting side of. 
epigraphic study. It is a cardinal principle that nothing associated • 
in any way with a fragmentary inscription is so insignificant as to be 
unworthy of consideration in the task of supplying portions that are 
lost. It is, therefore, imperative that the most exact copy attainable 
should be within reach of the student.^ This has resulted in the use 
of the so-called "paper squeezes," which are made by moistening 
sheets of stout white paper and pressing them into the indentations 
of an inscription by means of a brush with short stiff bristles. 
Eeproductions of inscriptions of this fori^ have been foimd very 
satisfactory in their exactness. In the case of small articles, wax 
impressions are more convenient. 

' See Tiber Mechanische Oopieen von Tnschrifien. E. Hubner. Berlin, 1880. 



400 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

The study of an inscription must involve both an internal and 
external consideration of all that is associated with the same. It 
must include an examination of the method of engraving, the forms 
of the letters and words, and of the character of the subject matter, 
but it must also be turned to the circumstances of the discovery, the 
location, and the association with other inscriptions. 

The form of an incomplete letter, supplemented by a knowledge 
of what the normal letter in its complete shape would be, often 
determines the word which has disappeared. A knowledge of the 
numerous ligatures is very useful, particularly in the inscriptions 
found in Africa. In supplementing defective words, much attention 
should be given to the subject of abbreviations, for it must be 
remembered that certain words are regularly given in abbreviated 
form, but others very rarely. 

The most common injuries exhibited by stones are such as destroy 
the beginning or end of the lines. It is, therefore, necessary to 
determine the original length of the line, so as to calculate the num- 
ber of letters required to make it complete. This knowledge may 
be obtained from the general outline of the inscription, and from 
a comparison of the lengths of the remaining lines. We may say, 
in a general way, that a number of the lines in an inscription are of 
the same length. The first and last lines are regularly shorter than 
the others, because of the character of their subject matter, but they 
are proportionate in length to the other lines, and their middle 
points correspond with the middle points of the others. By knowl- 
edge thus obtained, the determination of the number of letters to 
be supplied may be accomplished with a fair degree of exact- 
ness. 

The next important step is the consideration of the class of 
inscriptions to which the one in question belongs. This is necessary 
in order that a knowledge of the formidae likely to occur may be 
obtained, and comparison with other inscriptions made possible. 

Other important data are, the natural succession of honores in the 
various cursus honoriim, the imperial names and titles, and the 
customary order of the same, the history of the legions, their 
enrollment, location, and length of service. 



RESTORATION OF INSCRIPTIONS 401 

The following example, originally given by Renier,* illustrates 
the acientific restoration of a defective inscription and is used in 
like manner by Cagnat.^ 

R-EQVIT.ROM IVT-XVIR 

LITIB . IVDIC-QVAES R • PROVINCIAE 

R ETAE • ET • C YR EN AR M P ■ V E S P A S I A N I 

AESARIS • AVG ■ LEG • X • FRETEN D N I S • M I L I 

B ■• IMP . VESPASIANO'. CAESAR T • CAESARE ■ AVG • F 

ELLO • IVDAICO • CORONA - MVRALI • VALLARI ■ AVREA • HASTiS ■ PVRIS 
EXILLIS . DVOBVS ■ TR • PL • PR • LEG ■ PROVING ■ PONTI • ET • BITHYNIAE 

AECINIA . A . F • LARGA • VXOR • ET 
RCIA ■ A . F ■ PRISCILLA ■ FILIA . FECERVNT 

It is evident that the inscription is honorary in character and that it has heen 
set up perhaps at his tomb hy the wife and daugliter of the person whose name 
has disappeared. Tlie honores are given in tlie ascending order. 

Before tlie quaestorship which appears in the second line we would look for 
the militaiy service and the vigintivirate. The latter may be readily supplied 
thus, XVIR sJLITIB • IVDIC ; the former is shown by IVT which is part of the 
name Ad IVT rix. There were two legions thus named. Prima Adiutrix and 
Secunda Adiutrix. Although it is uncertain which legion is here indicated, 
■ Renier has shown from the inscription itself that the person referred to was 
made a quaestor under Vespasian and since he was tribunus militum about two 
years before this time, and the legion // Adiutrix was formed under Vespasian, it 
is probable that the first legion is the one named. Following the usual form we 
may supply then, trih. mil. leg. I AdV^l. The honorary title which was often 
given to those who had not yet attained the quaestorship readily suggests itself 
for the first part of this line, so that we read: seviR ■ EQVIT • ROM. The 
quaestorship was either of the city, which would give simply QVAEST., or 
provincial, which would give QVAESf. pr. pr. = quaestori pro praetore. In the 
former case the following function would naturally be leg{ato) pr. pr{aetore), 
but for this there is evidently no room ; hence the line may be completed tlius : 
QVAESJ pr. pR. After the quaestorship "a person might become legatus of a 
proconsul in a senatorial province of the praetorian grade, or hold the next 

' Explication et Bestitution d^une Inscription Decouverte ct Nettuno. L. 
Renier in Mem. de VAcad. des Inscr., 1867, p. 269. ^ Cours d' Epigraphie 
Latine, p. 337. 

LAT. INSOKIP. — 20 



402 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

magistracy, the tribunate o£ the plebs or the aedileship. In this case, however, 
the function following the quaestorship is evidently that of legatus of a legion, 
so that we may supply legatus iUP ■ VESPASIANI cAESARIS • AVG • LEG X • 
FRETENsis. The words donis militaribus would naturally be preceded by 
donato, hence read donato DONIS U\Utaribus. The next line refers to the two 
emperors who conducted the Jewish war, and we may read aB • IMP • VESPASI- 
ANO CAESARe Aug et T ■ CAESARE ■ AVG ■ F 6ELL0 • IVDAICO. 

At the beginning of the seventh line the number of the vexilla has dis- 
appeared, but according to the rules ^ controlling military decorations two 
vexilla would be assigned to a man of quaestorian grade. Inasmuch as the 
legati of praetorian grade alone have the right to three vexilla, three hastae 
purae, and three coronae, it is evident that dua!)(ics) is needed here. The 
cursiis honorum is now complete with the remaining functions tribunus plebis, 
praetur, legatus provinciae Ponti et Bithyniae. 

The first word of the next line is the nomen of the wife who has thus honored 
her husband. The remnant aecinia would suggest CAECINIA, but ffj-AECINIA is 
possible. The nomen Graocinia, taken from Graecinus, is hardly admissible for 
the wife of a senator in the time of Vespasian. Still further, the father, a 
Graecinius or Caecina, is named A(ulus), as A -fllia shows, but we do not know 
of a Graecinius with the praenomen A(ulus), and it must be remembered that in 
a family of rank the range of praenomina and cognomina was limited to a 
certain number. "We do not know of a cognomen Largus with s, Graecinius, 
hence we naturally select CAECINIA. We know also of two consuls, A. Caecina 
(13 A.D.) and A. Caecina Largus (42 a.d.), which fact confirms the selection. 

The nomen of the daughter may be either PoRCIA, JfaRCIA, or iaRCIA. 

Aulus, however, is not found with Porcius, and is rare with Marcins, but is 

. common with Larcius. We find still further in this family, if not a, Priscillus, 

at least a Priscus, so that the name of the daughter is iaRCIA PRISCILLA, and 

of her father, A. Larcius. 

Renier has pointed out that the legatus of the legion X Fretensis at the time 
of the capture of Jerusalem is spoken of in Jbsephus {Bel. lud., VI. 4) as A. 
Larcius Lepidus. From this we can conclude that the inscription is in honor 
of this man, and the first line must contain his name. Between the nomen and 
cognomen we would expect the indication of descent and the tribus. The first 
of these is uncertain, since we do not know the praenomen of the father, 
although we may conjecture that it is the same as that of the son. The inscrip- 
tion was found at Nettuno, hence we would expect Quirina, a tribiis which 
actually appears in an inscription ^ of an A. Larcius Priscus, legatus of Numidia, 
found recently at the same place and referring probably to the father of the 
person honored in the inscription before us. 

1 See page 193 note. 

2 Ephem. Ep. V. 696. R. Cagnat, Bulletin J^pigr. 1884, p. 1?. 



MStO&AtlON OF INSCRIPTIONS 403 

The completed inscription is as follows : 

a ■ I a r c i a • fit • q u i r i n a I e p i d o 
seviR . EQVIT ■ ROM • trib. mil. leg. ■ • adIVT • XVIR 
siLITIB . IVDIC ■ QUAESJ . pr -pR ■ PROVINCIAE 
cRETAE . ET • CYRENARmto leg ■ iMP • VESPASIANI 
cAESARIS • AVG • LEG • X - FRETENs donato DONIS • M\L\taribus 
aB • IMP • VESPASIANO . CAESARe augusto et T ■ CAESARE • AVG ■ F 
6ELL0 • IVDAICO ■ CORONA • MVRALI • VALLARI • AVREA ■ HASTIS • PVRIS 
" duab uEXILLIS • DVOBVS ■ TR ■ PL- PR • LEG • PROVING • PONTI • ET • BITHYNIAE 
cAECINlA-A- F- LARGA-VXOR-ET 
laRoik • A • F • PRISCILLA • FILIA- FECERVNT 



Specimens of Impeepect Inscriptions 



MEMORIAE 

TORQVATI-NOVELLj.p.F 

ATTICl . X . VIRI . STLIT • IVD 

MIL . LEG • 7 . TRIB • VEXILLAR 

VATTVOR • T ■ V . XX . XXT • Q . AED 

AD . HAST • CVR • LOG ■ PVBLIC 

D GENS • ACCIP ■ ET ■ DILECT • ET 

S . PROVINCIAE • NARBON 

VS ■ HONORIS . FINE 

. AGENS . XXXXIIrl 

O-IVLII-DECESSIT 



C. I. L. XIV. 2100. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Civita Lavinia 
(Lanuvium), existing now in copy. The date may be obtained from the 
table, p. 133. . ITie inscription began thus : imp. Gaesdri. 

C. I. L. XIV. 3602. Inscribed on a marble tablet found at Tivoli (Tibur), 
existing in a copy. Torquatus was tribune of the vexillarii of four legions. 
In line nine read in cuius honoris. Borghesi assigns this inscription to 
Novellius Torquatus of about the time of Tiberius, and refers to Pliny Nat. 
Hist. XIV. 22, 144, who testifies to his being praetor and proconsul. 



IAN 1 . F 


A 1 A N 1 


1 C 1 . N E P 


NERVAE • PRONEP 


. H ADR 1 AND 


ONINO . AVG • PIO 


MAXIMO . TRIBVN 


AT . IT . COS . IT • P • P 


VS . POPVLVSQVE 


ViNVS ■ VETERES 



404 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



PATER PATRIAE 
IMP ■ CAESAR DIVI F 
AVGVSTVS PONT 
IMVS COS 
GNATVS XT 
TRIBVNI 
VIII 



IVS 

DECVRIONA 

HONOR AEDILI 

X HS II M DCXXXXII N 

ISSET ADI ECTA AM 

SE PECVNIA . FECIT IDEMQ 

VIT DD ET AMPLIVS 

VL POPVLO DEDIT 



C. I. L. XII. 5488. Inscribed on a miliarium of the "Via Aurelia, between Aix 
and Aries, existing in a copy. The restitution has been verified from simi- 
lar stones of the same locality. The date is 751/3. 

C. I. L. VIII. 14296. On a marble pedestal found at Hr. Schuegi, Africa. 
In second line supply ob honorem; in line eight ep\ul[tim'], others suggest 

sporfluilas. The first line may be cum pater e]ius or [cum 

pater eius . . . .] atus. 



ANO . Fl L . SVO 
VIXIT • ANN • XVII 
BVS • DIEB . XXIII . ET 
POSTERISQV 
IN FRONTE • PED . Vltl 
IIA • PRIMA • DONAVIT • P 



I M ■ M 

VRELI ANTONIN 

• AVGVSTORVM 

LEG • XXiT • PRIMIG 

■ IVSSVS 

CVM . AEDIF 



G. I. L. XIV. 1509 a. Found at Ostia. In line 6 IIA is all that remains of 

the nomen of Prima. 
C. 7. L. XIV. 101. Pound at Civitavecchia, now existing in a copy. O. I. L. 

gives in the first line M. Aelio Aurelio, in the second Caesari, in third the 

beginning of the name of his father. The Corpus pistorum Odliensium et 

PoHuensium is referred to. 



HADRIANI AN 


AUG. PI 1 


• p.p. 


CORPUS 


PISTO 


COLONIAE 1 


PORTUS 


VTRIV 



DATING OF INSCRIPTIONS 



405 



3. C. I. L. XI. 596. Found at Forli (Forum Livi), where it still exists. The 
second line begins probably with pro salute or nb reditum. The third line 
may have contained formerly the name of Geta. Supply visu before iussus. 
Mommsen thinks it probable that Caracalla and Geta returning to Italy 
after the death of their father visited the camp of the twenty-second legion 
at Moguntiacum. 



D ■ U 


SEX . IVLIO . SE 


D 


P • VI C 


VOL . VERINO 


POM 


AE • QV 


MINI . AEDILI M 


A D 1 


ANNIS 


NERARIO . PAT 


VIX • ANN 


M-X-D-XIII 


TRIVM DECVR 


III -POM 


AVG END 


NVM ■ CVM ■ FIL 


VS • MES 


FILIAE. IN 


VIVS SIBI FECIT 


R • AMA 


CEN 




TISSI M 
PATRI 



1. C. I. L. VIII. 4458. Inscribed on a cippus found at Ksar Scheddi, Africa. 

2. C.I.L. XII. 522. Inscribed on a marble cippus found at Aix, existing in a 

copy. 

3. C. I. L. Vin. 4459. Inscribed on a oippus found at Ksar Scheddi, Africa, 



Dating of Inscriptions. 

The determination of the date or period of inscriptions demands 
in many cases the consideration and study of inscriptions from 
every point of view. 

Constant reference has therefore been made in what precedes to 
the various indications of date which the occurrence of certain 
usages belonging to well-defined periods provides. 

The various suggestions leading to the determination of date may 
be classified as obtained either from an external or formal consider- 
ation of an inscription or from an internal or material view of the 
same. 

The first of these implies : 1) A study of the object upon which 
the inscription appears, its size, ornamentation, circumstances of 
discovery, such as the depth beneath the surface and proximity to 
other inscriptions. Such data may be useful in identifying in its 



406 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

date the inscription in question with others which admit of assign- 
ment to certain periods ; 2) a consideration of the inscription itself, 
the nature of the engraving, the morphology of the letters, the 
orthography and the grammatical formation and interrelation of the 
words. 

The second class of suggestions leading to the determination of 
date is concerned with the subject matter of the inscriptions. 

We have already seen on page 123 how inscriptions of the im- 
perial period may be 'dated from the" titles and salutations of the 
emperor. If an inscription contains the names of consuls, it is 
possible in most cases to assign a date by reference to the Fasti 
Consulares. It is necessary to be cautious in thus depending on 
consular names, since those who acted as substitutes, consules suffecti, 
as well as those who received the consularia ornamenta, are fre- 
quently named as consuls. It must be remembered also that the 
title COS., followed by a numeral of iteration, accompanied the 
name of the emperor even when he was not actually holding office. 
Tiberius was consul for the second time in 748/6, and was con- 
tinually designated thus until 18 a.d., when he became consul for 
the third time. Any inscription containing simply the name of 
Tiberius with cos. //may be assigned to any year between 748/6 
and 18 a.d. 

Names of distinguished personages and officials are often of much 
importance in this respect. Such are the names of the high officers 
at Rome and in the provinces, also of associates and friends of the 
emperor. The date of the official career of prominent men may 
often be learned from historical sources, and the period of inscrip- 
tions may thus be determined. 

A very important source of chronological information is found in 
the history of the various legions, which may be compiled from 
historical writings and from a comparison with dated inscriptions, 
and particularly from the military diplomas which contain certain 
exact dates. 

The following tables will be of use in determining the date of 
inscriptions. 



DATING OF INSCRIPTIONS 407 

Table op Archaisms 

ai AND ae ; ae is found replacing ai in some words in S- C. de Bacchanalibus 
(186 B.C.), alongside of the earlier spelling. It is the established form for 
the Lex Bantina (133-118), the Lex Bepetundarum of 123-122 b.c. The 
transition form, aei, appears about the close of the second century b.c. 
The archaic spelling was restored in the reign of Claudius. 

oi FOR oe AND u ; about 200 b.c. u begins to replace oi and oe, u is found in 
the Scipio epitaph of the beginning of the second century b.c. and in the 
Mummius inscription of 146 b.c. oi and oe continue to be used, especially 
in official inscriptions, even to the Ciceronian period. 

OU AND ii; u replaces ou about 100 b.c. It appears for ou in Lucius in the 
Scipio epitaph, dating not later than 200 b.c. Both are seen in Lex Bantina 
(133-118 B.C.), Lex Bepetundarum (123-122 b.c), but ou is disregarded 
entirely in Lex Cornelia (81 b.c). 

el AND i; ei represents in the inscriptions either original el, as in deico, or 
stands for the long i. The first is found in the early inscriptions, and 
appears in the S. C. de Bac^h. (186 b.c). The spurious diphthong ei is 
found in audeire in Lex Bep^ttmdarum of 123-122 b.c, and in ameicitiam 
of Lex Agraria of 111 b.c. 

AspiKATioN OF Consonants ; see page 29. 

Final s and m ; the lettera s and m are frequently omitted in early inscriptions, 
but this omission ceases about 130 b.c 

Final d ; this final letter of the ablative case is written in the S. C. de Baech. 
(186 B.C.), but is not found in the decree of Aemilius Paulus of 189 b.c 
It may be said to have disappeared from use a little after 200 b.c 

xs FOR SIMPLE X ; this spelling does not occur before its appearance in the S. C. 
de Bacch. (186 b.c). It then is found particularly in inscriptions of 130- 
120 B.C., and again in the Augustan period, and later. 

Double Consonants ; see page 29. 

Double Vowels ; see page 30. 

-OS AND -cm ; these forms were reduced to -us and -um except after u and v in 
the nominative and accusative cases of o-stems about 234 b.c 

-es, -eis, -Is ; these endings mark the nominative case plural of o-stems of the 
close of the second century b.c, and of the beginning of the first. 

-US, genitive ; the -us ending of consonant stems is found in early inscriptions, 
as in the S. C. de Bacch. (186 b.c), also in the Lex Agraria (111 b.c) 
and the Epistula ad Tiburtes (100 b.c), but ceases about 100 b.c 

Note. — See chapters I. and II., also Index of C. LL. vol. I.; Ritschl's Opus- 
cula Philologica, vol. IV., p. 765, and P. L. M. E. p. 123 ff. ; Lindsay's The 
Latin Language; Schneider's Bialecti Latinae Priscae et Faliscae Selecta 
Exempla, Index. 



408 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



Table op Legions 



II. Augusta. Formed by Augustus, 27 e.g. Quartered in Egypt, in 
Moesia (5 a.d.), on the Rhine (9), with Germanicus (15-16), Britain 
(43). 

III. Augusta P(ia) V(index). rormed by Augustus, 27 b.c. Service in 
Africa, surnamed Liberatrix by Galba, in Numidia, surnamed Pia 
Vindex by Septimus Severus, against the Parthians (216 a.d.), dis- 
banded by Gordian III, re-formed by Valerian, in -wars against 
Formus (373) and Gildon (398). 

III. Cyrenaica. Formed by Lepidus in Africa. Service in Egypt (66), 
with Vespasian in 69, in the East with Trajan. 

III. Gallica. Formed by L. Munatius Plancus in Gaul. Service with M. 

Antonius against the Parthians, in Moesia (5 a.d.), with Corhulo in 
Armenia, in Moesia (08), in Syria under Vespasian and Domitian, 
with Trajan in the East, with Hadrian in Judea and Phoenicia. 
rV. Macedonica. Formed pi'obably by Brutus in Macedonia. Quartered in 
Spain in time of Augustus, in Mauretania uuder Caligula, in Germany 
(Moguntiaoum) in 43, favored Vitellius (60), disbanded by Vespasian. 

IV. Scythica. Formed by M. Crassus in 29 u.c. Quartered in Syria (27 

B.C.), in, Moesia (5 a.d.), in Germania Inferior (47), with Corbulo 
in the East (58), surrendered to Vologeses (62), in Syria (63), 
with Trajan in Judea (114). ""''" - 

v. Alauda. Formed by Julius Caesar. Quartered in Spain (27-24 b.c), 
in Germany, in Pannonia (6-9 a.d.), m Britain with Claudius, in 
Moesia in time of Vespasian, destroyed by Sarmates (84) or disbanded 
by Vespasian. 
V. Macedonica. Formed by Brutus in Macedonia. Service in Syria up 
to 5 A.D., then in Moesia, with Corbulo in the East (62), in Judea 
with Titus, defeated Sarmates (84), in Dacia, in Moesia. 
VI. Victrix P(ia) F{elix). In Spain after the reign of Augustus, on the 
Khine (70 a.d.), in Germania Inferior up to time of Hadrian, in 
Britain (120). Trajan gave the name Pia Felix. 
VII. Claudia P{ia) F(idelis). Quartered in Macedonia, about 10 a.d. sent 
to Dalmatia, to Pannonia by Nero, recalled to Italy (68), sent to 
Moesia by Galba, to Germany under Mucianus, in Moesia (71). 
Claudius gave the name Claudia Pia Fidelis. 
VIII. Augusta. Formed by Augustus. Quartered in Pannonia, in Moesia in 
time of Claudius (47), called to Italy (68) , in Moesia in time of Galba, 
in Germany under Mucianus. 
IX. Hispana. On the Danube in time of Augustus, sent to Africa (20 a.d.), 
to Spain (24), to Britain (43), destroyed by the Britons (120). 



TABLE OF LEGIONS 409 

X. Gemina P{ia) F(idelis). Formed by Augustus in 27 B.C. under name 
^Augusta. Quartered in Spain, lost its name in 19 B.C., named 
Gemina after 5 a.d., sent to Germany in 58, to Spain in time of 
Galba, in Germany in time of Vespasian until reign of Trajan, in 
Dacia with Trajan, in Pannonia. 
XI. Claudia P(ia) F(idelis). In Pannonia in time of Augustus, then in 
Dalmatia, called to Italy (68), in Germania Superior (70), in Moesia 
in time of Trajan. 
XII. Fulminata. Formed by Augustus. Quartered in Egypt, sent to Syria 
(18 A.D.), with Corbulo (62), in Armenia, surrendered to Vologeses, 
in Syria, in Cappadoeia. 

XIII. Gemina P{id) F{idelis). Formed by Augustus in 27 B.C. Service in 

Pannonia, with Germanious in Germany', in Pannonia, called to Italy 
(68 A.D.), at Bedriacum and Cremona, sent to Pannonia by Vespasian, 
in Dacia. Nero probably gave the name Pia Fidetis. 

XIV. Gemina M,artia Victrix. Formed by Augustus In 27 B.C. Service in 

Germany with Tiberius and with Germanicus, in Britain (43 a.d.), 
summoned by Nero (68), opposed Vitellius, after Bedriacum returned 
to Britain (69), sent to Pannonia (92). Nero gave the name Martia 
Victrix. 
XV. ApoUinaris. Formed by Augustus. Service in Pannonia (6-9 a.d.), 
with Corbulo in the East (63), in Judea with Vespasian and Titus, 
in Egypt and Pannonia, with Trajan in the East. 
XVI. Gallica. Sent to the Danube by Augustus, in Germany after disaster 

of Varus, disbanded by Vespasian. 
XVII. Gallica. Destroyed with Varus at Teutoburg Forest (9 a.d.). 
XVIII. Gallica. The same as the above. 
XIX. Gallica. The same as the above. 

XX. Valeria Victrix. Formed in 27 b.c. by Augustus, quelled insurrection 
in Pannonia (6 a.d.), and received name Valeria Victrix, with Ger- 
manicus, in Britain (43), fought under Agricola. 
VI. Ferrata. Formed by Augustus in Syria (5 a.d.). Service with Corbulo 
in Armenia (58 and 62), in Syria in time of Vespasian, with Trajan 
against the Parthians, after Hadrian in Judea. 
X. Fretensis. Formed by Augustus in Syria (5 a.d.), with Corbulo in 
Armenia (62), in Egypt in time of Nero (65), in Judea with Vespasian 
and Hadrian. 
I. Germanica. Formed hastily in 9 a.d. after destruction of Varus, sent 
into Germany, disbanded -by Vespasian (71). 
XXI. Bapax. Formed in 9 a.d. Service in Germany, fought for Vitellius at 

Bedriacum, in Illyria, in Germany against Civilis, in Moesia in 101. 
XXII. Deiotariana. Formed 9 a.d. Quartered in Egypt, supported Ves- 



410 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

pasian (69), in Judaea with Titus, annihilated in an ambuscade by 
the Parthians (162). 
XXII. Primigenia P(ia) F{idelis). Formed in 43 a.d., sent to Moguntiacum, 
in Italy (69), favored Vitellius against Galba, sent to lUyria, to Pan- 
nonia, returned to Germany (91). Hadrian gave the name Pia Fidelis. 
I. Italica. Formed by Nero in Italy, sent into Gaul, after Cremona sent 
to lUyria, then to Moesia. 
XV. Primigenia. Formed probably in time of Claudius. Service in Pan- 
nonia, called to Italy by Nero (68), sent to Pannonia by Galba, dis- 
banded by Vespasian because of revolting to Civilis. 
I Adiutrix. Formed by Nero for the fleet (68), enrolled as legion by 
Galba, sides with Otho, after Bedriacum sent to Spain by Vitellius, 
in Germany, in. Moesia, 86-91, and in time of Trajan, in Pannonia. 
VII. Gejnina F(elix). Formed by Galba in Spain under name Cfalbiana or 
Hispanli (68 a.d.), in Pannonia. Vespasian gave the name Gemina 
F(eUx), in Spain. 
11. Adiutrix F(ia) F(idelis). Enrolled under Vespasian from the fleet at 
Kavenna, on the Rhine with Mncianus, on the Danube (85), in 
Pannonia after 107. Vespasian gave the name Pia Fidelis. 
IV. Flavia F{eli^). Formed by Vespasian (71 a.d.), sent to Dalmatia, 
to Pannonia, in Moesia, in Dacia under Domitian and Trajan. 
Hadrian gave the name Felix. 
XVI- Flavia P{ia) F(idelis). Formed by Vespasian (71 a.d.). Service in 
Cappadocia, against the Parthians. Trajan gave the name Pia 
Fidelis. 
I. Minervia P(ia) F(idelis). Formed by Domitian (85 a.d.). Service 
in Lower Germany (91), in Moesia, in Germany (107), Trajan gave 
the name Pia Fidelis. 
XSX. Ulpia Victrix. Formed in 101 by Trajan. Service in Germany, in 
Mesopotamia, under Constantius II. 
II. Traiana Fortis. Formed in 105 a.d. by Trajan. Stationed at Alexan- 
dria, in Parthia (114), sent to Alexandria by Hadrian, where it 
received the name Fortis (137). 
II. Italica. Formed by M. Aurelius before 170 a.d. In Noricum in time 

of Alex. Severus. 
III. Italica. Formed by M. Aurelius before 170 a.d. In Rhaetia in time 
of Alex. Severus. 
I. Parthica. Formed by Septimius Severus. Quartered in Mesopotamia, 

in Arabia, and at Palmyra. 
II. Parthica- P(ia) F{idelis). Formed by Septimius Severus. Quartered 

at Alba in Italy. Elagabalns gave name Pia Fidelis. 
III. Parthica. Formed by Septimius Severus. Quartered in Mesopotamia. 



TABLE OF IMPERIAL RELATIONSHIPS 



411 



^ The Members of the Imperial Family 

The following list includes all the members of the Imperial Family, 
from Augustus to Constantine, whose names appear in inscriptions. 
Those that were honored after death with the title Divvs, Diva are 
marked with *. Those whose memory was execrated, and whose 
names are erased from the monuments, are designated by f- For 
names of the Emperors themselves see Chronological Table, p. 123. 



*AVGVSTVS 

1. OcTAviA, sister of Aug.; wife (1) 

of M. Antonius, (2) of C. Mar- 
cellus. 

2. Antonia (Minor), daughter of 

M. Antonius and Octavia ; wife 
of Drusus (16). 

3. Maroella (Maior), daughter of 

C. Marcellus and Octavia. ' 

4. Marcella (Minor) , daughter of 

C. Marcellus and Octavia. 

5. Scrieonia, first wife of Aug. 

6. IvLiA, daughter of Aug. and Scri- 

bonia ; wife (1) of M. Marcellus, 
(2) of M. Agrippa, (3) of Ti- 
berius (15). 

7. M. ViFSANivs Agrippa, second 

husband of Julia ; son-in-law 
of Aug. 

8. *LiviA Drvsilla (also called 

IvLiA Atgvsta), wife (1) of 
Ti. Claudius Nero, (2) of Aug. 

9. M. Livivs Drtsvs Clavdianvs, 

father of Livia. 

10. Alfidia, mother of Livia. 

11. C. Caesar, son of M. Agrippa 

and Julia ; grandson of Aug. 

12. L. Caesar, son of .M. Agrippa 

and Julia ; grandson of Aug. 

13. Agrippina I., daughter of M. 

Agrippa aind Julia ; wife of 
Germanicus (18). 



14. M. Agrippa (Posttmvs) (also 

called Pvpvs Agrippa and 
Agrippa Ivlivs), son of M. 
Agrippa and lulia. 

15. TIBERIVS, son of Ti. Claudius 

Nero and Livia ; adopted son of 
Aug. ; husband (1) of Vipsania 
Agrippina, (2) of Julia (6). 

16. Nero Clavdivs Drvsvs, son of 

Ti. Claudius Nero and Livia ; 
husband of Antonia Minor (2). 

17. Dkvsvs Ivlivs, son of Tiberius 

and Vipsania Agrippina ; hus- 
band of Livia, the sister of Ger- 
manicus and Claudius. 

18. Germanicvs Caesar, son of Dru- 

sus (16) and Antonia Minor (2) ; 
husband of Agrippina (13). 

19. *CLAVDIVS, son of Drusus (16) 

and Antonia Minor (2). 

20. C. Caesar, infant son of Germa- 

nicus (18) and Agrippina (13). 

21. Ti. Caesar, infant son of Ger- 

manicus (18) and Agrippina 
(13). 

22. — Caesar, infant son of Germa- 

nicus (18) and Agrippina (13). 

23. Nero Caesar, son of Germanicus 

(18) and Agrippina (13). 

24. IvNiA, daughter of Q. Caecilius 

Metellus Creticus Silanus ; 
bride of Nero Caesar. ■ 



412 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



25. 
26. 
27. 

28. 



30. 
31. 

32. 

33. 

34. 

35. 



37. 

38. 

39. 
40. 

41. 

42. 

43. 



Drvsvs Caesak, son of Germani- 

cus (18) and Agrippina (13). 
tCALIGVLA, son of Germanious 

(18) and Agrippina (13). 
tAoKippiNA II., daughter of Ger- 
manious (18) and Agrippina 
(13) ; fourth wife of Claudius. 
*Ivi.iA Drvsilla, daughter of 
Gerinanicus (18) and Agrippina 
(13). 
IvLiA LiviLLA, daughter of Ger- 
manicus (18) and Agrippina 
(13). 
Medvllina, hride of Claudius. 
Drvsvs, infant son of Claudius 

and Plautia Urgulanilla. 
Antonia, daughter of Claudius 

and Aelia Petina. 
tVALERiA Messalina, third wife 

of Claudius. 
Octavia, daughter of Claudius 
andMessalina; first wife of Nero. 
Ti. Clavdivs Caesab Beitanni- 
cvs, son of Claudius and Mes- 
salina. 
tNERO, son of Cn. Domitius Ahen- 
obarbus and Agrippina II. (27). 
*PoppAEA Sabina, second wife of 
Nero. 
Cn. Domitivs Ahenobarbvs, hus- 
band of Agrippina. II. (27) ; 
father of Nero. 
*VESPASIANVS 
Flavia Domitilla, wife of Ves- 
pasian. 
*TITVS, son of Vespasian and 

Domitilla. 
tDOMITIANVS, son of Vespasian 

and Domitilla. 
*Flavia Domitilla II., daughter 
of Vespasian and Domitilla; 
wife of Flavius Sabinus. 



44. Flavia Domitilla III., daughter 

of Flavius Sabinus and Domi- 
tilla II. ; grandchild of Vesp. 

45. *IvLiA AvGvsTA, daughter of 

Titus. 

46. DoMiTiA LoNGiNA, daughter of 

Cn. Domitius Corbulo ; wife of 
Domitian. 

47. Cn. Domitivs Cobbvlo, father of 

Domitia Longina. 

48. *NERVA 

49. Sekgia Plavtilla, daughter of 

Sergius Laenas; mother of 
Nerva. 

50. «TRAIANVS 

51. *M. Vlpivs Traianvs, father of 

Trajan. 

52. *Plotina, wife of Trajan. 

53. *Marciana, sister of Trajan. 

54. *Matidia (Maior), daughter of 

Marciana ; niece of Trajan. 

55. *ViBiA Sabina, daughter of L. 

Vibius and Matidia Maior; 
wife of Hadrian. 

56. Matidia (Minor), daughter of 

L. Vibius and Matidia Maior. 

57. *HADRIANVS 

58. Domitia Pavlina, sister of Ha- 

drian. ' 

59. L. Aelivs Caesar, adopted son 

of Hadrian. 

60. Ceionia Plattia, daughter of 

Aelius Caesar. 

61. *ANTONINVS PIVS 

62. Arria Fadilla, mother of An- 

toninus Pius. 

63. *Annia Galeria Favstina (Ma- 

ior), sister of Ii. Aelius Caesar ; 
wife of Antoninus Pius. 

64. M. AvREi.ivs FvLvvs Antoninvei, 

infant son of Antoninus Pius 
and Faustina. 



TABLE OF IMPERIAL RELATIONSHIPS 



413 



65. M. Galerits Avkelivs Antoni- 

Nvs, infant son of Antoninus 
Pius and Faustina. 

66. AvEELiA Fadilla, daughter of 

Antoninus Pius and Faustina. 

67. *Anni A Favstina (MiNOR),daugh- 

terof Antoninus Pius and Fau- 
stina ; wife of M . Aurelius. 

68. *m:. AVEELIVS 

69. Annivs Vervs, father of M. 

Aurelius. 

70. DoMiTiA LvciLLA, mother of 

M. Aurelius. 

71. T. AvRELivs Antoninvs, infant 

son of M. Aurelius and Faus- 
tina Minor. 

72. T. Ablivs AvRELiTS, infant son 

of M. Aurelius and Faustina 
Minor. 

73. DoMiTiA Favstina, daughter 

of M. Aurelius and Faustina 
Minor. 

74. M. Annivs Vervs, son of M. 

Aurelius and Faustina Minor. 

75. Vibia Avrelia Sabina, daugh- 

ter of M. Aurelius and Fau- 
stina Minor. 

76. *L. VERVS, son of Aelius Caesar 

(59) ; adopted son of Antoni- 
nus Pius. 

77. Annia Lvcilla, daughter of M. 

Aurelius and Faustina Minor ; 
wife of L. Verus. 

78. *tCOMMODVS, son of M. Aure- 

lius and Faustina Minor. 

79. Brvttia Crispina, wife of Corn- 

modus. 

80. *PERTINAX 

81. tCLODIVS ALEINVS 

82. *SEPTIMIVS SEVERVS 

83. Paccia Marciana, first wife of 

Septimius Severus. 



84. *IvLiA DoMNA, second wife of 

Septimius Severus ; aunt of 
Julia Soaemias (9.3). 

85. *CARACALLA, son of Sep- 

timius Severus and Julia 
Domna. 

86. tGETA, son of Septimius Sev- 

erus and Julia Domna. 

87. tFvLviA Pr.AVTiLLA, daughter of 

C. Fulvius Plautianus ; wife 
of Caracalla. 

88. tC. FvLvivs Plavtiakvs, father 

of Fulvia Plautilla. 

89. tMACRINVS 

90. tDIADVMENIANVS, son of 

Maorinus. 

91. tELAGABALVS 

92. Sex. Varivs Marcellvs, father 

of Elagahalus. 

93. tlvLiA Soaemias Bassiana, 

mother of Elagabalus. 

94. *tIvLiA Maesa, mother of Julia 

Soaemias ; sister of Julia 
Domna (84). 

95. IvLiA Cornelia Pavla, wife 

of Elagabalus. 

96. tSEVERVS ALEXANDER, 

cousin of Elagabalus. 

97. tlvLiA AviTA Mammaea, sister 

of Julia Soaemias ; mother of 
Severus Alexander. 

98. Gneia Seia Herennia Sallvs- 

TiA Barbia Oreiana, wife of 
Severus Alexander. 

99. tMAXIMlNVS 

100. *Caecilia Pavlina, wife of 

Maximinus. 

101. tMAXIMVS, son of Maximinus 

and Paulina. 

102. »GORDIANVS L 

103. *GORDIANVS II., son of Gor- 

dian I. 



414 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



104. 


*tGORT)IANVS III., grandson of 


129. 




Gordian I.; nephew of Gor- 


180. 




dian II. 




106. 


FvRiA SABiNiA Teanqvillina, 
wife of Gordian III. 


131. 


106. 


tPHILIPPVS I. 


132. 


107. 


tMAKCiA Otacilia Seveka, wife 


133. 




of Philip I. 


134. 


108. 


tPHILIPPVS II., son of Philip 






I. nnd Otacilia Severa. 


135. 


109. 


tTRAIANVS DECIVS 




110. 


Hekeitnia Cvpkessenia Etet- 
sciLLA, wife of Trajan Decius. 


186. 


111. 


tHEKE>fNivs Etevscts, son of 






Trajan Decius and Herennia 


137. 




Etruscilla. 




112. 


tHosTiLiANvs, son of Trajan 
Decius and Herennia Etru- 
scilla. 


138. 


113. 


GALLVS 


189. 


114. 


Afinia Gemina Baewana, wife 
of Gallus. 


140. 


115. 


.VOLVSIANVS, son of Gallus. 


141. 


116. 


*VALERIANVS I. 




117. 


*t G ALLIEN VS, son of Valerian I. 


142. 


118. 


tVALEEiANvs II., SOU of Vale- 
rian I. 




119. 


Cornelia Salonika, wife of 
Gallien. 


143. 


120. 


tSALONiNvs, son of Gallien and 






Salonina. 


144. 


121. 


t*VALERiANvs III., SOU of Gal- 
lien and Salonina. 




122. 


*CLAVDIVS II. 


145. 


123. 


QviNTiLLvs, brother of Clau- 
dius II. 




124. 


»tAVKELIANVS 


146. 


125. 


Vlpia Seveeina, wife of Aure- 
lian. 




126. 


tPEOBVS 


147. 


127. 


tCARVS 




128. 


tCARINVS, son of Carus. 





tNvMEEiANVs, son of Carus. 
Magnia Vesica, wife of Cari. 
nus. 
*NiGEiNiANvs, son of Carinus 

and Magnia Vrbica. 
tbiOCLETIANVS 
*tMAXIMIANVS L 
*CONSTANTIVS (CHLORVS), 

adopted by Maximian. 
Flavia Ivlia Helena, wife of 
Constantius Chlorus. 
*tGALERIVS VALERIVS 
MAXIMIANVS, adopted by 
Diocletian. 
tFLAvivs Valeeivs Seveevs, 

adopted by Maximian. 
tGALEEivs Valeeivs Maxi- 
MiNvs (Daza), adopted by 
Diocletian. 
tMAXENTivs, son of Maximian I. 
Valeria Maximilla, wife of 
Maxentius. 
*Valeeivs Romvlvs, son of 
Maxentius and Maximilla. 

tVALEEITS LlOINIANVS LlOINIVS 

I., bvother-in-law of Constan- 
tino the Great. 
(Flavia Const antia, sister of 
Constantine the Great ; wife 
of Licinius I.) 
Valeeits Licinianvs Licinivs 
II, son of Licinius I and Con- 
stantia. 
*CONSTANTINTS I. (MAG- 
NVS), son of Constantius 
(134) and Helena (135). 

tFLAVIVS IVLITS CeISPVS, SOU Of 

Constantino the Great and his 
first wife Minervina. 
Flatia Maxima Favsta, sec- 
ond wife of Constantine the 
Great. 



ABBREVIATIONS 415 



148. Tlavivs Clatdivs Constan- 

MNVS (Ivniok), son of Con- 
stantine the Great and Fausta. 

149. tFLAvivs IvLivs CoNSTANS, son 

of Constantine the Great and 
Fausta. 



150. Flavivs Ivlits Cokstantivs II., 

son of Constantine the Great 
and Fausta. 

151. "Flativs Delmativs, nephew of 

Constantine the Great. 



Abbreviations (Nbtae, later Sigla). 

It has already been seen from what has preceded that initial let- 
ters and various other abbreviations of words enter very largely into 
the language of the inscriptions, and that consequently a familiarity 
with the most common of these forms is essential to facility in 
reading. The student is referred to the very complete table given 
on p. 417 ff., which has been obtained from the Cours d'^pigraphie 
Latine of Professor Rene Cagnat. 

Certain general principles^ will be found of advantage in the 
interpretation of abbreviations. 

1. Words written in abbreviated form consist either of the initial 
letter (si(n)g(u)la) or of a continuous group of letters more or less 
restricted in number. In the latter case the final letter of the 
abbreviation is the first consonant of a syllable, but this is not an 
exact rule. J = Titus; T\B = Tiberius; CLAVD, CLAV, CLA = 
Claudia; QVIR, QVI, Q = Quirina. 

2. If a word is composed of several members, the above rule 
applies either to the word treated as a whole or to each of the com- 
ponent parts regarded as individual words. Thus signifer may be 
abbreviated synthetically SIG or SIGN, or analytically SIGF for 
signum and fer, so BENEFIC, BENEF, B, or again B- V =hene- 
ficiarius, DVMTAX or D ■ T = dwm taxat, Q- Q-y =quoquoversus, 
P • Q = populusque. 

This in theory is the system of abbreviations up to the end of 
the third century a.d. 

When a disregard of these principles first made itself felt in the 
formation of abbreviations cannot be exactly determined, but it is 
probable that ignorance or a misunderstanding of the second rule, 

> B. Mowat, Sigles et Autres Abreviations in Bulletin Epigraphique, IV., p. 127. 



416 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

combined with a lack of knowledge of the component parts of words 
as determining the abbreviated forms, led to the violation of the 
principle of continuity of the letters, so that we find PD = pedes, 
MN = minus, PBL =publiois, LG = legio, VT = vixit, MM = me- 
moriae, DPS = depositus, etc. 

3. Again, we find in the inscriptions a peculiar form of abbrevia- 
tion' occasioned by the repetition of the terminating consonant. 
This probably arose from the collocation of several praenomina, as 
in the designations of the patrons of liberti. This system appeared 
in Rome about the beginning of the Christian era, and was limited 
in the first century to the initial letters of praenomina. COSS for 
consules appears for the first time in two Christian inscriptions of 
the year 107 and 111. 

a) This form indicates two, three or four individuals, the exact 
number being defined by the number of repeated letters. AVGG = 
duo Augusti, CCC = Gaii tres, DDDD- NNNN= domini nostri qimt- 
tuor, VI • VI R • AVGG = sewV(' Augustales duo, FLL • P • P = 
flamines perpetuo duo. 

h) The doubling of the last letter, however, may denote simply 
the plural number. PROCC = promratores, POHJ\¥¥ =pontifices, 
CAESS = Caesar es, HERR = heredes. 

In some instances other letters have been doubled, and the follow- 
ing forms are the result : 

N NOBB = nobilissimi duo, AAVVRR = Aurelii, EEQQRR = equUes 
Romani. 

It is necessary to mention here also certain special signs which 
are used to mark abbreviations and to distinguish them from other 
letters in the inscriptions.^ 

1) A line of dif ferentiation is placed over the letter or group of 
letters ^ ; e.g. AVG = Augustus, D • N = dominus noster, H = natione, 
QQ = quinquennalis, V • C = vir darissimus, COS = consul. 

Sometimes the line crosses the letter ; e.g. Q = henefidarius, © = didt, 
or dies, or domo, M = menses, © = oUit or dbitxis, -N- = nummum. 

1 C. Jullian, Des Lettres Bedoublees in Bulletin ^pigraphique, IV., p. 170. 

2 E. Hubner, Exempla Seripturae Epigraphicae, p. Ijfxii. 

» This custom becomes prevalent from the beginning of the second century. 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



417 



2) The bar may be replaced by an apex or circumflex, a custom 
common from the third century on; e.g. D • M = diis manibus, FF 
= felix fidelis, T- • M = lovi Optimo Maximo, AED = aedilis, 
COH • PR = cohors praetoria. 

3) Some letters serving as abbreviations are reversed ; e.g. = 
Gaia, standing for mulier, S = puella, = caput(?), or conductor, or 
contra, or corona(?). 

Table of Abbreviations 



ABN, ABNEP abnepos 
ABVIN ab™ei6 



A 


absolve, absolvito 


A BYB a bibliotheca, bibliothecis 


X 


accipiet 


A*C absolve condemno 


A. 


actum, actarius 


AC actarius 


A 


aedilis 


A*C acre collate 


A 


aeternus, aeterna 


A*C armorum custes 


A 


Africa, Afer 


A CAD a caducis 


A 


ala 


ACO accipiet, accepit, acceperunt, accl- 


A 


annlculus ? 


piendus etc. 


A 


annona 


A'CENS a censibus 


A 


annus, anno, annum, annos, annis 


A COGNIT a cognitionibus 


A 


Antoninus 


A COM, COMM, COMMENT a commentariis 


A 


Aprilis 


A COM 'COS a commentariis consularis 


A 


ara 


A COMMENT' a commentariis custodiarum 


A 


armatura 


CVST 


A 


as, assibus 


A COEIN (procurator) a Corinthiis 


A 


augur? 


A C'PE a commentariis praefecti 


A 


Augustus, Augusta 


ACT actarius, actor, actus, actum 


A 


Aulus 


ACT-AMB actu ambitu 


A 


Aurelius, Aurelia 


ACTLEG actarius Jegionis 


A 


auro 


ACT-PVB, PVBL actor publicus 


A'A 


Aponus ? Augustus ? 


A CVBIC a cubiculo 


A-A 


Aquae Aponi 


AD Adiutrix (legio) 


A-A 


Auli duo 


AD adlectus 


A-A-A-F-F 


aere argento auro iiando feriundo 


A'D ante diem 


iAAGGG 


August! (tres) 


A'D'A agris dandis adsignandis 


A-AC 


agri accepti Oirtensium 


A'D'A'I agris dandis adsignandis iudicandis 


AAGG 


August! (duo) 


AD AVGVST ad Augusti templum comproba- 


AAVVGG 


Augusti (duo) 


TEM-C-P tumpondusi 


AB 


a balneis 


AD B ad balneas 


AB 


amicus bonus 


AD B'DAMNATOEVM ad bona damnatorum 


ABA 


a balneis 


ADF adanis ' 


AB AEG 


ab aegris 


AD FAL-VE- (procurator) ad FalernaB (vltes) 


ABAL 


a bahieis 


GET 2 vegetandas 


A BIB 


a bibliotheca 


ADI adiutor, Adiutrix (legio) 


AB EPIST 


ab epistulis 


ADIABEN Adiabenicus 


A-B-F-S-8-8 


amico bene (merenti) fecit sepul- 


ADI-P-F adiutrix pia fidelis (legio) 




crum supra scriptum 


ADIVTPRAEF, adiutor praefecti, proourato- 


AB INST, INSTEVM ab Instrumentis 


PROO, TABVL ris, tabulariorum 


A-BM 


amico bene merenti, amicis bene 






pjcrentibus 


» Orelli, T84. ^ C. I. L. II. 202?. 



418 



LATIN INSCHIPTIONS 



ADI' VI'P" Adiutrix Bextum pia sextum fidelis 

VI*F (legio) 

ADL adlectus 

ADL'AER, AERA adlectus aerario 
ADLEG adlectus 

ADLEC'IN'DEC, adlectus in decurias, in quin- 

IN'V'D, DEC que decurias 

ADN, ADNEP adnepos 
ADOP adoptivus 

ADP-F Adiutrix pia fidelis (legio) 

ADQ adquiescit 

AD QS ad quaestiones 

A'D'S - .ag«r divisus Sigensibus 
ADSORB adsessor 
ADVOC-PVB, PVBL advocatus publicus 
A'E actum esse 

AE AeliuB 

AEC, AECVR, Aecorna, Aecurua (dea) 

AEClVOB 
AED aedes 

A ED aedilis 

AED aedituus 

AED'GKR aedilis cerialis 
AED'COL aedilis coloniae 
AED-CVR aedilis curulis 
AEDD aediles (duo) 

AEDD'QQ aediles quinquennales 
AED'EQ aedilitas equestris 
AED-ET-PR-SAC- aedilis et praetor sacrisVol- 

VOLK'FAC cano faciundis 

AED'HAB'IVE" aedilis habens jurisdiction em* 

DIC'Q'PRO" quaestoris pro praetore 

PEAET 
AEDIO aedicula 

AED'I'D aedilis jure dicundo 
AEDIF aedificavit * 

AED IT aedituus 

AED-IVR'DIC aedilis jure dicundo 
AED-LVSTR aedilis lustralis 
AED'P aedilicia potestate 

AED-PL aedilis plebi 
AED-PL-CER aedilis plebis cerialis 
AED'PRO'Q aedilis pro quaestore 
AED>'Q'P aedilis quaestoriciae potestatis 
AED'V'A'S'P" aedilem viis aedibus ? sacris ? 

P'Y'B'D'R" publicis ? procurandis ? virum 

p-O'V'F bonum dignura republica ora- 

mus ut faciatis 
AED-POT aedilicia potestate 
AE(J Aegyptus 

AEL Aelius, Aelia 

AEM Aemilia (tribus et regio) 

AEMI, AEMIL, AEMILI Aemilia (tribus) 
AE'PI-F'FI aeterna pia felix fidelis 
AER aera 

AEK aerarium 

> (7. /. L. VIII. 277T, 



AER aereus . 

AER aera (= stipendia) 

AEE'COLL aere collate 

AER'MIL aerarium militare 

AER'8, SAT aerarium Saturni 

AEST aestimatus 

AET aeternus, aeterna 

AEV^ evocatus 

AF, AFR ^Africa 

A FRVM a frumento 

A FEVMCVB a frumento cubicularlorum 

AG ager 

AG Agon alia 

A GIT agitator 

AGO, AGON Agojialia 

AGONOTH agonotheta 

AGR agrarla 

AGR'DAND- agrls dandis adtribuendis iudi- 

ADTR-IVD candis 
A'G'T augustus 

AG-*V*P'P agens vices praefectorum praetorio 
A'G'IV'C'P arborura genera quattuor cetera 

privata 
A'H'N'P ad heredem non pertinet 
A'I'A agris iudicandis adsignandis 

AID aidilis 

AID-CVR aedilis curulis 
AID'PL aedilis plebis 
AID*8EN"00P aedilis senator cooptatus 
A'lN'C area in circuitu ? 

A'L actarius legati 

A'L (et si qui) alii liberti (erunt) 

A'L'F animo libens fecit 

A'L Augusti, Augustae libertus, llberta 

A'L'XXXIII area lata (pedes) XXXIII 
ALAMANN Alamannicus 
ALB"VET album veteranorum 
A'L'F animo libente fecit 

A LIB a libris 

ALIM alimenta 

ALIMENT alimentarius 
ALLECT-ARK allector areae 
ALLEC'IN V allectus in quinque decurias 

DECVR 
ALP Alpini (cohors) 

A"L'P animo libens posuit 

ALT altua 

ALVTIBET-RIP- (curator) alvei Tiberis et ri- 

ET'OLOAC'VRB parum etcloacarum urbis 
AM'B"M amico bene raerenti 
A'M'C amicis memoriae causa 

A MIL a militiis 

AMP amphora 

AN annus, anno, annum, annorum, 



AJSr 



annis, annos 
Aniensis (tribus) 

2 a I. I. VIII. 419T. 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



419 



AN Annius 

AN'D ante diem 

ANI, ANIE, ANIKN, Aniensis (tribus) 

ANlENti, ANIE8 
ANN Aniensis (tribus) 

ANN annona 

ANNI Aniensis (tribus) 

ANN 'FE annona fruraentaria 
ANN'V'K annona urbis Eomae 
AN'P anno provinciae 

ANT Antonius 

ANTESIGN ante&ignanus 
AN-XV*PK annorum quindeoim progressus 

H"0'C"S hostem occidit civera seiTavit 
A'O amico optimo 

A'O'F'C amico optimo faciundum curavit 
A*P aedilicia potestate 

A'P animo pio ? 

A"P anno provinciae 

AP Apollinaris (legio) 

AP Apollo 

A P (tribunus militum) a popolo 

AP Appius 

AP Aprilis 

A'P area publica 

A"P argenti pondo 

A'P'C ager publicus Cirtensium 

A'PL'M'IVG- agri plus minus iugera 
APOL, APOLLIN Apollinaris (legio) 
A POP (tribunus militum) a populo 

APP appellationes 

APP Appius 

A'P'R aerarium populi Eomani 

APE Aprilis 

A*P"E'C anno post Eomam condltam 
A'PV argento publico 

AQ aqua, aguarius 

A Q a quaestionibus 

AQ'CO aquarius cohortis 

A Q'P, PE a quaestionibus praefeeti 
AQ-8TA Aquae Statiellae 
AQV aquillfer 

AQV, AQVA aquarius 
A Q'E'R'P* (ei) ad quern ea res pei'tinet, perti- 

PR'L nebit recte licet 

AQVIL aquillfer 

AQVIT Aqultani (cohors) 

A E a rationibus 

AE arietes 

AE Amensis (tribus) 

AE " artlfex 

AE Aruns 

AEAB Arabicus 

A ^AT, A EATION a rationibu8 
ARB, AEBITE arbUratu 
ARC area, arcarius 

AKC archimiraus 

AEC architectus 



AROHIG archigallue 

A ECH IG archigybernes 

AECHIT architectus 

ARC'MVST archimista 

ARG argentarius 

ARG argenteus 

AEG argentum 

AEG'P argenti pondo 

AEG'PVB argento publico 

AEG'P'V- argenti p(oiido) V pecunia Bua 

P-8-P posuit 

AR£ area, arcarius 

AEM armamentarium 

A EM armatura 

AEM 1 armatus or armiger (Mars) 

AEM Armenia 

ARM armilustrium 

ARMATV armatura 

ARM armorum (=armorum custos) 
ARM'CVST" armorum custos 
ARMEN, AEMENIAC Armeniacus 

ARMO armorum (custos) 
ARN, ARNE, AENEN, Arnensis (tribus) 

ARNENS 
AENI, AENIEN, ARNN Arniensis (tribus) 

ART Arvalis 

A'SA ala Sabiniana 

AS a sacris 

AS a senatu 

AS a solo 

A80 ascia 

ASC Asclepiades 

A S'F, F'C a solo fecit, fecerunt, faciendum 

curavit, curaverunt 

ASP aspritudines 

AST (h)aBtatus (prior, posterior) 

AST Astures (ala) 

A SVBSGE a subscriptionibus 

ATR, ATRI atriensis, atriariua 

AT Atta or Attus 

A*V aediles vici 

A'V argenti unciae 

A'V ave or ave vale 

AV Augustus, Augusta 

AV Aulus 

AV Aurelius^ 

AVCT auctoritate 

A'V'F"0'D' aediles vici Furfensis opus de vici 

V'S'O scitu curarunt^ 

AVG augur 

ATG augustalis 

AVG Augustus, Augusta 

AV6G August! (duo) 

1 Brambacb, 996. 

2 Wilmanns {Ea:empla, p. 712) thinks this is 
corrupted from the earlier M{agi8iri) vHci) 

/(aeitrndimi) c{uraruni) d{e) viici) 8c{iiu). 



420 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



AVGGG August! (tres) 

AVGG NN August! nostri (duo) 

AVG'L August! I!bertu8 

AVG'MAX' augur maximus augurura (CIrta 

AVG and Cu!cul) 

AVG'W Augustus noster 

AVG'P'AN" Augusta Pannoniorum Antonlni- 

ana (ala) 
AVG'P'F Augusta p!a fldel!s (leg!o) 
AVG-P*FCO Augusta pia fidel!s Comraoda 
AVG'PP augustal!s perpetuus 
AVG'PVB' augur publicus populiroraan! Qui- 

P-R-Q r!t!uin 

AVGVS Augustus (meiis!s) 

AVGVST augustalis, augustalitas 
AVGVST Augustal!s (sodal!8) Claudialis 

CLAVDIAL 
AVGVST-PERP augustal!s perpetuus 
A'V'L agens v!ces legat! 

AVN 1 avunculus 

A*V*P agens vices praesidls 

AVE aurariae 

AVE AureUus 

AVE Auriana (ala) 

AVEE AureU! (duo) 

AVTHEM authenaenim 
A YG 2 Aegyptus 



B 



B 

B 

B 

BS 

B 

B 

B 

B 



Badius 

beneficiarius 

Bellnus 

beteranus = veteranuB 

bixit = vixit 

bonus, a 

bos 

brachium (secundum, terfium) 
etc.* 
B beneflclarius 

BAD badius 

BAL balneator 

B'A'S ; B"AVG'8 Bacac! Augusto sacrum 
BASIL, BASSIL basilica 
BB beneflclari! 

B'B bonis bene 

B'B'ET'MAL'B bonis bene et mails bene 
BB-FF beneficiarii 

B"B'M"B bonis bene, malls bene 
B'B'M'M bonis bene, mails male 
BB'MM bene inerenti 

BBVV bonl viri 

BB'W'QQ boni viri quinquennales 
BB- beneficiarii 

B'COS, CONS beneficiarlus consularis 



> Wphem. Ep. III. 158. 
'• C. I. L. X. 749. 



2 a I. L. III. 35. 

* See page 334. 



B'D Bona dea 

B-D'M bene de (se) merentl? 

B'D'S'M bene ds se merenti 

BE beneficiarlus 

BE*DE*S*M bene de se merentl 

BEL Belgae (cohors) 

BE'ME benemerentl 

B'EMMFECI bene merentl memorlam fecit 

BENE'D'S-M bene de se merentl 

BENEF beneficium 

BENEM beneraerenti 

BENIF benificiarius = beneficiarlus 

BE-ME'DE bene merenti de (se) 

BE-ME-DE'S bene merentl de se 

BE'ME'FEC bene merenti fecit 

BENEFIC, BENIF 6 beneficiarius 

BEN'M benemerentl 

BEN'MER bene merentl 

BEN'M'M'F bene merentl memoriam fecit 

BE'TR beneficiarius tribuni 

B'F, BF beneficiarlus, beneflclatus 

B*F Bona Fortuna 

B'F bonum factum ? 

B'P bos femlna 

BF, 9=" beneficiarlus 

B'F-A*IVNCT boves feminae auro jimctae 

BF'COS beneficiarius consularis 

BF'LEG'LEG beneficiarius legatl legionis 

BF'SEXM beneficiarius (tribuni) semestris 

BIB- bibes 

BIP bipedalis 

BIS bisellarius 

BIS F bis fusum (vinum) 

BIS'VI'AVG bisellarius sevir Augustalis 

BIX'PEI blxellarius ( = vexillarius) princi- 
palis 

B'K'M beteranus classis Misenensls 

B'M bene merentl 

B'M bona mens 

B'M bonae memoriae, or bene memo- 

rius 
bos mas 

bene merenti de (se) 
bene merenti de se 
bene merenti de se fecerunt 
bene merentl fecit 
bonae memoriae femlna 
bene merenti faclundum curavit 

or curaverunt 
bene merenti fecerunt de suo 
bene merenti fecit 
bene merentl fecerunt 
bene merenti memoriam posuit 
bene merenti posuit 
bonae memoriae puella 
bene merentl ponendum curavit 

B C. I. L. III. 1956. 



BM 

BM-D 

BMDS 

BMDS-F 

BMF 

BMF 

B-M-FC 

BMF-D-S 

B-MFEC 

B-M-FF 

B-MMP 

BMP 

BMP 

BM-PC 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



421 



BME 


bonae memoriae religiosa 


C 


comitialis (dies) 


BM-8 


bonae memoriae sacrum 





communis (hora) 


BM-V 


bonae memoriae vir 





compos (voti) 


BN 


bene 


c 


condemno, condemnato 


BNM 


bene merenti 





condidit 


BNM 


bonae memoriae 





congiuB 


BOPIF 


bona opifera 


c 


coniux [m. or /.) 


BP 


bonus puer (deus) 





consule, consulibus 


BPE 


beneficiarius praefecti 


c 


constans (legio) 


BPKPE 


beneficiarius praefectorum prae- 


c 


crocodes 




torio 


c 


cuneus 


BQ 


bene quiescat or quiescant 


c 


curator, curavit or curaverunt, 


BB 


Breuci (oohors), Britones (cohors) 




curante or curantibus 


BR 


Britannia 


c 


curia 


BEAC 


Bracaraugustani (cohors) 





caput? 


BEITO 


Britones (numerus) 


9- 


centurio 


BEIT 


Bruttium 


0,1,-. 


Gaia = femina 


BEITT 


Britones (numerus) 





conductor 


BEN 


bono rei publicae natus 


7 


contra (legem, retiarius, etc.) 


BEP-N 


bono rei publicae natus 


0,7 


contrascriptor 


B-8 


bonus suis 1 


7 


conventus 


B-S, SEC 


brachium secundum 





coronarum in inscriptions of gladi- 


BSPE 


beneficiarius subpraefecti 




ators 


BTE 


beneficiarius tribuni 


CA 


candidatus 


BV 


bene vale 


CA 


carcerarius 


BV, BVC, 


BVOC BVOIN buccinator 


CA 


carissimo 


BVL 


buleuta 


C-A 


curam agens or curam egit 


BVSIG 


bucranium siguavit 


C-A 


custos armorum 


BVIX 


bene vixit 


C-AA-A 


colonia Aelia Augusta Aeclanum 


BVSV 


buccinator supra (numerum) 


CA-AQ 


colonia Aurelia Aquensium 


BVT 


balnea, vina, Venus 


CADAI 


colonis agrorum dandornm adsi- 
gnandorum jus 




c 


CAEL, CAELT Caelestis (dea) 






CAES 


Caesar 





cacus, capsarius 


CAE8 


caesura 


C 


Caesar 


CAE9AEIBB Caesaribus (duobus) 


C 


Gaius 


,CAES-N 


Caesar noster 





Kaleadae 


C-AGENT 


curam agente 





candidatus 


CAL 


Calabria 





castrum, castra 


CAL 


caligo 


C 


cedit 


CALAB 


Calabria 


0, C» 


centurio 


CALC 


calciator 


C 


censuere 


CAM 


Camilla (tribus) 





cicatrices 


CAMD 


campidoctor 





cineres 


CAMIL 


Camilla (tribus) 


c 


circiter 


CAMP 


Campania 


c 


circus, oircenses (Indi) 


CAMP 


campestris (cohors) 


c 


citra 


CAMPED 3 


campidoctor 


c 


civis, civitas 


CAN 


canabae, canabenses 





claritas 


CAN 


Canathcni (cohors) 


c 


classiarius 


C-A-N 


colonia Augusta Nemausus 


c 


Claudius, Claudia (tribus) 


CAND, CANDID candidatus 


(QVK) C- (VINSIN)2 (cam) oo (vixi) 


CANN 


Canninefates (ala) 





.codicillarius 


CAP, CAPIT capitalis 





cohors 


C-AQ 


civis Aquensls 


c 


colouia, colonus 


OAR 


carcerarius 


1 See page 188. 2 c. I. L. IX. 2892. 




» 0. I. L. V. 8778. 



422 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



CAE 


Garmentalia 


CAK 


CarpicttB 


CAE-M 


Oarpious maxlmns 


CAEC 


oaroerarius 


CAS 


castra, castria ioriimdua) 


OATEE 


Oaterenses = Cattherenses (nume- 


CATTHR 


rus) 
Cattharenses (numerus) 


CB 


oolonia Beneventana 


CB 


compos boti ? 


OB 


coniux bona 


C-BEL 


civiB BellovacuB 


o-B-r 


coDiugi bonae fecit 


C-B-M 


conjugi bene merenti 


CBM-F 


coujugi bene merenti fecit 


0-B-MP 


coniugi bene merenti posult 


CO 


Caesares (duo) 


CO 


Gaii duo 


CO 


censuerunt cuncti 


C-C 


certa constans (legio) 


CO 


cives C... 


C-0 


collegium centonariorum 


C-C 


colonla Claudia 


C-C 


coloni coloniae 


C-C 


constans Commoda 


c-0 


(agens) curam careens 


33, E, 3 


Galae (=feminae) duae 


CCA 


Oaesaribus (duobus) 


C-C-A 


oolonia Oaesaraugusta 


C-C-A-A-A 


coloni coloniae Augusta Alexan- 




drianae Abellinatium 


c-c-c 


coire convocari cogi 


c-c-c 


oolonia Oopia Claudia 


c-c-c 


tres Gaii 


c-c-0 


cum consilio coUocutus 


000 


Gaiae (= feminae) tres 


C-CO-AVG 


- colonia Claudia Oopia Augusta 


LVG 


Lugudunum 


C-C-O'D 


cum consilio coUocutus dixit 


C-CC-IVL 


coloni coloniae Olaritatis luliae 


C-OENT 


collegium centonariorum 


C-C-I-K 


coloni coloniae luliae Karthaginis 


c-0-i-v-o- 


coloni coloniae luliae Veneriae 


• 8-N 


Oirtae Siccae nostrae 


0-C-N 


coloni Oastri Novani 


00-NN 


Caesares nostri 


0-0-E 


curator civium Eomanorum 


C-0-E-OON 


curator civium Eomanorum con- 


HE 


ventus HePvetici] 


CO-SB 


consulibus 


CO-VV, C-C-V-V olarissimi yiri 


00 EXSEEO centuriones (duo) exeroltatores 


C-D 


compos dat 


C-D 


consulto decurionum 


C-D-D 


creatus decreto decurionum 


0-E 


curam egit 


0-E-B-Q 


eineres eius bene quiescant 


CEL 


cells 



OEN 


censor 


CEN 


ccnturio 


CEN8 


censitor 


CEN8 


censor, censores 


0EN8 


censuit, censuerunt 


OENS-ACO 


(legatus Augnsti) censibus acci- 




piendis 


CENT 


centenarius 


CENT 


centonarii 


CENT 


ccnturio 


CENTO 


centonarii 


0-E-Q 


eineres ei quiescant or curam egit, 




Quintus 


CEE 


Oerealia 


CE8 


censor, censores 


C-F 


clarissima femina 


C-F 


clarissimus filius 


C-F 


coniux fecit 


C-F-C 


censores faciundum curarunt 


0-F-O-C 


collegium fabrum centonariorum 




Comensium 


C-F-C 


coniux faciendum curavit 


C-F-F 


carissimae filiae fecit 


C-F-N 


conductor ferrariarum Noricai-um 


7FE 


centurio frumentariorum 


0-G 


civis gratissimus ? 


O-G-P-F 


cohortes germanicae piae fideles 


OH 


c(o)hors 


CHELID 


chelidonium 


OHO, OHOE o(o)hor8 


c-i 


clarissimus iuvenis 


o-i 


colonia lulia 


C-I-A-A 


colonia lulia Augusta ApolllnarlB 


C-I-0 


■colonia lulia Carcase 


CIC, OIOA 


cicatrices 


CICATEI-V cicatrices veteres 


C-I-F-S 


colonia lulia Felix Sinope 


0-I-K 


colonia lulia Karthago 


O-I-P-O'N-M colonia lulia Paterna Claudia 




Narbo Martins 


C-I-P-A 


colonia lulia Paterna Arelate 


CIET 


Oirtenses (cohors) 


c-rs 


colonia lulia secundanorum 


OIV 


civis, clvitas, civitate ioriimdus) 


OIV-AQV 


civis Aquensis 


CIVI-SVMA ciTitate Sumalocenna 


CIVIT 


ci vitas 


C-IVL-N 


colonia lulia Wumidica (Simitthus) 


0-K 


coniux karissima 


0-K-F 


coniugi karissimae fecit 


C-L 


Gaii libertus, liberta 


C-L 


cives Latini ? 


CL 


clarissimus, claritas 


OL 


classis 


CL 


Claudius. Claudia, Claudialla 


CL 


Olustumina (tribus) 


C-L 


colonia Lambaesitana 


OL 


oohliberti ? 



Table oi* abbreviations 



42g 



0*L molleriB llbertus, liberta 

L*0 mulieris liberta 

CLA Claudia (tribus) 

CLA'BRI classis Britannica 
CL-ALIS ClaudiaUs ? 
CLA claritas 

CLAB clarissimuB, clarisBima 

CLAE'ET clarissiina et inlustris femina 

INLFEM 
CLARI claritas 

CLAS'BRIT classis Britannica 
CLAS'FR classis praetoria 
CLASS classicus 

CLAY, CLAVD Claudia (tribus) 
CLA YD ClaudiaUs (flamen) 
CL'BR, CL-BRIT classis Britannica 
CL'G'P'F classis Germanica pia fidelis 
CL'PR classis praetoria 

CL*PR"M, MIS classis praetoria Misenensis , 
CL'PR'RAY, classis praetoria Ravennas 

RAYEN 
CL'Y clarissimus vir 

CLY, CLYS, CLYST Clustumina (tribus) 
C"M civitas Mattiacorum 

.C'M collegium or corpus mensorum 

C'M'F clarissimae memoriae femina 

C'M'P ; C'M'Y clarissimae memoriae puer, vir 
C'N Caesar noster 

CN Gnaeus 

C'O civitas or colonia Nemauaensium 

CN consulatus 

GNAT natus 

CNS consulatus 

CNTA cognata ? 

CO codicillarius 

CO cohors 

CO coniux 

C'O coniugi optimo 

CO Coventina (dea) 

CO'CA coniugi carissimo 

COD codicillarius 

COD-TE codicillarius tribuni 
COER coeravit = curavit 

COGN'SACE cognitiones sacrae 
COH cohors 

COHERE coheredes 
COHH cohortes 

COH'I'C'R cohors I civiura Romanoram 
COH'EQ'M cohors equitata miliaria 
COH-I-F-PED cohors I Flavia peditata 
COH'I'FL" cob. I Flavia miliaria equitata 

ooEQ'SAG sagittariorum 
COH'I'P'C cohors I pia constans 
COH' .. PR cohors praetoria 
CQH- .. VIG cohors vigilum 
COH"I"YLP cohors I Ulpia...Antoninlana 

.. ANT 
COHVRB cohors urbana 



COINQ coinquendi 

COIE coirarunt = curarunt 

COL collegium, collega 

COL Collina (tribus) 

COL colonia, coloni, colonicus ? 

COL columbarium 

COL'BEN" colonia Beneventum 

COL'CENT collegium centonarionim 

COL'COL coloni coloniae 

COL'CONC ■ colonia Concordia Ulpia (Hadrume- 

YLP tum) 

COL-FAB collegium fabrum 
COL'F'I'A' colonia Faventia lulia Augusta 

P'BAEC Pia (Barcino) 
COL'FLAYG colonia Flavia Augusta 
COL'HORR coloniae horrearius 
COL'IYL'G colonia lulia Gemina 
COL-I-Y-T colonia lulia Victrix Trjumphalis 
COL'EAL coUocatuni Kalendis... 
COLL coUapsum 

COLL collegium 

COLL coloniae 

COLLIB colHbertus 
COL'LIB coloniae libertua 
COLL'AEE collegium aerariorum 
COLL'CENT collegium centonariorum 
COLL'DENDR collegium dendrophorum 
COLL-FAB, FABR coUegium fabrum 
COLL'FAB' coUegium fabrum et ceutonario- 

ET'CENT rum 
COLLIN Collina (tribus) 
COL'L, LIB coloniae libertus, Uberta 
COLL'S'S* collegium suprascriptum 
COLON'G* colonia Gallieniana (?) Augusta Fe- 

A'F'MED Ux Mediolanum 
COL'SAEN'MIL colonia Sarniensis Milev 
COL-SEP colonia Septimia 
COL'SEE coloniae servus 
COL'YAL colonia Yalentia 
COL* YEN colonia Yeneria 
COL-YEN-COE colonia Yeneria Cornelia 
COL-YLP colonia Ulpia 
COM Commageui (cohors) 

COM comes 

COM commanipularis 

COM commentariensia 

COM commune 

C'O'M cum omnibus meis 

COM'AYG comes Augusti 
COM'L commentariorum loca 

COMM, COM- commentaria, commentariensia 

MEN 
COMMIL coramUito 
COM'S'BM commilitoni suo bene merenti 
COM'S'C comes sacri consistorii 
COMTAE commutare 
CON coniux 

CON constat 



424 



LATIN INSCKIPTIOJ^S 



CON coDsnl 

CON contubernalls 

CON'B'M coniugi bene merenti 

CON'CELL contubernalis cellarius 

COND conductor 

CON'FEK' conductor ferrariarum Norici, 

N'P'D Pannoniae, Daciae ? 

COND'P'P conductor publici portorii 
GOND-P-P'ILL- conductor publici portorii 111- 

YRIC'ET R-T yrici et rlpae Thraciae , 
CONDVO conductor 
COND'IIir conductor quatuor publicorum Af- 

P-AFE ricae 

CON'FER" conductor ferrariarum Noricarum 

N'P'D . partis? dimidiae? 

CONG coniugi 

CON'KAR coniugi carissimo 
CONL conlatus 

CONL conlegium 

CON'M"F coniugi merenti or memoriara 

fecit 
CONNSS consulibuB 
CON'E'F'C coniugi rarissimo faciundum cura- 

vit 
CONS consensu . 

CONS conservuH 

CONS cousistens 

CONS Consualia 

CONS consul, consulibus, consularis, con- 

sulatus 
C0N8"MEM'V consularis memoriae vir 

CONS'ORD consul ordinarius 

CONS'P consularis provinclae 

CONS'P'S consularis provinciae Siciliae 

C0NS8 consules 

CONS'S'S consulibus supra scriptis 

CONT contarii (ala) 

CONVEC convectio 

CONV convenerunt 

COOPT cooptatus 

CO'P coniugi pientissimae . 

COR cohors 

COR Cornelia (tribus) 

COB cornicen, cornicularius 

COE corpus, corporati 

COR curavit 

COR corona 

00"RA"FE coniugi rarissimo fecit 

COR 'ANAL corona analempsiaca 

COR'AVE corona aurea 

COR'CLASS corona classica 

COR'FAB coi'pus fabrum 

COR'MVR corona muralis 

CORN, CORNIC cornicen, cornicularius 

CORP-CYST corporis custos 

CORPOE corporati, corporis 
COEPOR'C corporatus Caesariensis 
COEP'N'RHO corpus nautarum Ehodanfcorum 



COR"PE cornicularius praefecti 

COEE corrector ' 

COE'SPR cornicularius subpraefecti 

COR'T, TRIE cornicularius tribani 

COR'VALL corona vallaris 

COS consul, consules, consularis 

COS'A*A-S' consules alter ambove si eis vlde- 

E-V retur 

COS"AD LEG consistentes ad legionem 
COS'AMPL consul amplissimus 
COSE consensu ^ 

COSOB-CVR-EGI consobrinus curam e^t 
COS'ORD consul ordinarius 
COSS consules 

CO'TR codicillariuB tribuni 

COVET Coventina (dea) 

CO'VI'CE'P cohors sexta, centuria prima 
C'P'O cacus praefecti cohortium 

C'P Castor (et) Pollux 

C*P ' castra praetoria 
C'P censoria potestate 

C'P ciarissimus puer 

C'P, C'S! clarissima puella 
C'P comprobatum pondus 

C'P coniugi pientissimae or posuit 

C'P cui praeest 

C'P'C cacus praefecti cohortium 

C'P'EST cul praeest 
C'P'F Claudia pia fidelis (legio) 

C'P'L civitas Pietonum Limonum 

C'P'M clasais praetoria Misenensis 

C'P'M'P coniugi pientissimae memoriam 

posuit 
C'P'P conductor publici portorii 

C'P'Q'K ciarissimus puer quaestor candi- 
datus 

C'Q cum quo or cum qua (visit) 

C'Q'V cum quo or qua vixit 

C'Q'V'A cum quo or qua vixit annis 

C'R civis Romanus ; cives Romani ; 

civitas Eomana 

GREM creraavit 

CEET'ET C Creta et Cyrenae 

7 RET contraretiarius 

CRIOB criobolium 

C'R'M cives Romani Mbgontiaci 

C'E'P curator rei publicae "" 

CRY, CEY8T Clustumina (tribus) 

CRY8T, CRY8TYL crustulum 

CS Caesar 

C'S carissimus sibi 

G'S carus or cara suis 

C'S coniugi sanctissimae 

C'S coniugi suae 

C'S (de) conscriptorum (?) sententia 

CS consularis 

C'S cum suis 

O'S contrascriptor 



TABLE OF ABiiliEVlATIONS 



425 



C'S'B'M coniugi suae ? benemerenti 
C'SG genas scissaa ion a:^ ocuUsVs 

stwmp) 
OSC or 78C, 8CB contra scriptor 
C'S'P'N'C consularis sexfascalis provinciae 
Numtdiae Constantinae 

civitas saltus Nucerini 

cum 3uis omnibus 

civitas Tolosa 

catabolensis 

codicillai'ius tribuni 



C-S-N 

c-so 

CT> 

C-T, TK 

CTK, TEE civitas Treverorum 



O TRA 

c-v 

CV 
C-V 

CV 



contra 
civitas ITlpia 
ciarissimus vir 
colonia Vienuensis, 

oenses 
cura, curator 



colon! Vien- 



CV-IB 
CVIPE 
CVLT 
C-VM-P 

CVN 
CVNC" 
CVNS» 
CVE 

CVE 
CVK 
OVEA 

CVKA 

CVE-AEE 

CVR-AG 



CVB, CVBIC, CVBICV cubicularius 

coionia Yictrix lulia Baeterrae 

cui praeest 

cultores 

cum ? uxore ? memoriam posuit 

cuneus 

cuncubioa 

consul 

cura, curavit, curante or curantl- 
bus, curator 

curia 

curulis 

coioni veteres ? Eeienses ApolU- 
nares 

curavit 

curator aerarii 

curam agens 
CVE-ALVTIB curator alvei Tiberis 
CVE-ANN" curator annonae 

curator 

curator coloniae 

curator frumenti publici f 

curator iuventutis 

curator kalendarii 

curator Miniciae 

curator pecuniae publlcae 

curator rei publlcae 

cura tores 

curator scolae 
CVR"VIAT curator viarum 
CVE' H'F'L curator denariis flandis 
CVS'BASIL custos basillcae 
CVST custos 

CVST-TABVL custos tabularii 
CY-IV colonia Ulpia Traiana Poetoylo 
CYMBAL eymbalistria 

» O. I. L. VIII. 2408. 

2 Orelli, 2468. 

3 C. 1. L. XII. 2884 (year 491). 



CVEAT 
CVECOL 
CVKFP 
CVE-IVV 
CVEKAL 
CVEMIN 
CVEPP 
CVEEP 
CVEE 
•CVESCO 



CYE, CTEEN Cyrenaica (legio, cohors) 
CYE, CYEIN Quirlna ttribus) 



D 


Dalmatia ? 


D 


dat, donum 


D 


deourio 


D 


deus, dea 


D 


decern 


D 


December (mensis) 


D 


Decimus 


D 


decessit 


D 


decimanus 


D 


decretom 


D 


decurio, decuriones, deeoria 


D 


dedit, dederunt, datum 


D 


deflinctus 


D 


denarius 


D 


designatus 


D 


Diana 


D 


dies, die, diebus 


D 


dignus 


D 


dispensator 


D 


divus 


D 


dixit 


D 


doctor 


D 


dominus, domina 


D 


dome 


D 


donavit, donaverunt, donat, do 




nant, donatus 


D 


duumvir 


D 


duplarius, duplicarius 


D 


dux 


B 


defunctus, dicit, dies, dome 


DA 


Daci (cohors) 


DA 


defunctus annorum 


DA 


discens aquiliferum 


DAC 


DacicuB 



DAC-APVL Dacia Apulensis 
DAC'MALV Dacia Malvensis 
DACPOROL Dacia Porolissensis 
D'ACC deacceptore 

DA'M Dacicus inaximus 

DAMAS Damasceni (cohors) 

discens aquiliferum 

discens armaturam 
D'A'E'AECAIi discens a rationibus arcarii 
DAT'COLL'S'S datum coUeg-io supra scripto 
"^■"^' de (se) bene merenti ? 

d(iis ?) b(onis) sacrum 

decreto con scrip torum or decuri- 
onum consulto 

decurio civitatis, or coloniae 

decessit 

decurio 

decurioTiMTn consensu or decreto 
conscripbCium 



D-AQ 
D'AK 



DBM 
DBS 
DC 



DC 
DO 
DC 
DC 



426 



LAfIN INSCRIP-TIONS 



DCD 


de conscriptoram decreto 


OCOL 


de collegia 


D'C'E'MOG decurio civium Bomanorum Mo- 




gontiaci 


DC-8 


de conscriptorum sententia 


D-C8 


de consilii sententia 


DOS 


de coUegii sententia 


DCSC 


de conscriptorum sententia cura- 




verunt 


DCSM 


dulcissimae 


DCOLLS 


de collegii sententia 


DCS-T 


decurio ciyitatis saltus Taunensls 


DD 


damnas damnates 


DD 


dare debebit, dare debeto 


DD 


deaDia 


DD 


dea Diana 


DD 


decreto deourionum 


DD 


dedit dedicavit or donum (dono) 




dedit, or dedicavit (dedicatus, 




dedicante) 


DD» 


defensor ? 


DD 


devoti 


DD 




DD 


dii deae 


DD 


domini duo 


DD 


domus divina 


DDD 


datum deoreto decuriomim 


DDD 


deo donum dedit 


DDD 


dedit dedicavit? 


DDD 


domini tres 


DDD 


dono dedit dedicavit; or dedit 




dedicavit 


D-D-D-ADL, deoreto deourionum deourio ad- 


ADLECT 


lectus 


DDDD 


datum de decreto deourionum ? 


DDDD 


donum dat dicat dedicate 


DDDD- 


donum dat dicat dedicat libens 


L-M 


merito 


DDDE-8 


dare damnas damnates esto sun to 


DDD-L 


donum dat dedicat libens ? 


DDD-N 


datus decreto deourionum Nemau- 




sensinm 


DDDNNN 


domini nostri tres 


DDD • NNN- domini noatri Havil (trea) 


FPFLLL 




DDE 


dare damnas esto 


DDEL-8 


de deleotorum sententia 


DDHO 


deoreto deourionum hic'conBacra- 




vit 


D-D-i 


dis deabus immortalibus f 


DDL 


donum dedit libens ? 


DDLD- 


dono dedit or dedit dedicavit 


DD 


loco dato decreto deourionum 


DD-LM 


donum dedit libens merito 


DD-MCF 


decreto deourionum munioipli 




Geleiani facta 



DD-MM Diis Manibus 

D'D-N-N, DDNN domini nostri (duo) 

DD'NN'NOBB' domini nostri (duo) nobilissimi 



0AE8S 


Oaesares 


DDO 


dis deabus omnibus 


DDO 


donum dato o ? , . 


DDP 


decurionum decreto publico 


DDPEO- 


decreto decurionum pecunia pub- 


PTB 


lica 


DDPP 


decreto decurionum pecunia pub- 




lica 


D-D-P-P-P 


decreto decurionum pecunia pub- 




lica poBuerunt 


D-D-Q 


dedicavit que 


D-D-8 


de decurionum sententia 


D-D-8P-0 


de decurionum sententia feclun- 




dum curavit, curaverunt 


DD8 


dedit or dederunt de suo 


DD-8-P 


dedit de sua pecunia ? 


D-D-8S 


deus dominus sanctissimus Sa- 




turnuB 


D-DTL 


dono dedit votum laetus libens 


L-M 


merito 


D-D-T-SL- 


dono dato votum solvit libens 


L-M 


laetus merito 


DE 


dea 


DE 


decern 


DE 


December (menste) 


DE 


decurio 


DE 


devotus 


DEO 


December 


DEO 


decemiugis 


DEC 


decessit 


DEC 


Decimus 


DEO 


decretum 


DEC 


decurio, deeuriones, decurionatus ; 


" 


decuria, decurialis 


DECC 


deeuriones (duo) 


DEO-C-A 


decurio coloniae Agripplnensis 


DEC-C08- 


decuria congularis et praetoria 



decurialis decuriae 
decurionum decreto 



» a I. L. X. 701T. 



ETPK 

DEODEC 

DECDEO, 

DEOE 
DEC*N"M-M decurio numeri militum M„ 
DE C0NL-8ENT de conlegii sententia 
DECPOP-Q deeuriones populns que 
DECK decretum, decrevit 

DECE-DEC decreto decurionum 
DE C'S de consilii sententia 

DEOV decurio 

DEC-VIAT decuria vlatorum 
DED dedit or dedicavit, dedicatUB 

DED deductns 

DEDO dedicatus 

DE'D'D-L Deanae ? donum dat libens 
DEDXX-P- deducta vigesima popu'i Romani 

KD dedit 



TABLE OF ABBKEVIATIONS 



427 



DEF defunctuB 

DEF'ANN defunctus annomm (tot) 

D'ET'V'L decurioDes et familia villae Liicul- 

laBae? 
DEIOT Deiotariana (legio) 

DEL delator 

DELIC deliciaris 

DELM Dalmatae (cohors) 

DEND, DENDR dendrophori 
DENDEOPHORE dendrophori 
DEP depositus 

BE PAG-8EN de pagi sententia 
DE PAG-'SEN* de pagi sententia £aciundnin 

FAC'COER coerarunt 
DE PEQPOB de pequnia poblica 
DE PTB de publico 
D'EQ discens eqnitem 

D'E'E de ea re 

D'E'E"I"C de ea re ita censuere 
D*E*E"Q"D'E'A de ea re qua de re agetur 
DES designatus 

DE8CR descriptum 

DE-SEN-SENT de senatuB Bententia 
DE9IG, DESIGN designatus 
DE S'P de sua pecunia 

DE S-S, DE 3-SEN, DE SEN- de senatus sen- 

8ENT, DE SENA -SEN tentia 

BEST destinatus 

DE 8VA PEQ, DE de sua pecunia 

BVA PECVN 
DESVLT desultores 
DEV'N'M' devotus numini maiestatique eius 

Q-EIVS 
DE YS, DE VI'S, DE YIC-S de vici Bcito 
DE V DEO de quinque decuriis 
D'F dare facere. 

D'F decima facta 

D-F defiglinis 

D'F defunctus 

D'F duplarius frumentarius ? 

D-F dulcissimae filiae 

D'F-P dare facere praestare 

D-^-p-EFFE- (hunc) decuriones fnnere pub- 

RVNDVM lico offerundum censuerunt 

GENS 
DI dimachaerus 

DIA diatheses 

DIABSOR diabsoricum 
DIACHO diacholes 
DIAGLA diaglaucen 
DIALER dialepidos 

DIAPSOR'OPO diapsoricum opobalsamatum 
DIAZMTR diazmyrnes 
DIG dictator 

DIC-N-M'Q" dicatus numini maie&tatique eius 

EIVS 
DICT dictator 

DIE S die solis 



DIFF difPusor 

DIG dig-nus 

D-I-I-M deuB invictus, InvictuB? MIthraB 

D-I'M dens invictus Mithras 

DIM dimidia 

D'l-M dis inferis Manibus 

DI'MA Di(is) Manibus or D(iis) i(nferis) 

Maalbus 
DI'N dierum numerus 

D'lNV'M deus invictus Mithras 
DIS dispensator 

DIS dispiinctor 

DIS'I'MA Diis in'eris Manibus 
DIS-M, MA, MAN, MANI Diis Manibus 
DIS'MAN-MEM Diis Manibus memoriae 
DI8P dispensator 

DISP dispunctor {particularly in 

Mauretania) 
DISPEN, DISPES dispensator 
DISP'P'S dispensator pi'ovinciae Sardiniae 
DISP-RAT'COP* dispensator rationis copianmi 

EXPED'FEL- expeditionum felicium Ger- 

GEEM manicanmi 

DISP'EEIP dispunctor rei publicae 
DISSIGN dissignator 
D'L dedit Ubens 

D-L'M dedit lubens raerito 

D-L deus Liber 

D'L die Lunae 

D*M dea magna or deima mater 

D'M deus Mithras 

D-M decurio municipii 

D'M devotae memoriae? 

D-M Diis Manibus 

D'M divino mandatu 

D'M dolus mains 

D'M'A-E* dolus mains abesto et iua civile or 

rC iurisconsultus 

D-M-E devotus maiestati eius 

D-M-ET M Diis Manibus et memoriae 
D-M 'I dea magna Idaea 

D-M'I Dis Manibus inferis 

D-M'ID dea magna Idaea or (mater) deum 

magna Tdaea 
D'M'IN Dis Manibus inferis 
D-M-S deo Mithrae sacrum 

D-M"S diis Manibus sacrum 

D'M-V'F diis Manibus vivus fecit 
D*N Dea Nehallenia 

D-N dominus noster 

D'N'M-E devotus numini maiestatique eius 
D'N'M'Q devotus numini maiestatique 
D-N'M-Q'E devotus numini maiestatique eius 
D'N*P-E devotus numini pietatique ? eius 
D'O dari oportet 

DO domino 

DO donum, donatus? 

DO'AF domo Africa 



428 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



DOC'EQ'AC P 1 doctor equitum ac peditum 

DOL doliaris 

DOL Dolichenus 

D'O'M^ deo Optimo maximo ? 

DOM-NOSTR dominus nosier 

DON donavit 

DON-POS donum posuit , 

D'P deproprio 

D"P deus patrius 

D'P diis Parentibus 

D'P donum posuit 

D'PAG'S de pagi ecitu or sententia 

D'P'D de proprio dedit 

D'P'DM » Diti patri, Diis Manibus 

D'P'E devotus pietati eius 

D"P*P dii Penates public! 

D'P'P de pecunia publica 

D'P'S de pagi scitu or sententia 

D'P'S de pecunia sua, or de parcimonio 

suo, or de peculio suo, or de 

proprio suo 
D'P*8"D de pecunia sua dedit 
D'P'S'D'D de pecunia sua dono dedit or dedit 

dedioavit 
D'P'S 'D'L* de pecunia sua dedit; loco date 

D'P publice 

D'P'S'F de pecunia sua fecit 
D'P'S'F'D de pecunia sua factum (factam) 

dedit 
D'P'S'P de pecunia sua posuit 
D-Q'PS Decimi quondam ? filia? 

D'Q decurio quaestor 

D'Q'A de qua agatur 

D'Q'L'S'T'T'L dicquilegis: sit tibi terra levis 
D'R'P dignum republica 

D'R'S deae Romae sacrum 

D'S de suo 

D'S deus sanctus, dea sancta 

D'S deus Saturnus 

D'S deus Silvanus 

D"S discens signiferum 

D'S (Silvano) domestico sacrum 

D'SANCT'SATVR dominus sanctus SaturnuB 
D'S'B'M de se bene meritus ■ 
D'S'D de sententia decurionum 

D'8'D de suo dedit (dat) 

D'S'D'D de suo donum dedit or dedicavit 
D'S'EX'VP de suo ex voto posuerunt 
D'S'F de suo fecit 

D'S'F'O de suo faciendum curavlt 
D'S'I'IMP deuB Sol invictus imperator 
D'S'I'M deus sol invictus Mithras 
D'S'L'L'M de suo laetus libens merito 

1 O. I. L. IX. 952. 

a a I. L. XII. 1069. Not a Christian inscrip- 
tion. 

8 Orelli, 1470. 



D'S'L'M de suo libens merito 

D'S'M de se meritus 

D'S'M Diis sacrum Manibus 

D'S'P de sua pecunia or de sub posuit 

D'S'P'C de suo ponendum curavit 

D'S'P'D de sua pecunia dedit 

D'S'P'D'D de sua pecunia dono dedit 

D'S'P'EX" de sua pecunia ex*decreto decuri- 

D*D onum 

DS'P'F de sua pecunia fecit 

D'S'P'F'C de sua pecunia faciendum curavit 

D'S'P'L'D" de suo posuit loco dato decreto 

D'D decurionum 

D'B'P'P de sua pecunia posuit 

D'S'P'R de sua pecunia restituit 

D'8'P'R'C de sua pecunia redciendum curavit 

D'S'R de suo restituit 

D'S'S de senatus sententia 

D'S'S desuo sibi? 

D'S'S'O'F de suo sibi coniugi filius? 

D'S'S'F'O de senatus sententia faciendum 

curavit 

D'S'V decreto senatus Vocontiorum 

D'S'V'L de suo vivus libens 

D'T dumtaxat 

D'T de tbesauro 

D'T'S diiteservent 

D'V duovir, duumvir 

D'V'V'A'S* duumvir viis aedibus sacris pub- 

P'P licis procurandis? (from Pom- 

peii) 

DVC ducenarius 

DVC'DVC duce ducenario ? 

D'V'I'D duum vir iure dicundo 

D'V'L'M dedit? or Dianae? votum? libenB 

merito 
DVM'T, TAX dum taxat 

DVPL duplariuB, duplicarins 
DVPLI, DVPLIO duplicarius 

D'T'S de vici scitu 

D'V'S'F'C" de vici scitu faciundum curarunt 

I'Q'P idemque probarunt 

D'X'PEIM' duplarius decern primus p... 

P'P p . . . . 

D'XX'P'R deducta vigesima populi Romani 



E 


eins 


E 


meres 


E 


est 


E 


eTOcatas 


E 


exscalpsit 


E-A-CA 


exactum ad Gastoris 


E-AB 


eques alae einsdem 


E-C 


eius causa ? 


ECD 


eodious 


ED 





TABLE OF ABBREVIATIOKS 



429 



EE-QQ equltes 

E'E'Q'Q'R'R equites Eomani 

EE ' V V egregii viri 

EE-VV, EE-MM-VV eminentiBsImi vM 

EG'M'V egregiae memoriae vir 

Il'H'LIVS" ex hac lege ius potestasque esto 

POT 
E'H'L'N'K eius hace lege nihilum rogato 
E'l eius index 

EID eiduB 

EIQ eique 

EI8'Q"I"S"S eis quae Infra scriptae aunt 
E'L'P e lege Papiria, Petronia 

EM emeritus 

E'M ex monitu 

EM'B emeritus beneiHciarius 

E"M*D"S'P'F e monitu de sua pecunia feclt^ 
E"M"V egregiae memoriae vir 

EM'V eminentissimus vir 

EN endotercisus (dies) 

E'O'B'Q ei ossa bene quiescant 
EP Eppius 

EPIP epiphorae 

EQ eques, equestris, equitata 

EQ Equirria 

EQ'CATAF equites cataphractarii 
EQ"C*E equitata eivium Romanorum (co- 

liors) 
E'Q'D'l) eademque dedicavit 
EQ'EX'N" eques ex numero 
EQ'G equitum gradual 

EQ'P equo publico 

EQ'P'EXOR equo publico exornatus 
EQ-PVB, PVBL equo publico 
EQQ equites 

EQ'R equea Romanus 

EQ'R'E'M' eques Romanus egregiae memoriae 

V vir 

EQ'R'E'P, eques Romanus equo publico 

EQPVBL 
EQ'R'F equitis Romani filius 
EQ-A'CSING) D'N eques singularis domini nostri 
E"R ea res 

EE (li)eres 

E R'P e re publica 

EX I'P ex imperio posuit 

E R'P'V e re publica videri 
E"R*A ea res agitur 

E'R'C (cum) ea res consuletur 

E R'P e re publica 

ER-TESTAME Cli)eredes testamento 
E S'C'E"C e senatus consulto reficiendum 

curavit 
E'S'F'S'F'L ei sine fraude sua facere liceto 

1 Orelli, 2467. 

2 From the theatre at Orange (C. 7, i. XH. 
1241). 



ESQ, ESQVIL Esquilina (tribus) 

E'S'R exeraplum sacri rescript! ? 

ESS, ESSE essedarius 

ESSE'LIB essedarius HberatUB 

E"T ex testamento 

E'T'F ex testamento fecit 

E*V egregius vir, more rarely eminen- 

tissimus vir 
EV evocatus 

E'V'L'M'P ex voto libens merito poauit 
EVOC, EVOK evocatus 
EVOC'ATG evocatus Augusti 
E'V'S ex voto suscepto 

EX exceptor 

EXAC exactor, exactus 

EX A'O ex aere eonlato 
EX'ACAD) CAS, CAST exactum ad Castoris 
EX A"P ex argento publico 
EXAR exarchua 

EX AEG ex argento 
EX AVC, AVCT ex auctoritate 
EXC exceptor 

EXC'PE, T exceptor praefecti, tribuni 
EX 0"C ex conscriptorum consulto 

EX CC exducenario 

EX CCC ex trecenario 
EX COM"DOM ex eomite domesticorum 
EX CONS ex consensu or consulto 
EX D- ex devotione 

EX D"D ex decreto decurionum 
EX D"D* ex decreto decurionum ex pecunia 

EX P-P publica 
EX D"D*P' ex decreto decurionum pecunia 

P publica 

EX DEC'C* ex decreto centum vlrorum pe- 

PEC-SEV cunia Severiana 
EX DEC-DECRET ex decurionum decreto 
EX D'ORD ex decreto ordinis 
EX D"P"A ex decreto provinciae Africae 
EXER'PAN'INF exercitus Pannonlae Inferioris 
EXERG exercitator 
EXERC exercitua 
EX F-B ex fide bona 
EX FIG, FIGL ex figlinis 
EX-G(GER) INF exercitus Germaniae Inferioris 
EX H'L'EX" ex hac lege, exve decreto decuri- 

VE-D-D onum 
EX H'L'N'R ex hace lege nihilum rogato 
EX IMP'IPS ex imperio ipsius 
EX IV, IVS exiussu 
EX IVS'IPSA ex iussu ipsarum 
EX IVSS-E ex iussu eius 
EX IV'V'S" exiussu votum solvit libens merito 

LM 
EX N ex nomine 

EXO exodiarius 

EX O ex ovo 

EX OF, OFF ex officina 



430 



LA*IN INSCRIPTIONS 



EX PAGI-p ex pa^ decreto 

EX P'D ex pagfi decreto 

EX PEQ-PVB ex pecunia public 

EXPL exemplum 

EX PX ex pecunia legata 

EXPLIO explicarius 

EX P-D ex parte dimidia ? 

EXPL'BAT exploratores Batayi 

EX P*P ex pecunia publica 

EX P-P-F'C ex pecunia publica fiuslundum 

curavit 
EX PE ex praediis 

EX PK exceptor praefecti 

EX PR'C'C' ex praediis coloniae copiae Clau- 

C'C diae curatum ? 

EXPVRG- jexpTirgatio 
EX R * ex ratione 

EX R'P ex response posuit 
EX R'VRB ex ratione urbica 
EX S"C ex senatus consulto 

EX8ER0' exercens artem cretariam 

ART-CRET 
EX 8*P"F"0 ex sua pecunia faciendum curavit 
EX8 TEST'F exa testamento fecit 
EX S'VOTO ex suscepto veto or exs voto 
EX*T, EXC-TR exceptor tribuni 
EXT exterus 

EX T ex testamento 

EX T'F'I'C ex testamento fieri iussit, faciun- 

'dum curavit 
EX T*P ex testamento posuit 

EX TE ex tributario 

EX T'T'F' ex testamento titulum fieri iussit ; 

I'H'F'C beres faciundura curavit 

EX T ex voto 

EX YIK ex vicario 
EX VL'M ex voto libens merito 
EX V'L'S" ex voto libenter suscepto solvit 

S'M merito 

EX TO (VOT) L-POS ex voto libens posuit 
EX V"P ex voto posuit 
EX V'P'L' ex voto posuit libens laetus merito 

LM 
EX V'S'L'A ex voto solvit libens animo 
EXT DEC ex quinque decuriis 



F 


fabri 


F 


faciunt, fecit, fecernut, &ctdB, 




ciendum 


F 


Falerna (trlbus) 


F 


fenum? 


F 


faBtus (dies) 


F 


feUoiter 


F 


feriae 


F 


fida 


F 


fldelis Clogio) 



F 


iiglinae 


F 


flUus, flUa 


F 


fines 


F 


fiscus 


F 


flunt 


F 


flamen 


F 


Flavius, Flavia (leglo) Flaviensis 


F 


Fortuna 


F 


Fretensis (legio) 


F 


fanctus 


F 


funduB 


E 


fllia, itemina 


FAB 


Fabia (tribus) 


FAB 


fabrioa 


FAB 


fabri, fabrum (praefeotuB) 



FAB'COS, PB (praefectus) fabram consularis, 

(PEAET) praetoriua 
FABE-CENT fabri centonarii 
FABRTIG, TIGN fabri tignarii 
FAC faciebat 

FAC-OOER-EIDEMQ- faciundum coerarunt ei- 

PEOB demque probariint 

FAC-CVE ; FACIV" faciundum curavit, cura- 

CVE runt 

FAC-LOCAEEIDEMQ- faciundum looarunt 

PEOB eidemque probarunt 

FACT factio 

FAL Falerna (tribus) 

FAL, FAL* Falernae (vites) 
FALC Falcidia (lex) 

FALE, FALL Falerna (tribus) 
FAM familia 

FAM-GLAD familia gladiatoria 
F'A'PERP flamen August! perpetuus 
FAEMACPVBLIC farmacopola publioua 
FAS fascia 

FAVS Faustianum (vinum) 

F-B-F Alio bono fecerunt 

F'B'M filio, iiliae bene merenti 

F"0 faciendum curavit or curaverunt 

FC fecit or fecerunt 

F'C fisci curator 

F"C frumenti curator f 

FC'A Forum Claudii August! 

FCC faciundum curaverunt ? 

F'C'EIBQ'PEO, faciundum curarunt eidemque 

PEOB probarunt 

F"C"I'P faciendum curavit idem probavit 

F'C'I'Q'P faciundum curarunt idemque pro- 
barunt 
F'COIE faciendum eoiravit or coiraverunt 
F'C'P ftalgur conditum publico 

FCT fecit 

F'D fecit dedicavit 

F'D filio dulcissimo or flliae dulcissimae 

FD fundus ? 

FD-EX" (praefectus) frumenti dandi ex 

S'O senatus consulto 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



431 



F'D'F filiae dulcissimae fecerunt 

FD-IVB fide iubere 

F*D"N feliciter domino nostro ? 

F'D'Q fecit dedicavitque 

F*D"8 feceruBt de sue 

F'D'S'S'C feciundum de senatus sententla 

curaverunt 

F£ FebruariuB (mensis) 

FE "fecit 

FE feliciter 

FEB Februarius 

FE'B'B feliciter bonis bene 

FEBR Februarius (mensia) 

FEC fecit, fecerunt 

FECR fecerunt 

FEL felix (legio) 

FELIC felicitas 

FER Feralia 

FEE LAX feriae Latinae 

FERR ferrariae 

FERR Ferrata (legio) 

FERT Fertor 

F'ET-D fecit et dedicavit 

F-ET-F filii et filiae 

F'EX 8"C' feriae ex senatua consnlto quod eo 

Q-E-D die, etc. 

FP fecerunt or fecit ? 

F-F fecit feliciter ? 

F*F felix fidelis 
F-F fieri fecit ? 

FF filii 

F'F filius or (filia) fecit or filu fecerunt 

F'F fiscus frumentarius 

F-F Flavia felix firma fidelis (Ifigio) 

F'F (viara) Flaviani fecit 

F'F'B'M filii fecerunt bene merenti 
FF DD fundi? 

FFLL Flavii 

FF'FP flamen perpetuus 

F*F*P*P*P fidelis frater ? pro pietate po- 

suit (??) 
FI filius 

F'l fieri iussit 

FID fidelis Clegio> 

FID fidicen 

FIG, FIGL figulinae, figlinae 
FIL'K'F filius karissimus fecit or filio kar 

rissimo fecit 
FIL'PAT filius patroni ? 
FIR'IVL' (colonia) firma lulia Secundano- 

SECYND riim 
FISC'STAT' fiscus stationis bereditatium 

HEREDITATI 
F'IVS fieri iussit 

F'K filio karissimo 

F'K'F filio karissimo fecit 

FL fiamen^ fiaminlca, flamonium 

FL. I'LA Flayius, Flavia 



FLAM flamen, fiaminica, flamonium 

FLAM'AVG fiaminica Augustae 
FLAM'CLAVD fiamen ClaudiaUs 
FLAM-DIALIS Flamen DiaUs 
FLAMMART flamen Martialis 
FLAM'PERP flamen perpetuus 
FLAM-P, PR flamen provinciae 
FLAMQVIR flamen Quirinalis 
FLAM'ROM' flamen Romae et Aogusti 

ET AVG 
FL-F Flavia felix, firma, fidelis 

FL-FEL Flavia felix (legio) 
FLL flamines 

F'LOC facinndum locarunt 

FL'P flamen perpetuus 

F'LIB'ET PEG fiscus libertatis et pecnliorom 
F'L*P funus, locum publice 

FL'PP flamen perpetuus or flamonium 

perpetuum 
FL'SACR'PVB flamen sacrorum publicorum 
F'L'SP- fanuslocumstatuam — (wsepultu- 
D"D rae — publice decuriones decre- 

verunt 
F*M filio merenti or filio mater 

F-M'F Alio mater fecit 

F'M'P filius matri posuit 

FO Fortuna 

FORD Fordieidia 

FORT Fortenses 

FORT-HORR Fortuna horreorum 
F P ? (See p. 367.) 

F'P filio piissimo or filio posnlt or 

posuerunt 
F'P filU posuerunt 

F'P filius pientissimus 

F'P flamen perpetuus 

F'P Fortuna Praenestina or Primige- 

nia 
F'P frumentum publicum 

F'P fiinus publicum 

F'P'A'D'X' frumentum publicum accipit d... 

TOXL KG X, t... GXL, k... G 
F'P'G Alius poneBdum curavit 

F'P'D'D Fortunae PrimigeBiae donum dant 
F'P'D'M'P Alius patri dulcissimo matri piissi- 

raae or filius parentibus de (se) 

merentibus posuit 
F'P'F fill pU or patri fecerunt 

F-P'F filius patri fecit 

F'P'M'F filu pientissimi or patri merenti 

fecerunt 
F'P'P fecit pro pietate 

F'P'P filia patri piissimo or filio piissimo 

posuit 
F'P'P fratri pio or frater pius .posuit 

F'P'P'M filii posuerunt patri merenti 
F"P'PR Fortuna Primigenia Praenestina 

F'P'VET fundus possessoris veterjg 



432 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



F-N 


fuerunt or fiunt numero 


GAL Gallia, Galllca Gegio) 


F-Q 


faciundum curavit 


GALEE Galeria (tribus) 


F-Q-E-B-V 


fideque ei esse videbitur 


GALL GaUica (legio) 


FE 


frater 


GAE-CA8T garum castum 


FE 


Fretensis (legio) 


GC'D Genius ooUegii dendrophoromm 


FE 


frumentariuB 


G'G'N Genius Gaii nostri 


FEA 


frater 


G-D Genius domus ? 


FEANC 


Francious 


G'D'A'S Genio D — Augusto sacrum 


FR-AEV 


frater Arvalis 


GD-N Genius Decimi nostri 


FEATO-P 


fratri Optimo posnit 


G'D'N Genius domini nostri 


FEET 


Fretensis (legio) 


G-D-8 Germanicus Dacious 8armationB 


FE-D- 


fronte dextra 


GE Gemina (legio, oohors) 


FE-KA 


fratres karlssimi 


GE genitura' 


FEONT 


Frontoniana (ala) 


GEM Gemini (legio) 


FE-S 


fronte sinistra 


GBM-PF Gemina pia fldelifl 


FET 


fronte or fratri 


GEM-8EV Gemina 8eTeriana 


FEV 


frumentarius, frumentum 


GENET-HON Genius et Honor 


FEV-EMT 


(ad) frumentum emundum 


GEN genitrix 


FEVM 


frumentarius, frumentum 


GEN gentilis 


FEVMBNT 


Ihimentarius 


GENAE-CICA genarum cicatrices 


FEVMM 


frumentarii 


GEE, GEEM, Germania, Germanions 


F-8 


fllii sui, Alio sua 


6EEMA 


F-8 


fecit sibi 


GEE, GEEM- Germania Inferior or Superior 


F-S 


femina sanctissima ? 


INF or SVP 


F-8 


Fortunae sacrum 


GEEM-SVP Germania Superior 


F-S-A 


Flavia singularium Antoniniana 


G'F garum factum 




(ala) 


G-F Gemina felix (legio) 


F-8-ET-S 


fecit sibi et suis 


G-H-L Genius huius loci 


F-8-ET-8-L 


fecit sibi et suis libertis libertatos 


GIL gilvus 


L-P-Q-E 


posterisque eorum . 


GL Genius loci 


F-8-8 


fiunt supra scripti (ae, a) . 


GL - gladjatores 


FV-L 


fiimilia villae Lucullanae 


GLAD gladiarius, gladiator, gladiatorins 


FVL'CON-P fulgur conditum publioe 


GLA-PEIM- gladiatores primi Campaniae 


FTLM-FVL Fulminator FuJgurator 


CAMP 


FTLM, 


Fulminata certa constans Gegio) 


GM gensM.... 


FVLMICCi 


G-M Genius municipii 


F-TP 


filiae vivus posuit 


GMS Genius municipii Satafensis 


F-MPP 


filii matri piae posuerunt 


6-M-T gemina Martia victrix (legio) 
GN GnaeUs 




G 


GN gnatuB 




GOE Gordianus 


O 


Gains 


GOT, GOTHIC Gothicus 


G 


Galeria (tribus) 


G-P-AYG Genius patriae Augustus 


G 


Galli (cohora) 


G-P-A-8 Genid pagi A...sacrum 


G 


GaUica (legio) 


G-P-F Gemiha pia fidelis (legio) 


G 


Gallienus, Galliena 


G-P-E Genius populi Eomani 


G 


garum 


G-P-E-F Genio populi Eomani feliciter 


G 


Gemina (legio) 


G-Q-N Genius Quinti nostri 


G 


gener 


GE Gallica rapax (legio) ' 


G 


Genius 


G-E Germani Eaeti 


G 


gens (in AlHca) 


GEAMM grammaticus 


G 


centuria* 


GKAN granatum or granianum (vinum) 6 


GA 


Galeria (tribns) 


GEAT gratuitus 


GAL 


Galatia 


GEEG-VEB gregis urbani 


GAL 


Galeria (tribus) 


G-S Germania Superior 



> Ephem. Ep. V. p. 82, n. 61. 
' C. /. j;. XIV. 2278. 



> 0. 1. L. V. 5020. « Orelli, 441. 

» a I. L, IV. 2565. 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



433 



G-T-N Genius Titi nostri 

GTBEE, 6TBEKN gybernator 



H 


habcns, habet 


H 


hie, hjiec 


H 


bastatus 


H 


baustum 


H 


Hercules 


H 


teres 


H 


hie 


H 


Hispana (Icgio), Hispani (cohors) 


H 


homo, homines 


H 


horrearius 


H 


bora 


H 


Horatia (tribus) 


HA 


Herculaneus Augustalis 


HAB 


babens 



H'A'B'Q hie a... bene quiescat 

HABT habeant 

HAD Adiutrix (legio) 

H'ADQ hie adquieacit 

HADR Hadri,anus 

H'A'H'N'S haec ara heredem non sequetur 

H'A'l'R honore accepto impensam remisit 

H'AQ hie adquiescit 

HAR haruspex 

HARM^ arraorum (custos) 

HARN Arnensis (tribus) 

HAR'PRIM'haruspex primus de sexaginta 

DELX 
H'P hastatus prior 

H'A'S'A'H' habet aedes Salutis Augustae hoc 

LX'Q'D' loco leges quas Dianae Romae in 

R'IN'A Aventino 

H'A'S'F'C heres a se faciundum curavit 
HAS hastatus 

HAS'P, PR, PRI ; hastatus prior, posterior 

PO, POST 
HAST hastatus 

HASTPOST, POSTER hastatus posterior 
HA&TP, PR, PRI hastatus prior 
H'B homo bonus 

H"B*C hie bene cubet 

H'B'F homini bono fecit 

H'BM"F heres bene merenti fecit 
H^B'Q hie bene quiescat 

H'C hie conditus or hie cubat 

H"C Hispania Giterior 

H'O honoris causa 

H'O honore contentus 

H"0 horrearius cohortis 

H'C'D'D honoris causa dedit dedicavit 
H'O'D'N'S honoris causa Blanaei Nemorensi 
sacrum ? 

I a I. L. X. 3895. 
LAT. INSCRIP. — 28 



H*C*E hie conditus est or crematus ? est 

H'C'E"C"E' hie conditus- «st ; cineres ei bene 
B'Q quiescant 

H'C'I'E honore contentus impensam remi- 

sit 

H*C"P heres curavit ponendum ? 

H'C'S'P'P honore contentus sua peeunia po- 
. suit 

HD Hadrianus 

H'D'S heredes de bug 

H'D'S'P heres de suo posnit 

HE herns ? 

H'E hie est 

H'E'B'P hie est bene positus ? 

H'E'B'Q hie est ; bene quiescat 

HEES heic est 

H"E"F heres ejus fecit or heredes ejus fe- 

certint 

HEL Helvetia 

HELIOP Heliopolitanus 

HELV helvetia 

HEM, HEMAES, HEMES Hemeseni (cohors) 

H"E'N'H heredem exterum non habebit 

H"E'N"S heredem exterum non sequetur 

H'E'P hie est positus 

H'E'P'C heres ejus ponendum curavit 

HER heres, liereditates 

HER Herius 

HER-BEN-MER heres bene merenti 

HERCSAX, SAXAN Hercules SaxanuB 

HERC-V Hercules Victor 

HEEED, HEREDIT liereditates 

HERED'NON-SEQ heredes non sequetur 

HER-FIBVC heres fiduciarius 

HER'PON'C heredes ponehdum curaverunt 

HER-POS heres posuit 

HERR heredes 

HERVO Herucina (Vfenus) 

H"E*8 hie est sitUs, sita or sepultus, 

sepulta 

HE'S "EST* heic? situs est; ossa bene quie- 
OS'BQ scant 

H'E'T heredes ex testamento 

H'E'T'F heres ex testamento fecit 

H'E'T'F'C heres ex testamento faciendum 
curavit 

H-E-Y'O hie est ; volo ? ossa 

H-EX T, TT heredes ex testamento 

H'F heres fecit or heredes feeerunt 

H'F honestissima femina 

H*F honore ftinctus 

H'F'O heres faciendum curavit, heredes 

faciendum curaverunt 

HH heredes 

H'H'F homini honestissimo feeerunt ? 

H*H"M"N0N*8 heredem hoc monumentum non 
sequetur 

H'H'P'R homines hostes popuH Romani ? 



434 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



HHQ 


heres heredesque 


H-MHM- 


HI 


Hercules Invictus 


N-8 


HI 


Hi&panl (cohors) 


H-M-H-N-C 


HIEROF 


hierofanta 




HIE-8 


hie Intus est situs f 


H-M-H-N-S 


HINNOO 


homo innocens 




HIS 


Hispania, Hispanus, Hispani 


H-M-H-N-S- 


HI-SP 


hie sepultus 


IfH-H 


HI8P 


Hispania, Hispanus, Hispani 


H-M-HN-8- 


HIST 


Histria 


NEQLIB- 


HL 


haec lex 


....EEOS 


HI, 


hie locus 


H-M-H-N-8- 


H-LAN 


banc loCum alienari nolo ? 


N-L-8 


HL-DMA 


huic loco dolus malus abesto 


HMHS 


HLET-M- 


hie loeUs et monumentum heredem 




H-N-S 


" non ^equentur 


HMIA 


H-L-H-N-S 


hie locils heredem non sequetur 


H-M-L-8-AB 


HLIEQ 


hac lege ins ratumque (esto) 




HLO 


(uti) hac lege oportebit 


H-M-M 


H-LE 


(ante) banc legem rogatam 


HMM 


HLSE 


hoc locb sepultus est 


HMN-8 


HL-S-H-N- 


hie locus sepulturae heredem non 




3 


sequetur 


H-M-S-D-M 


H-L-T-C-S 


hunc lOcura tessellavit cum suis 


HM-8L-H- 


HM 


hoc monumentum 


N-8 


HM 


homo mei-eus 


H-M-8-8-E- 


H-M 


(dunissis) honcsta missione 


F-C 


H-M 


honeste missus 


H-M-8-S-E- 


H'M'A'H'N* hoc moniimentum ad heredem non 


HH-NS 


P 


pertinet 


H-M-8-8-E- 


H'M'A'M"R hoc monumentum apud meoB re- 


H-M-N-S 




manebit ? 


H-M-8S-E- 


HMCP 


(nihil ultra crudeUus) hoc monu- 


H-N-S 




mento cernere potes ? 


H-M-8-8-E- 


H'M'D'M'A huic monumento dolus malus 


N-N-8 




abesto 


H-M-8-S-E- 


H-M-D-M-A- huio monumento dolus malus ahe- 


N-8 


B-M-MC 


Bto; bene merenti memoriae 


H-M-8-8-H- 




causa 


HEX-N-S 


H-M-E-H-N 


hoc monumentum exterum here- 




S 


dem non sequetur 


H-M-8-8-H- 


H-M-B-N-S 


hoc monumentum (h)eredem or 


M-N-S 




exterum (heredem) non seque- 


H-M-8-S-H- 




tur 


N-8 


H-M-ET L- 


hoc monumentum et locus here- 


H-M-S-8- 


H-N-8 


dem non sequentur 


V8TEIN 


HM-ETI,- 


hoc monumentum et locus sepul- 


H-M-8-V-L- 


S-H-N-S 


turae heredem non sequentur 


N-S-Q 


HMF 


honestae memoriae femina 


H-M-8-V-S- 


H"M'F'C"ET hoc monumentum faciundum en- 


E-H-U-S 


s' A'D 


ravit et sub aseia dedicavit 


H-M-T 


H'M'H'E'U' hoc monumentum heredem exte- 


H-N-8 


8 


rum non sequetur 


H-N-C 


HMHEE- 


hoc monumentum heredem fiduci- 


H-N-S-N- 


FIDVCI- 


arium non sequetur 


L-S 


AE-N-8 




HO 


HMHH- 


hoc monumentum beredes heredis 


H-OB-Q 




(non sequetur) 


HOC MON- 



hoc monumentum hetredem metun 

non sequetur 
hoc monumentum heredi non 

cedit 
hoc monumentum heredem non 

sequetur 
hoc monumentum heredem non 

sequetur nee heredes heredis 
' hoc monumentum heredem non 

sequetur neque libertos [eias 

neque postjeros 
hoc monumentum heredem non 

sequetur nee locus sepulturae 
hoc monumentum beredes seque- 
tur 
huic monumento itus' actus 
S huic monumento, loco sepulturae^ 

abesto (dolus malus)? 
honesta missione missus 
honor magisterii MercuriaUum 
heredem monumentum non seque- 
tur 
hoc monumentum sine dolo malo 
hoc monumentum sive locus here- 
dem non sequetur 
hoc monumentum srve sepulcrum 

est Sciendum curaverunt 
hoc monumentum sire sepulcrum 

est heredes non sequetur 
hoc monumentum stve sepulcrum 

est heredem meum non sequetur. 
hoc monumentum sive sepulcrum 

est heredem non sequetur. 
hoc monumentum sive sepulcrum 

est n — ? non seduetur . 
hoc monumentum stve sepulcrum 

est non sequetur 
hoc monumentum siVe sepulcrum 

hoc heredem exterum non se- 
quetur 
hoc monumentum sive sepulci^m 

heredem ? meum non sequetur 
hoc monumentum sive sepuldrum 

heredem non sequetur 
hoc monumentum eive sepulcri 

ustrinum 
hoc monumentum sive locus non 

sequetur 
hoc monumentum sive sepulcrum 

est heredem non sequetur 
honestae memoriae vir 
heredem non sequetur 
Hispania Nova Citerior 
heredem non sequetur nee libertos 

suos 
horrearius 

hie ossa bene quiescant 
hoc monumentum sive hoc se- 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



435 



SI'HO'SE' pulcrum heredem non sequetur 

HR-NO-SEQ 

S'O'E'B hie ossa ei bene 

MOTS honor 

HON honoratus 

UON'F honorihus ftinctus 

HON'M faonesta matrons 

HOPL hoplomachus 

HOE hora 

HOE Horatia (tribus) 

HOK horrea 

HOROL horologrium 

HOKE horrearius 

H'O'S hie ossa sita 

H'O'T'B'Q hie ossa tibi bene quiescant 

H'O'V'B'Q hie ossa volo or vobis bene quies- 

, eant 

H"P heres posuit 

H'P hie positus or heredes posuerunt 

H"P homoprobus? 

H'P'C heres ponendum curavit 

H-P-D Hercuh? Primigenio? dedit? 

H'PK hastatuB prior 

H'P'K hostes populi Romani 

H'Q hie qiiiescat 

H'Q'B hie quiescat bene 

HRB heredes 

H'R'I'R honore recepto impensam remisit 

H'B hie situs, sita; sepultus, sepnlta 

H'S'A hie situs a 

H'S'B'P'E hie situs bene positus? est 

H'S'B'Q hie situs bene quiescat 

H'S'D'M'A huic sepulero dolus mains abesto 

H'S'E hie situs, sita est or hie sepultus, 

sepulta est 

H'S"E'B'Q hie situs est ; bene quiescat 
H'S'E'H'EX hie situs est ; heres ex testamento 

T'P'C feciundum curavit 

H'S'E'H'F hie situs est ; heres fecit 

H'S'E'H'P hie situs est ; heredes posuerunt 

H'S'E'O'T* hie situs est ; ossa tua bene quies- 

B-Q cant 

H'S'E'O'T" hie sitiisest; ossa volo bene qui- 

B"Q escant 
H'8-E-S-T*T'L hie situs est ; sit tibi terra levis 

H'S E'T'F" hie situs est ; titulum fieri iussit ; 

I'H'F'C heres faciundum euravit 
H'S'E'T'F'I'hic situs est; titulum fieri iussit; , 

H*P heres posuit 

H'S 'EX S heres secundus ex semlsse ? 

H'S'H hie situs, heredes ? 

H'S'H'A' hoc sepulcrum heredibus abalie- 

N'L nare non licet 

H'S'H'E hie situs, heredes eius 

H'S'H'N'S hoc sepulcrum heredem non se- 

quitur 

H'S'L'P hoc sepulcrum libens posuit ? 

H'S'N'S heredem secundum non sequetur 



hie situs ; ossa bene 

hie situs ; ossa tibi 

hie sepultus ? 

hie sepultus est 

hie situs ; quiescat 

hie siti or sepulti sunt 
H'S'S'H'T'B' hie situs sepultus ; hie tibi bene 
Q'H'E'S quiescat ; heredes ? eius ? s . . . 

H'S'S'S'V'T'L hie siti sunt. Volo terra levis' 
H'S'T hie situs ; tibi 

H'S'T'F'I hie situs ; testamento fieri iussit 

hie tu 

hie tu bene 

biff tu bene cubes ? 

hie tu bene quiescas ; or tumula- 
tus bene quiescas 

heredes testamento ileri curave- 
runt 
H'T'H'N'S hie tumulus ? heredem non seque- 
tur 

hie tibi ossa bene quiescant 

heres testamento vivus posuit 

Hercules victor 

honore usus 

heres vivus fecit 

honore usus impensam remisit 
H'V'O'B'Q hie volo ossa bene quiescant 
H'T'S'R honore usus sumptum remisit 
H'Y'S'R'L' honore usus snmptus remisit; 

D'B'I)' loco dato decreto aeeurionum 

H'V'V'S Herculi victori votum solvit 



\ 



H-SO'B 

H'SO-T 

H'SP 

H'SP-E 

H'S'Q 

H-S'S 



H'T 
H'T'B 
H'TB'C 
H-T'B'Q 

H't'F'O 



HT'O'B-Q 
H'T'V'P 

H'V 
H-V 
H'V-F 
H'V'I'E 



I 


lannariuB (menBis) 


I 


inylctus (Mithras) 


I 


itnr 


I 


Inllns, lulia 


I 


iunior 


I-A 


in agro 


lA, IAN 


lanuariae 


lAP 


in agro pedes 


10 


in Oapitolio 


I-O-A 


iuB civile (or iuris consnltus) 




abesto 


ID-IAN 


Idus lanuariae 


ID 


iUTictus dens 


ID 


lupiter Dolichenns 


ID 


inre dicundo 


IDB 


Idibus 


IDDD 


IotI Dolicheno dono dedit 


IDE 


id est 


IDP 


lure dicundo praeesse 


IDQCP 


inre dicundo quinquennalis cen- 




soriae potestatis 


IDQQ 


inre dicundo quinquennalis 


IDQP 


iidemque probaverunt 


ID-QTOT-D-F idem quotannis dlvisio flat 



436 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



I'E index esti> 

I-E'V"Q'I* in ea verba quae infra scrlpta sunt 

8-S 
I'F in fronte 

I'F'P in fronte pedes 

I'HER invictus Hercules 

I'H'M'I'A* in hoc monumentum Itum aditnm 

S"C*F sacrorum causa fecere 

IIMMPPCC- (duobus) imperatoribus Caesari- 

AAEESS bus 

I'L'H ius liberorum habeus 

ILL illustris 

IM imaginifer 

IM imperator 

I'M invictus Mithras 

IMA imaginifer 

IMAG imaginifer 

IM-C imaginifer cohortls 

IMM immolaverunt 

I MM immunis 

IMMAGr* imaginifer 
IMMV immunis 

IMP imperator, imperatum ?, imperium 

IMP impetus 

IMP'D'N imperator dominus noster 
IMPE imperator 

IMPER imperator 

IMPETLIPPIT impetus lippitudinis 
IMP'N imperator noster 

IM'PP immunis perpetuus 

IMPP imperatores (duo) 

IMPP'CC imperatores Caesares (duo) 
IMPP"DD'NN imperatores (duo)domini nostri 
IMP'P'Q'E imperium populusque Romanns 
IMP'S impensa sua 

IN (pater) infelicissimus 

IN A, IN A(J, IN AGR in agro 
IN CAL in caliga 

IN C'D'C'D in cujus dedicatione cenam dedit ? 
INC'FR'PVBL incisus frumento publico 
INOOMP incomparabilis 
IND indictio 

IN E'V'Q* in ea verba quae infra scripta sunt 

i-s-s 

IN F, FR in fronte 

INF'S'S infra subscrlpti or script! sunt 

ING ingenua 

IN H'D'D in honorem domus divinae 

IN HO in honorem 

IN K'B in capita singula 

INL inlustris 

INPP imperatoribus (duobus) 

INP'S inpensa sua 

IN QVINQ in quinquennium 

IN E in retro 

IN T in tergo 

1 a I. L. III. 1588. 



INS 


instante, Instantla 


IN SIN6-H in slngolos homines 


IN-S-S 


infra scripti or scripta sunt 


IN8TA 


instante, instantia 


INST-TAB 


instrumentum tabulariorum 


IN 8V0 C0N8T, E in suo constituit, erexit 


INTER 


interrex 


INT 


intulit 


INV, INVI 


invictus 


IN VE-P-VE in urbe Eoma propius ve urbi 


VEP-M 


Eumae passus mille 


lO-C 


Jupiter optimus Capitolinus 


lOD 


lupiter optimus Dolichenus 


I-ODE 


lupiter optimus Dolichenus E . . . 


I-OM 


lupiter optimus maxlmus 


lOMAD 


lupiter optimus maximas Au- 




gustus Dolichenus 


lOM-B 


lupiter optimus maximus Balmar- 




codes 


I-O-M-C 


lupiter optimus maximus conser- 




vator 


I-O-M-C-0- 


lupiter optimus maximus cete- 


DI 


rique omnes dii immortales 


I-0-M-CVL 


lupiter optimus maximus culmi- 




nalis 


lOMD 


lupiter optimus maximus depulsor 


I-O-M-D 


lupiter optimus maximus Doli- 




chenus 


lO-MT 


lupiter optimus maximus fulml- 




nator 


I-O-MT-P 


lupiter optimus maximus fulmi- 




nator fulgurator 


I-O-MH 


lupiter optimus maximus Heli- 




opolitanus 


I-O-MH-A 


lupiter optimus maximus Heli- 




opolitanus Augustus 


I-O-M-IE- 


lupiter . optimus maximus luno 


M-T-M 


regina, Minerva, Terra mater 


I-OM-S 


lupiter optimus maximus, Suessu- 




lanus 


lOVEDIC 


iure dicundo 


ro-8-iNvi 


lupiter optimus Sol invictus... 


...E-N 


rupe natus" 


I0-8-PD 


lupiter optimus Sol praestantissl- 




mus dignus 


IP 


iter prohibitum 


I-P-ATG 


lanns pater Augustus 


IPQVE 


Ius potestasque (esto) 


I-Q-S-S-S 


ii qui supra scripti sunt 


IQP 


idemque probavit 


IE 


luno Eegina 


1-8 


infra scriptus 


I-8-E 


(h)ic situs est 


I-8-M-E 


luno sospcs magna regina 


rsp 


impensis suis posuit 


ISPEC" 


(i)speculator 




2 a I. L. VIII. 2883. 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



437 



ISTAIi Instante, instantia 

ISTRi (i)strator 

j.g.y.p jjj gjjQ yjy^ posuerunt 

IT item 

IT iterum 

ITAL Italica (legio) 

I"T'M*F'0 idem testamento monumentum fa- 
ciendum cm'avit 
IT'V'S'M ita votura aolvam mentis ? 
lYD iudicans, iudifsandus, iudex 

IVD'DEC; IVD' iudex decuriae, iudex de 

DE V'DEC quinque decuriis 

I'VPj'E'E" ita utei eis e re publica fideve sua 

P-F-S-V-E videbitur esse 
IVG iugera 

IVL lulius, iQlia 

IVL-TEP-MAR lulia Tepula Marcia 
IVN iunior 

IVN-REG luno reglna 
IVR iuridicus 

IVR'DIO lure dicundo ; iuris dictio 
IVRID iuridicus 

IVS'SA iussione sacra 

IVV iuvenes (collegium iuvenum) 



K 

Kaeso 

kaleudae^ 

kalendarium 

calumnia 

candldatus 

caput 

castellum, casteUaoi, castrum, cas- 

tra 
couiux 
cardo 

carissimus, carissima 
casa 
corpus ? 
castra 
'kalendae 



K 
K 
K 
K 
K 
K 
K 

K 
K 
K 
K 

K 

31 

KAL 

KANAL canaliclarius 

KAND, KANDID candidatus 

KAR carissinms, carissima 

KARG carcerarius 

KARM Carmentalia 

K.-VS.KAST castra 

KAST'PER castra peregrina 

KK calumniae causa 

KK castra 

K'L caput legis 

KLM » Clementis 

1 a I. L. VIII. 2757. 

2 WilmannB remarks (S^empla, p. 123) that 
this abbreviation is very common before 180 a.d. 
aud rare after. We find then generally KAL. 

3 a I. L. XIV. 308. 



K-0 

K-Q 

KRS 

KR8MAE 
K-S 
KVR 



cannophori Ostienses 
Kalendae quinctileB 
carissimus, qarissima 
carissimae 
earns suis 
Gyren^ca (leglo) 



latum 
legio 



lex 

liberatus 

Ubertus, liberta 

lib ran us 

ligatum * 

lippitudo 

locus, loculus 

longum 

Lucius 

luna 

libens animo 

laudabilis bonus ? 

lacus 

libens animo dedit 



L 

L 

L 

L 

L 

L 

L 

L 

L 

L 

L 

L 

L 

L-A 

LAB 

LAC 

LAD 

L'A'D'D Ubens animo donum dat, dede 

runt, dedicat 
LAjNTS lanista 

LAP lapis 

LAPID lapidarius 

LAR Larentinalia 

L" AR'E librarius arcarii evocatus ? 

LAR'ET IMAG Lares ©t imagines 
LAR'MIL Lares mllitares 
LAT laticlavius 

LAT-FVER Latinae fuere 
LARG largus - 

L'A'SOL libens animo solvit 
LATIG, LATICL laticlavius 
LAV'LAV Laurens Lavinas 
LAVR'LAV Laurens Lavinas 
L'B libertus bonus 

L-B-S libens solvit 

L'C laticlavius 

L'O librarius capsarius ? 

L'C liber condicione ? 

L'C librarius cohortis ? 

L'C locus concessus 

LG Lucius 

L'G'D'D locus concessus decreto decurio- 

num 
L'O'IX liberatus cot-onarum novem 

L'D (votum) Hbens dat 

L'D libero damno 

L'D " locum dedit, loco dato, locus da- 

tus, locum donavit 

4 a L L. V. 6414. 



438 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



L'D'A REP locus datus a re publica 

L'D'D libens donum dedlt 

L'D'D'C locus datuB decreto collegii 

L'D"D"CF"C locus datus decreto collegii fabrum 
ceutouariorum 

L'D'D'C'V locus datus decreto centumvirum 

L D'D'CRE'C locus datus decreto centumvi- 
rum 

L'D'D'D locus datus decreto decurionum 

L"D*D'D'D'D loco dato decreto decurionum, 
dono dederunt 

L'D'D'D'P locus datus decreto decurionum 
publice 

L'B'DEC'N'R loco dato decreto nautarum Rho- 
danicorum 

L'D'D'P" loco dato decreto pagi Condatium 
COND 

L'D'D'PA locus datus decreto paganorum 

L'D'D'B'V locus datus decreto senatus Vo- 
contiorum 

L'D'D'V locus datus decreto utriclariorum 
yicanofum 

L"D'EX D'D locus datus ex decreto decurionum 

L'D'EX D"PAG locus datus ex decreto pagi 

L'D'G legio deciraa Gemina 

L'D'P locus datus publice 

L'D'P'C locus datus permissu collegii 

L"D"P'D'D locus datus publice decreto decu- 
rionum 

L'D'P'P' locus datus pecunia publica, de- 
D'D creto decurionum 

L'D'PVB" locus datuB publice decreto decu- 
D'D rionum 

L'D'S'G locus datus senatus consulto 

LE lene 

LE'A'L lene ad lippitudlnem 

LEG legatus 

LEG legavit 

LEG legio 

LEG'AVG legatus August! 

LEG'AVG'CENS' legatus Augusti censibusac- 
ACC cipiendis 

LEG'AVGG' legatus Augustomm duorum pro 
PRPR praetore 

LEG'AVG'P'P legatus Augusti pro praetore 

LEG'AVG' legatus Augusti pro pratore 
PRPR, PRAE 

LEGCOR iege Cornelia 

LEG'IYR legatus iuridicus 

LEG'LEG legatus legionis 

LEG'PL'VE' leges plebeive scitum senatasve 
8C-S-VE-C consultum 

LEG-PROCOS legatus proconsulis 

LEG'PRO'Q legatus pro quaestore 

LEG'8"0 legatus senatus consulto 

LEMO, LEMON Lemonia (tribus) 

LEM Lemonia (tribus) 

LEM Lemuria 



L*ET F-D-D libertis, or Larlbus et famlliae do- 
num dederunt 
L'ET L liberti et libertae 

LEV leucoma 

L"F Latinae fuerunt 

L'F laudabilis femina 

L'F liberti fecerunt 

L'F librarius fiscl ? 

L'F'D'D Laribus familiaribus donum dede- 
runt 
L'F'D'D ludos fecerunt decurionum decreto 
LG legio 

L'H'N'S locus heredem non seqnitar 
H libertus ? 

LIB libellus 

LIB Uber 

LIB liberatus 

LIB liber, liberalitas 

LIB libertus, liberta 

LIB librae 

LIB librarius 

LIB liburna 

LIB Libya 

LIB-AGON Liberalia Agonalift 
LIB'AN libens animo 
LIBB liberti 

LIB'COS librarius consularis ? 
LIBEL libella 

LIBER libertas (dea) 

UBER libertus 

LIBLIBERTABVSQ- libertis libertabusque 

SVIS'P'E Buis posterisque eorum 

LIB'LIBQP(POST)- libertis libertabusque po- 

EOR sterisque eorum 

LIBR libertus 

LIBR, LIBRA libraries 
LIBR'COMM ST' librarius commentariorum 

HER'T'K stationls hereditatium ta- 

bularii? kastrensis? 
HBTI8 libertatis 

Lie licet 

LI'E'P'OP'N liberti eius patrono optimo nostro 
LI'F'P nil' locus in fronte pedes IIII; retro 

RPIIII pedes IIII 
LIG Liguria 

LI'M'V'S'L libens merito votum solvit laetus 
L'IN'CIR ludi in circo 
L'IN'LA locus in latitadinem 
LINT " lintiarius 

LIP, LIPP lippitudo 
LIQV liquamen 

L'L Laurens Lavinas 

L'L legatus legionis 

L'L libens laetuB 

L'L liberti libertae 

L'L librarius legati or legionis 

L'L Lucii (duo) 

L'LIB locus libertorum ? 



TABLE OP ABBREVIATIONS 



439 



L-LIBEET-POSTE- libertls libertabusque po- 

RI8 Q'EOR sterisque eorum 

L'L'L'L'L'M * laeti libentee ? merito 
L'L'P'E libertis libertabus posterisque eo- 
rum* 
libertis libertabusque... poBteria- 
que omnibus monumentum sta- 
tuit? 
laetus libens merito 
libertis libertabus poBterisque eo- 
rum 
laetus libens p... dedit 
libertis libertabus posterisque eo- 
rum 
libertis libertabus posterisque suis 
libertis libertabusque 
librarius (tribuni) laticlayii 
laetus libens votum solvit 
libens merito 
libertus mens 
locus monumenti 
locus monumenti ante? pedes 

(XX) 
Indus mag-nus 
libens merito dedit 
libens merito fecit 
Lares militares 
libens merito posuit 
libens merito solvit 
Lucius noster 
locus 
locator 
LOC'ACCEP" loco accepto decreto decurionum 

D*D 
LOC'ACCEP-DED loco accepto dedit 
LOC'D locus datus- 

LO0*DAT'D-D locus datus decreto decurionum 
LOC'EMPT locus emptus 
LOC'EMP locus emptus 
LOC'H'S'P loco hoc sibi permiaso senatus 

S'C'P'S consulto pecunia sua* 

LOC'LIB locus libertorum ? 
LOO'MONVM locus monumenti 
LOC'P'P loeorum publicorum persequendo- 

rum 
LOC'PVB loco publico 

LOC'PVBL' loeorum publicorum persequendo- 
PER8EQ rum 

locus sepulturae 

longTJS 

lex Petronia ? 

locus pedum, or latus ^ongas) 



LLL-PO 


M-8 


LL-M 


LLPE 


LLPD 


LLPQ-E 


LLP'S 


LLQ 


LLT ■ 


L-L-VS 


LM 


LM 


LM 


L-MA-P 


L-M 


LMD 


L-M-F 


LMIL 


LMP 


L-M-8 


L-N 


LO 


LOO 



LOO-SEP 
LON 
L-P 
L-P 



LP 
LP 
LP 



Liber pater 

libertus patrono 

libenB or libertus posuit 



» Brambach, 1315. 



2 Orelli, 1460 = 4712. 



LPDAP 


lege Papiria de aere publico » 


LPDDD 


locus publico datus decreto decu- 




rionum 


LPI 


libens poni iussit (?) 


LPIT 


legio prima Italica 


L-PM 


legio prima Minerria 


LPP 


loeorum publicorum persequendo- 




rum 


L-PPP 


loco publico pecunia publica 


L-PQ 


locus pedum quadratorum 


LQ 


locus quadratus 


L-P-8 


libertis posterisque suis ? 


LEP 


legas rogo praeteriens 


L-8 


libentes solverunt 


L-8 


locus sepulturae 


L-8D 


locum sibi dante ? 


LSD- 


locus sepulturae datus decurionum 


DD 


decreto 


LSEH 


locus sepulturae heredem non se- 


sr-s 


quetur 


L-S-M 


locus sepulturae monumentiqne } 


L-8-PE 


librarius subpraefectl 


LT 


laticlavius 


L-T, L-TR 


librarius tribuni 


LV 


Lucius 


LVBMEK 


lubens merito 


LVC 


Lycia 


LVD F 


ludos fecit 


LVD-MAT 


Indus matutinus 


LTNVET 


Lunense vetus 


LTP, LVPEEC LnpercaUa, Luperoas 


L-VS 


libens votum solvit 


LVSTR-MON-SAC lustratio rnontis saeri 


LTC 


Lycaonia 


L-T 


luna qulnta 




M 


M 


Macedonioa (legio) 


M 


magister 


M 


maiestas 


M 


malora 


M> 


manipularis 


M 


Manes 


M 


manu 


M 


Marcus 


M 


marmora 


M 


Martia (legio) 


M 


mas (boa) 


M 


maritus 


M 


Mars 


M 


mater 


M 


Matres or Matronae 


M 


Mauretania (Caesariensis, Sitl- 




fensis) 


M 


maximus 



s C. I. L. X. 8595. 



440 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



M 


memoria 


M 


mensis, inenses, mensibus 


M 


Mercurius 


M 


merens, meritus 


M 


metaUa 


M 


(votuin polvit bona) mente ? 


M 


mUes, mllitavit 


M 


mille, milia 


M 


Miner™ (Icgio) 


M 


Minerva 


M 


minus 


M 


missus (ex legione) 


M 


modlus 


M 


moneta 


M 


monumentum 


M 


mortuus 


M 


muliebris 


M 


municipium 


M 


murmillo 


** 


menses 


w M' 


Manius 


A 


mortuus f 


MA 


manu 


MA 


Mercurius Augustus 


M-A 


militavit annos 


M-A 


municipium Atria 


M-A-A 


municipiupi Aurelium Apulum 



MAC, MACED Macedonia; Macedonica (legio) 

MACH rhachin^iii 

M' AD M" magister ad Martem Praenestipum 

PRAEN 
MAE, MAEC Maecia (tribus) 
MA-ET PA mater et pater 
MAG magister, luagristri, magisterium, 

magistratus 
MAG'AVG magister Augastalis 
MAG"C*D magister c... dedit 
MAG'COL magister collegii 
MAG'EQ magister equitum 
MAG'FIG magister figulorum 
MAGG magistri, magistratus 

MAG'FAB magister fabrum 
MAGN magnarius 

MAG'PAG magistri pagi Augustl felicis au- 

AVG'F'S" barbani pro ludis ex decreto 

PEG LVD- decurionumi 

EX DD 
MAGP, PERP, PP magister perpetuus 
MAG'PR magister primus 
MAG'PE magister privatae 
MAG'PRIVAT' magister privatae Aegypti et 

AEG-ET LIB Libyae 
MAG'PEOVE magistratus prove maglstratu 

MAG'P'E populi Romaoi 

MAG'QQ magister quinquennalis 
MAG'QVIN magister quinquennalis 



M'A'G'S memor animo grato solvit 

MAG'VIC magister vici 

MAG'UII F magister quartum factus 

MAI Maius (mensis) 

MAI, MAIC Maecia (tribus) 

MAIES'D majestas divina 

MAM MamercuB 

MAN manipularis 

MANC mancipium 

MAN'ET GIN Manibus et cineribus ? 

MANI Manibus 

MANIP, MANIPL, MANP^ manipularis 

MAR Marcia (aqua) 

MAR margaritarius 

MAR maiinus 

MAR maritus 

MARG margaritarius 

MARM marmoreus 

MART Martius (mensis), Martia (legio) 

MARTVIC, VICT Martia victrix (legio) 

MANB 3 manibus (see page 278) 

MANIPLR -manipularis 

MAR marsus 

MAT mater 

MAT Matres or Matronae 

MAT'B mater bona 

MATER"D* Mater deum magna Idaea Dindy- 

MI'D mena?4 

MAT*F'F-CAR mater fecit filio carissimo 
MATR Matres or Matronae 

MAV Mavortius 

MAV Mauri (cohors) 

MAVR'CAES Mauretania Caesarieusls or Siti- 

or 8ITIF or fensis or Tingitana 

TINGIT 
MAVRET Mauretania 
MAX maxiraus 

M'B municipium Bcrgomatium 

M'B'M'F maritus bene merenti fecit 
M'B'D'D'D magistrae Bonae Deae donum de- 

derunt ? 
M*C mater castrorum 

M'C Mauretania Caesariensis 

M'C memoriae causa 

M.CA Mauretania Caesariensis 

M"C'D*S momentum condlderunt? de suo 
M'C'F memoriae causa fecit 

MCP municipium 

M'C'P'M miles classis praetoriae Misenatis 
M'CL'PR miles classis praetoriae 
M-C-PS-I Mithras Cautus Pater Sol invictus ? 
M"C"T*R*N memoriaecausatitulumrenovavlt J 
M'D Manibus Diis ? 

M'D mater deum 

M'D mater dulcfssima 

2 a I. L. X. 3535. 3 a I. Z. VII. 1836, 585. 
* Bolssieu, Insc. de Lyon, p. 24. 



TABLE Oi' ABBREVIATIONS 



441 



M'D muDicipiura Dianenaium 

M'D"A*N inetalla doiniiiL Aug-usti nostri 

M'D'M Mater dcuin magna 

M'D'M'A muDuineiito <h)liis malus abesto 

M'D'M'I Mater deuni magna Idaea 

ME, MEC Maecia (tribus) 

M'E merita eius 

ME Mesogites (vinum) 

MED Medicus 

MED medicus 

MED Meditrinalia 

^. MEDXVD-MAT medicus ludi matutinft 

MED'ORD medicus ordiuarius 

iVlED-TVC* Medixtuticus 

MEM memoria 

MEM'COL (ad) memoriam colendam 

M EN Menenia (tribus) 

MEN" mensis 

MEN mensor 

MENEN Menenia "(tribus) 

MENS'AGRAR, mensor agrarius, agrorum 
AGROR 

MENS3 menses 

M'EQ miliaria equitata (cohors) 

MER Mei'curius 

MEB meridianus (gladiator) 

MER merita, merenSj meritus 

MERC Mercarialis 

MERC'CAN Mercurius Canetonensis 

MERK mercatus 

MER'S Mercuric sacrum 

MES mensis 

MES mensor 

MES Mesogites (vinum) 

MESOP Mesopotamia 

MET raetalla 

METK, METROP metropoHs 

M*F magister fani 

M'P mater fecit 

M'F monuraentum fecit or memoriam 

fecit 

M'P miles factus 

M'P munere functus 

M'P (omnibus honoribus) municipali- 

bus functus 

M'F'A municipium Plavium Arvense 

M'FE'SV memoriam fecit suis 

M'P'P'M mater fecit filio merenti or memo- 
riam fecit, etc. 

M'P'L'A magister fani Larum Augustorum 

M'P'V municijnum Fabrateria vetus 

M'H'F'O memoriam or monumentum heres 
faciendum curavit 

M'H (HON)' M (M ISS) missus honesta missione 

M'H']S''9 monumentum Iieredem non se- 
quetur 

1 Orelli, 3S04. 



MI magna Idaea (Mater) 

MI Maecia (tribus) 

MI Mithras 

MIL miles, militavit, militia 

MIL milifl, miliaria 

MILL milia 

MILT militavit 

MILTS militis 

MIL'P milia passuuiu 

MIL'PETIT militiae ])etitor 

MIN Minatius or MiniuB 

MIN Minervia (legio) 

MIN Minicia 

MIN minister, ministri 

MIN Diinor 

MINER Minerva (legio) 

MlNEIi'MEM Minerva memor* 

MINIS minister 

MIS missio, missicius, missus 

MISS'HON'M missus honesta missione 

M'K mater castrorum 

M'L miles legionis 

ML miles 

M'L municipium Lambiriditanum 

W, W\, /W, 5 ■ L mulieris libertus, liberta 

M'M magister Mercurialis 

M'M mails male 

MM Marci duo 

M'M Mater magna 

MM memoriae 

M'M municipes municipii 

M'M'P marito monumentum fecit 

M'M'P memoriam fecit 

M'M'F'A municipes municipii Plavii Ar- 

vensis 

M'M'I Mater magna Idaea 

M'M'P'OR magister militiae per Orientem 

MM'P'F marito merenti pia fecit 

MMR memoria 

M'M'V municeps municipii Vicetiae 

M'N Mars Nabelcus 

M'N metallg- nova or Numidica 

M"N milia nummum 

MN minus 

M'N municipium Novaria 

M'O matri optimae 

MO Montani (cohors), Montanae (deae) 

MO monumentum 

MOL mulier 

MOLIN molinarius 

MON monetalis 

MON monumentum 

MONEM monumentum 

MON'H'M' monumentiun heredem meum non 

N"S scquetur 

MONIM monumentum 

2 Orelli, 142T. 



442 



Latin inscriptions 



MON'SAO monitor sacrorum 

MONT'PC Montanorum pia constans (cohors) 

MONT monumentum 

M*N municipium Novensium 

M*P magister pagi 

M"P maior pars 

M'P mater posuit 

M"P memoriam posuit 

M'P mille passus, milia passuum 

M'P municipium Placentia 

M'P (PO)* monumentum positum Diis Manl- 

D-M bus 

M'P"F Minervia pia fidelis (legio). 

M'P'P matii piissimae posuit or maritus 

pius posuit 

M'P-VL Marci, Publii, VibUlibertus 

M B merens 

M'S Moesia superior 

M'S Mars suus 

MS mensis 

M'S merito solvit 

M'SEP'APVL municipium Septimium Apulum ■ 

M'S'P maritus sua pecunia 

M'S'S Mithrae Soli sacrum 

M'S'S'E'H" monumentum sive sepulcrunj est 

N*S heredem non sequetur 

M'T municipium Thibilitamim 

M'T'F memoriae titulum fecit 
M'TRIVMPH municipium Triumphale 

M'V municipium Verulanum 

MV Murtites (vinum) 

M'V'F monumentum vivus fecit, or uxor! 

fecit, or maritus uxori fecit 

M'TIC municipium Vicetia 

MVL mulier 

MV'L municipium Lamasba 

MVLXIB mulieris libertus or liberta 

MVL'XX multis fvotis) vicennalibua 

M V N" m unicipium 

MVNEE munerarius 

MVN'NAP municipium Napoca 

MVN'SEPT municipium Septimium Apulum 

APVL 

jj.y.p.p maritus uxori piissimae posuit 

MVR murmillo 
MVR'SCAEV murmillo scaeva 

M'V'S meinor voti solvit 

M'VX'P maritus uxori poBOit 



N 



N 


natalis 


N 


natione 


N 


naturalis ? 


N 


natus 


N 


navarchus, naata 


N 


nefastus (tristis) 


N 


Nemesis ? 


N 


nepos 



N 


NeronianuB 


N 


niger 


N 


nomine 


N 


Nonae 


N 


Noricum 


N 


noster 


N 


novas, novlclus 


N 


noxia (hora) 


N 


numerat 


N 


Nuraerlus 


S 


numero, numernfl 


N 


Numidia 


N 


nuraen 



N, N or M nummi 

TS Nympbae 

ISA. uaturabs (pater) 

NA uatione, natus 

N'A nauta Araricus ■ 

NAOFTL naupbylax 

N'AEAEIC nautae Araricl 

NAEB Narboneusis 

N'A'S numini Augusti sacram 

WAT natione 

N'ATE nautae Atr... 

NAV navicularius, nauta 

NAVF nauphylax 

N'AVG numen Augusfi 

NAVIC navicularius 

NAV'LIG- nautae Ligerenses 

N'BEIT numerus Britonum 

N'C Numidia Constantina 

N'C'INFEE... necui? inferre (liceat ?) 

N'D numen deorum 

N'D'A'N'M nullum dolorem accepit nisi morte 

NE 1 nemini 

NE Neronianus 

NEG negotiator 

NEG'FEV negotiator frumentarius 

NEGOT negotiator 

NEG'PAENVL negotiator paenularins 

NEG-STIP-AEG negotiator stipis argentarii 

NEP nepos 

NEE Neronianus 

N'E"S'D numini eius semper devotus 

N'EXPLOR'BEEM numerus exploratorum 

or BEEMEN Bremeuiensium 

hF nefastus (bilaris) 

N'F'F'N'S'N'C non fui, fui, non sum, non euro 
N'F'N'S'N'C non fni, non sum, non euro 
N"I natione Itala 

N'LIC non licet 

N'M numerus militum 

N'M'Q numini maiestatique 

N'M'Q'E'I) numini maiestatique eius dicatlsBl- 

mus 
N'M Noricum mediterraneum 

1 Bphem. Ep. IV. 236. 



TABLE OF ABBKEVIATIONS 



443 



N"M"V nobllis memoriae vir 

N BT nostri (duo) 

N'N numerus noBter 

NNOBB'CAESS nobilissimi Caesares (duo) 
NNNOOOBBB- nobilissimi Caesaree (tres) 

CAESSS 
NO nobilisslmus 

NO NoviuB 

NOB'CAES nobilisslmus Caesar 
NOB-KEM nobilissima femina 
NOB 1 November 

NOBBCAESS nobilissimi Caesares 
NOMI nomine 

NON Nonae 

NONAGEN nonagenariuB 
NO RICO Noricorum (ala) 
NOT notarius 

NOV November 

NOV Novius 

N'P natione Pannonius ? Ponticus ? 

^P nefastus (bilaris) 

N P NeptunuB 

N P nobilissimuB puer 

N'p2 (si fato meliore filias) non pepe- 

rissent 
N'E natione EaetuB ? 

N'E, EHOD nauta Ebodanicus 
NEIS nostris 

N*8 nomine suo 

N'S'S'I'M numen sanctum Solis invicti Mi- 

thrae 
N'STAT numerus statorum 
N'T'M numerus? tegularum minorum ^ 

N'V nobilisBimus vir 

NVB nurainibus 

NVM numerarius, numerus, numero 

NVM nummum 

NVM'AVG numen Augusti 
NVM "BAT'SEN numerus Batavorum seniorum 
NVM'DAL' numerus Dalmatarum Diviten- 

DIVIT slum 

NVMM, NVMMVL nummularius, nummularia 
N'VRSAKIEN numerus Ursaiiensium 
NTMP nympbaeum 





o 





Olus 





officina 





hoplomachns 





optio 


o,p 


horae 





ovum 



O, O, e, e, O obiit, obitus 
0"E optio balnearii 

^ Boissieu, Insc. de Lyon, p. 597. 

2 a L L. V. 295fi. 

3 Brambach, Insc. Blien. 113. 



0"B ossa bene 

OB obiit or obitus 

08 obiit or obitus 

0"B'0 ossa bene cubent? 

OB H, HON ob bonorem 

OB M'E ob mei-ita eius, memoriam eiuB 

O'B'Q ossa bene quiescant 

O'B'Q'T ossa bene quiescant tibi 

OBE obrysum 

O'C opus constat 

O'C'S ob elves servatos 

OCT octogenarlus 

OCT, OCTO, OCTOB October 

O'D opus doliare 

O'D'D'F'D' opus doliare de figlinis Domitiae 

L'F Lucillae ; figlinae 

O'D'S'M optime de se merito 
O'E'B ossa ei bene 

O'E'B'Q ossa ei bene quiescant 
OF Oufentlna (tribus) 

OF officina 

OF' AVE officina Aureliana 
OFE, OFEN, OFENT, Oufentlna (tribus) 

OFENTIN 
OFF Oufentlna (tribus) 

OFF officina, officinator 

OFF officium 

OFF'COEN officium comiculariorum 
OFFENT Oufentlna (tribus) 
OFFI, OFFIC officina 
OFF-PA, PAPI officina Papiri 
OFF-PEAETEE, officium praeteritorum, rati- 

EAT onum 

OFF'B'E officina summae reior Bummarum 

rationum 
OFI, OFIC officina 
O'H ossa hie? 

O'H'F omnibus honoribus functus 

O'H'Q'B oBsablc quiescant bene 
O'H'S ossa hie sita 

0*H"S"S ossa hie sita sunt 

OIA omnia* 

OL olla. 

OLL'D or D'S'D oUas dedlt or de suo dedit 
OL'PO-V olei pondo V 
O'L'S'T opto levis sit terra 

O'L'T opto levem terram 

O'M ob memoriam 

O'M optime meritus 

O'M optimus maximuB 

O'M'C'P'F" oppidum muiiicipium colonia prae- 

V'C'C'T fectura forum vicus conciliabu- 
lum castellum territorium 
O'M'D'S optime meritus de se 
O'M'V ordo niunicipii V . . . 

O'N'F omnium uomine facinndum 

4 Orelli, 6041, 



444 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



OP 


optimus 


P 


pagina 


OP 


optio 


P 


pagus 


OP-A, AEK optio arcarii 


P 


Pannonii (oohors) 


OPB 


optio balnearll 


P 


Papiria, PoUia (tribus) 


OPC, CA 


optio carceris 


P 


parentes 


OPCO 


optio cohortis 


P 


pars 


OPAL 


Opalia 


P 


passus 


OPC, CA 


optio carceris 


P 


pater 


OPO 


ollam Publius dedit f 


P 


patria 


OP'CO, OOH optio cohortis 


P 


. patrimonium 


OP D, OP-pO, OPDOL opus doliare 


P 


patronus, imtrona 


OPBE-PVB opera publica 


P 


pausarii ? 


OP-EQ 


oi)tio equitum 


P 


peregrina ? ^ 


OPETK, OPI Opiter 


P 


Parthica (legio) 


OPIC 


Opiconsiva 


P 


pecunia 


OPL 


lioplomaclius 


P 


pedatura?, pedes 


OPO 


opobalsamatum 


P 


per 


OP-PECSP opus pecunia sua fecit 


F 


periit 


OPPR, PEI optio principis 


P 


pius or pie, piissimus pientissimus 


OPQ 


ordo populusque 


P 


(lex) Plan tia? Papiria? Pompeiaf 


OPSON 


opsonator 


P 


pondo 


OPT 


optimus, optima 


P 


populus 


OPT 


optio 


P 


posuit or posuerunt 


OPT-B 


optio balnearii 


P 


poster! 


OPT-0 


optio carceris 


P 


praefectus 


OPTCOH 


optio eoliortis 


P 


praeses 


OPTPK 


optio principis 


P 


praetor 


OPTAL 


optio valetudiuarii 


P 


praetoria (oohors) 


OKA, ORAT Irloratia (tribus) 


P 


Primigenia (legio) ^ 


OKD 


ordinarius 


P 


primus, prima 


OKDN 


ordo noster 


P 


princeps 


0-EEST 


orbis restitutor 


P 


pro 


OEN 


omatus, oruamenta 


P 


probum 


OENDEC 


ornamenta decurionaiia 


P 


proconsul 


OKP 


hora prima 


P 


procurator 


0-8 


ossa sita 


P 


provincia 


OS-BO 


ossa bene cubent ? 


P 


Proxumae (deae) 


OSBQ 


ossa bene quiescant 


P 


publicus, publica 


OS-TIB-BQ-S ossa tibibene quiescant 


P 


PubUus 


OSTBQ 


ossa tibi or- tua bene quiescant 


P 


pugnarum 


OS-T-B-NQ 


ossa tibi bene quiescant 


1 


puella 


0-STT-Ii 


opto sit tibi terra levis 


PA 


pagani 


0TB 


ossa tibi bene 


PA 


Palatina, Papiria (tribus) 


OTBC 


ossa tibi bene cubent ? 


PA 


pater 


OTBQ 


ossa tibi bene quiescant 


PA 


patronus 


OTIB 


ossa tibi 


P-A 


pondo argenti 


O'T-Q 


ossa tibi quiescant 


PA 


provincia Africa 


OV 


Ovias 


PA 


publicum argentum 


o-v 


oro vos 


PAG 


Pacuius 


OV 


ornatus vir 


PA-ET MA 


pater et mater 


OVBC 


ossa volo bene cubent 


PA-PECB 


parentes fecenmt 


OVBQ 


ossa YOlo bene quiescant 


PAG 


pagus, pagani 


ovr 


Oufentina (tribus) 


PAG 


pagina 


OT-r 


oro vos faciatis 


PAG 


piisimus Augustus 


0-VPDE- 


oro Tos faciatis, dignum re publica, 


PAL 


Palatina 


P-O-VF 


oro vos faciatis 






OVPENT, OVFF Oufentina (tribus) 




> Brambach, 163. 



TABLt; OP ABliRfiVlATlONS 



445 



PAL palatlnm 

PAL pallium 

PAL Palmyreni (Dumerua) 

PALAT, Palatinus (Salius), Palatina (trl- 

PALATIN bus) 
PAN"INF Pannonia inferior 
PANN _ Pannonia, Pannonil (cohora) 
PANNO Pannonli (cohors) 
PAP Papiria 

PAPHLAG Paphlflgonia 
PA Q PaquiuB 

PAR parentes 

PAK Parilia 

PAPEK, PAPI, PAPIR Papiria (Mbua) 
P'AREL pausarius Arelatensis 
PARENT Parentalia 
PAR'iM Parthicus maximus 

PART, PARTH Parthicus, PartMca (legio) 
PASS 1 passiva (venatio) 

PAT pater 

PAT patricius 

PAT patronus 

PAT'COL patronus coloniae 
PAT-ET CVR patronus et curator 
PAT'F'P'P pater filiae piisimae posuit 
PAT'MVN patronus municipii 
PATR patronus, patronatua 

PATR'C patronuB centuriae 
PATR'COL patronus coloniae 
PATR'COL' patronus coloniae rei publicae 

R'P'R Riciniensis 

PATRIM patrlmonium 
PATR'MVN patronus municipii 
PATRN patronus 

P'A'V provincia Africa vetus 

PAVIMEN" paviraentarius 
P-B-F (filii) patri bono fecerant ? 

PEL publicus 

P'B'M parentes bene merentl 

P-B'M patrono bene merenti 

P-B-P, P'B'PR principalis beneficiariuspraefecti 
P'BR"8 plumbum Britannicum signatum 

or publicani Britanniae sanctae ? 
P'C patrea conscript! 

P'O patronus civitatis, coloniae, col- 

legii, corporis 
PC pecunia 

P'C pia constana (legio cohors) 

P'C pietatis cauaa 

P'C ponendum curavit 

P'C post consulatum 

P'C potestate censoria 

P'C'ET S'A (AS, ponendum curavit et sub 
ASC)"D ascia dedicavit 

1 0. I. L. X. 3704, where it ie wrongly ex- 
plained as Pa88(erii/m). The word is found in 
fuK in Mtieie JDegli Sewvi, 1888, p. 237. 



P'C'N patronus collegii (corporis) nosti-i 

P'C'O publicum coloniae Ostiensis 

P'COL patronus coloniae 

P'COND pagus Condatium 

PCS post consulatnm 

P'D posuit dedicavitque 

P'DAT'D'D publico datum dcscurionum decreto 

P'D'D posuit dedicavitque 

P'D'D publico decreto decurionum 

P'D'D'E populo dare damnas esto 

P'D'D'P'P posuerunt decreto decurionum pe- 
cunia publica 

P'D'NON'F (misellas in) perpetuum dolorem 
non funerassent^ 

PE Percennius or Pescennius 

PEC pecunia, pecuniosus 

PEC pequarius 

PED pedatura, jiedes 

PED pedites, peditata (cohors) 

PEDIS, PEDI8EQ, PEDISQ' pedisequns 

PED-SING pedes singularis 

PEL pellis 

PEQ pjcunia 

P'EQ'R'M patronus eques Eomanus muni- 
cipii 

PER Percennius 

PER peregrinus (praetor) 

PEE permissu 

PERP perpetuus 

P'E'S'C publice e aenatus consulto 

PET Petriana (ala) 

P'ET H patronus et heres 

PEES Persicus 

PESO Pescennius 

PET Petro 

P'F pater fecit or parentes fecemnt 

P-F pater filio 

P'F pia femina ? 

P'F pia fidelia 

P'F plus felix 

PF praefectus 

P'F (in kalendas Februariaa quae) prox- 

imae fuerunt 

P'F'C'R pia fidelis civium Eomanorum 
(cohors) 

P'FE'FILIE parenti {or parentibus) fecerunt 
filiae 

P-FEL pins felix 

P'F'F parentibus fill fecerunt ? 

P'F'F pia felix iirtelis (legio) 

P-F-F'AET pia felix fidelis aetema Oegio) 

P'F'K'F pater filio karissimo fecit 

P'F'P, P'FI-P parentibus filii posuerunt ? 

P'F'V plus fehx victor 

PC Primigenia 

P'G'D Petra genetrix domini 



' C. /. L. V. 2956. 



' a I. L. X. ( 



446 



LATIN INSCRltTtONS 



P Q-'N provincia Gallia Karbonensis 

P'G'S provincia Germanla Superior 

PUAL phalerae 

PH'C provincia Hispania Citerior 
P'H'O'ADQ placere liuic ordini atque e re pu- 

E-E-P'V blicavlderi 

PI plus 

P"I poni iussit 

PIC Picenum 
P'I'D, PR'I'D praefectus iurl dicundo 
PI-F-F pia felix fldelis 

PIL-PE, POST piluB prior, posterior 

P'I'S pius in suos 

P'K praetor candidatus 

P*L patrono libertus or patronua U- 

berto 

PL placuit \ 

PL PlajicuB 

PL Plautua ? 

PL plebs, plebis (aedilis, tribunus) 

PL plumbum 

P'L provincia Lugdunensis 

PLA Plancus 

PLA Plautus 

PLAT-DEXT'E-N"! platea dextra eunti Nidara 

PLB plumbarius 

PL'C plebs collegii 

PL-CEPv plebis Cerialis (aedilis) 

P'L'L posuit laetus libens 

P*L*L2 pro ludis luminibus 

PL'M plus minu& 

P'L'M posuit libens merito 

PL'MIN plus minus 

P'L'P patrono liberti posuerunt 

P'L'P praefecti lege Petronia ? 

P'L'S'F patronus liberto suo fecit ? 

PLS-MINS plus minus 

PL'SC plebi scitum 

PL"VE-SC plebive scita 

P"M patronus municipii 

P'M patronus municipii 

P'M plus minus 

P'M pontifex maior 

P'M pontifex maximus 

P'M (et) post mortem (nihU) 

P'M pro mentis 

P'M'C provincia Mauretania Caesariensis 

P'M IS parentes miserrimi 

P'M'F patri merenti fecit 

P'M'V patronus municipii Verulani 

P'N (cpnservatori) patrimonii nostri 

P'N praeses noster or Numidiae 

P'N" provincia Numidia 

P'N'C provincia Numidia Constantina 

PO Poblilia (tribus) 

1 Brambach, 1311 et 1SI2. 

2 C. 1. L. X. 856 ; cf. 855 et S57. 



PO 


Poblins = Publlns 


PO 


post obitum 


PO 


posuit 


PO 


praetorio 


PO 


princeps optimus 


FOB 


Poblilia (tribus) 


POC 


primi ordinis comes 


POL 


polio ' 


POL 


Pollia (tribus) 


PO-M 


patrono optiine merito 



POM, POMEN, POMENT, Pomptiua (tribus) 

POMI, POMP 
POMP Pompeius 

POMT Pomptina (tribus) 

PON'CEJfS ponendum censueruut 
PON'CVK ponendum ouravit 
PONDER ponderarius 
PONT Pomptina (tribus) 

PONT, PONTIF pontifex 
PONTIFF pontifices 
PONT'MAX pontifex maximus 
PONT'M'M pontifex municipum municipii 
POP Pompo or Poiridius 

POP Poblilia (tribus) 

POP populus 

POPIN Popinia (tribus) 

POPLIF Poplifugium 
FOR, POROL Porolissensis (Dacia) 
POR'PVBLIO portorium publicum 
POS Postumus 

PORT porticus 

PORT Portunalia 

POS posuit 

POS'AEDCAS post aedem Castoris 
POS "CONS post consulatum 
POS'DS posuerunt de suo 
POSE poseit = posuit 

POS'P'P posita (statua) pecunla publica 
POST Postumus 

POST CONS, CON, COL, CNS post consulatum 
POST H'L'ROG post hance legem rogatem 
POSV posuit 

P'P pater patriae 

P'P pater patrum (Cult of Mithras) 

P'P pater posuit 

P'P pater piissimils 

P'P parentes pientissimi 

P'P patronus pientissimus 

P'P patronus perpetuus 

P'P pecunia posuit 

P'P pecunia pnblica 

P P Penates publici ? 

P'P pendens pondo 

P'P permissu proconsulis' 

P'P • perpetuus 

P'P pius or pia posuit 

8 Very uncertain, occurs in AMca alone. 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



447 



p.p 


piissimo, pU8sima«, posuit or po- 




suerunt 


p.p 


populo postulante 


p.p 


populus Parmensis 


p.p 


portorium publicum 


p.p 


praeposittts 


p.p 


praeses provinciae 


p.p 


primus pilus or prlmipilaris 


p.p 


pro parte 


p.p 


pro pietate 


p.p 


propria pecunla 


pp 


proprio 


p.p 


(aere) proprio posuerunt 


p.p 


provincia Pannonia 


p.p 


publicani provinciae 


p.p 


publice positus 



P-P'A"A*V"V"G'G- perpetui August! (duo) 
P'P'A^N praepositus annonae 
P'P'AVGG perpetuie Augustis (duobus) 
P'P'BRI" publicani provinciae Britanniae 

LON Londinienses 

P'P'C pientissimo ponendum curavit 

P'P'D'D pecunia publica decreto decurio- 

num 
P'P'F patri piissimo fecerunt 

P'P'F Primigenia pia fidelis (legio) 

P'P'F'O pecunia publica faciundum curavit 
p-P'F'D'D pecunia publica fecerunt dedi- 

carunt 
P'P'FL* praeses provinciae Flaviae Vien- 

VIEN" nensis 

P'PI 1 primipilus 

P'P'INFER provincia Pannonia inferior 
P'P'K praepositus kastris - 

P'P'L Publiorum duoruin libertus 

P'P'M'S praeses provinciae Mauretaniae 

Sitifensis 
P'P'N NVM praeses provinciae Nuniidiae' 
P'P'O posuit patrono optimo 

PPO praefectus praetorio 

P'P'P pater pius posuit or parentes pii 

posuerunt 
P'P'P patri piissimo posuit or posuerunt 

P'P'P proconsul pater patriae 

P'P'P pro pietate posuit 

P"P'P propria pecunia posuit or posue- 

runt 
P'P'P'G primipilaris patronus coloniae 
P"P'P*F (filii) pii patri pio or patri pro 

pietate fuerunt 
PPP-FFF- Pii Felices Augusti (tres) 

AAA.GGG 
P-P'R praeses provinciae Raetiae 

P'P'R (forma) publica populi Romani 

P'PR'BR publicani provinciae Britanniae 
P'PR'LON publicani provinciae Londinienses 

1 C, I. L. XII. 2210. 



P'P'R'Q Penates populi Romani Quiritum 

PP-RROM pontiflces Romani 

P'P'8 posuit pecunia sua 

P'P'8 pro parte sua ? 

P'P'8 provincia Pannonia superior 

P-P'STAT praepositus stationis 

P'P'S pro pecunia sua 

pp-VV perfectlssimi viri 

P'P w w pro parte tertia 

P'Q pedes quadrati 

PQ pequarius 

P'Q (petitio) persecutio que (esto) 

P'Q populusque 

P'QVOQYE VERS pedes quoque versufl 

P'Q'Q'V pedes quoquoversus 

P'Q'R populusque Romanus 

P'Q'S posterisque suis 

PR parentes 

P*E populus Romanus 

P*B post reditum or pro reditu 

PR praediura 

PR praefectus 

PR praetor, praetorium, praetoriuB 

PR praepositus 

PR pridie 

PR Primigenia (legio) 

PR Primus (praenomen) 

PR pripius, prior 

PR princeps, principalis 

PR privata (ratio) 

PR pro 

PR probante 

PR Proculus 

PR procurator 

PR promotus 

PR pronepos 

PR provincia 

PR provinciae (anno provinciae, in 

Mauretania) 
P'R provincia Raetia 

P'R publice restituit ? 

PRAE, PEAEF praefectus 
PEAEF AEDIL prafeectus aedilicia potestate 

POT 
PRAEF'AER praefectus aerarii 

PRAEF'AER'SAT praefectus aerarii Saturni 
PRAEFCOH praefectus cohorti 
PRAEF'C'A'V^ praefectus centuriae aceenso- 

rum velatorum 
PRAEFEC praefectus 
PRAEF'EQ praefectus equitum 
PRAEFF praefecti 

PRAEFF-PR- praefecti praetorio 
PRAEF'F'D praefectus ft-umenti dandi 
PRAEF'I'D, praefectus lure dicundo 

IVEDIC 

2 a I. L, y\, 9219, 



448 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



PRAEF-MIN praefectus Miniciae 

PRAEF'NVM praefectus numeri 

PRAEF'P' praefectus puerorum pedisequo- 

PEDISIC rum 

PRAEF-PKAET praefectus praetorio 
PRAEF-TIR praefectus tifonum 
I'RAEF'TVR praefectus turmarum 
PRAEF-VEX, VEXIL praefectus vexillationi 
PRAK'NH' praepositus numero Herculis An- 

ANT toniniano 

PRAEP praepositus 
PRAEPO 1 praepositus 
PRAEP'P" praepositus publici frumenti or 

FRVM pecuniae frumentariae 

PR'AER ■ praefectus aerarii 
PRAES praesentes 

FRAET praetor, praetorius 
PRAETT praetoriae (cohortes) 
PR'BR'LONprovinciaeBritanniaeLondinienses 
P"R-C'ANN post Romam couditam anno 
PR*CER'I"D, praetor cerialis iure dicundo 

IVRDIO 
PE'C'R praetoria civium Eomanorum 

(cohors) 
PREC precari 

PREF praefectus 

P-R-F2 praefectus 

PR'GER'SVP provincia Germania Superior 
PR'G'N princeps gentis Numidarum 

PK'H'O'O'S progressus hostem occidit civem 

servavit 
PRI pridie 

PRI Primus (praeuomen) 

PRI princeps 

PRI primus, piima 

PR'I'D praefectus or praetor iure dicundo 

PRID pridie 

PRIM primarius 

PRIM'IN'C (Fortunae) Prlmigeniae in colle 
PRIM, PRIMIG Primigenia (legio) 
PEIMOPS primipilus 
PRIMO"V primo {dative) unquam 
PRIN princeps 

PRINC princeps, principalis 

PEIN'COL princeps coloniae _ 
PRINC'PEREG princeps peregrinorum 
PRINC'PRAET princeps praetorii 
PR'IJST PED principales in pedatura 
PR'I V princeps iuventutis 

PR'IVV praetor iuventutis 
PR'IWEN princeps iuventutis 
PE*K praetor candidatus 

PR-K'TVT praetor candidatus tutelaris 
PRXV'LV* pro ludis luminibiis 

^EpJiem. Ep. VII. 363. 

2 a L L. VII. 450. 

3 a I. L. VIII. 9045. 



PE'L'V'P'F praetor ludos Tictoriae primus 

fecit 
P'E'N patrimonium? regni Norici 

PRO proconsul 

PRO procurator 

PRO proficisceretur 

PRO pronepos 

PRO protector 

PRO provincia 

PROB probavit, probaverunt, probantef 

probatus 
PROC proconsul 

PROO procurator 

PEOC'AD B procurator ad bona 
PROC"AVG procm-ator Augusti 
PROC'AVG* procurator August! quadragesi- 

XXXX mae (GaUiarum) 

PROCC procuratores 

PROC 'CA- procurator capiendorum vectiga- 

PIEND-VEG lium 
PROC'K procurator kastrensis [rum 

PROC'M'N procurator marmorum Numidico- 
PROC-VECT procurator vectigalis (Illyrici) 
PROC'IIII procurator quattuor publicorum 

P-AFR Africae 

PROCO proconsul 

PROCONSS proconsulatus 
PEG-COS, PROCOS pro consule, proconsule 
PEOCOS proconsul, proconsulatus 
PRO'D provincia Dacia 

PRO DOM protector domesticus 
PEO LVDLVM pro ludis luminibus 
PRO'M processum meritus 

PROM promotus 

PEO MAG promagister 
PEON, PRONEP pronepos 
PROP'P'O propria pecunia curavlt 
PRO PR pro praetore 
PRO PE' pro praetore ex senatus consulto 

EX S-C 
PRO Q pro quaestore 

PROR proreta 

PRO -S pro salute 

PRO S'D'N pro salute domini nostri 
PEOT protector 

PEOV provincia 

PEOV provoeator 

PEOX proximus (rationum, tabulario- 

rum) 
PROX-CIPP proximus cippus 
PR'M praepositus milltum 

PRM'FEL' Primani Felices lustiniani (nu- 

IVST merus) 

PROV provincia 

PRP propriis 

PR'PER praetor peregrinus 
PE-P-F Primigenia pia fidelis (leglo) 

PRPOS, POST princeps posterior 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



449 



PE-PE 


praefectus praetorio 


P-V 


perfectissimus vir 


PEPK 


praeses provinciae 


P-V 


pia vindex (leglo) 


PEPE 


pro praetore 


P-V 


portuH uterque 


PEPEAET 


priDceps praetorii 


P-V 


praefectus urbi 


PEPOST, 


PE pi-iDceps posterior, ^rior 


P-V 


provincia utraque 


PEPV 


praetoria pia vindex (coliors) 


PV 


publico 


PE-Q 


populus Eomanus Quirltium 


Vl 


pupilla 


PREELi 


praepositus reliquationis 


P-V-A 


pius vixit annos or annis 


PK-8 


procurator rationum siimmanim ? 


PVB 


publicus, publica, publioe 


PE-8 


profecturus sit 


PVB 


Publilia (tribus) 


PE-SAO 


praetor sacrorum 


PVBCO 


publico 


PE-SAC-VOLK- praetor saoris Tolcano faci- 


PVB-FAC 


publice factum 


FAC 


endis 


PVBL 


publicus, publica, publice 


PE-SEN'CONS praetor senatum oonsuluit 


PVBL 


publicanus 


PES-P-8 


pro salute posuit 


PVBL-OOL 


publicum coloniae 


PESTA 


praepositus stationis 


PVBLI. PVBLIL PublUia (tribus) 


PE-VIG 


praefectus vigilum 


PVBL-MVN publicum municipii 


PEVEB 


praefectus urbi or praetor ur- 


P-V-B-P-E-Q publicus populi Eomani Quiritium 




banus 


PVG 


pugnaruiri 


PEII VIE 


praetor duo -pir 


PVP 


Pupinia (tribus) 


PE-XX LIB procurator Tigestaiae libertatis 


PVP 


pupillus ■* 


P-8 


Pannonia Superior 


PVP 


Pupus 


PS 


Parthica Severiana (legio II) 


PVPI, PVPIN Pupinia (tribus) 


P-8 


pater sacrorum 


P-V-PHILIP pia vindex Philipplana (leglo) 


P-8 


pecunia sua 


PV-PO 


publice positns 


P-8 


pius, pia suis ? 


PV-PV-L 


duorum puporum libertus, liberta 


PS 


posuerunt 


PVE 


purpureus 


PS 


praeses Samnii 


p-v-s 


posuit volo sbluto 


PS 


proprio sumptu 






p-s 


pro salute 




Q 


p-s 


proxumis suis 






P-8-D-D 


pro salute domus di-Tlnae 


Q 


quaestiones 


P-S-D-N 


pro salute domini uostri 


Q 


quaestor, qnaestoriciuB 


P-S-F 


pecunia sua fecit 


Q 


quando 


P-8-F-0 


pecunia sua faciundum curaYit 


Q 


que 


P-8-I 


pro salute imperii 


Q 


qui, quae, quod 


P-8P 


pecu-nia sua posuit 


Q 


- Quinquatria 


P-SP-D 


pecunia sua posuit dedicavit 


Q 


quinquennalis 


P-SP-L-L 


pecunia sua posuerunt laeti liben- 


Q 


Quintus 




tes 


Q 


Quirina (tribus) 


P-SP-L-L 


pro salute posuit laetus libens ? 


Q,? 


quondam 


P-SE 


pecunia sua restituit 


Q-A 


quaestor aerarii 


P-S-E 


procurator summarum rationum ' 


Q-A 


quot annis 


P-S -8 2 


Pannonia Secunda Saria 


Q-AEE-P 


quaestor aerarii publici 


P-S-8 


pro salute sua 


Q-AL, ALIM quaestor alimentorum 


P-8-8-P 


pro salute sua posuit or posue- 


Q-A-V 


qui aunos or annis vixlt... 




runt 


QB3 


quaestor beneficiarius ? ? 


P-S-8-8 


pro salute sua suorumque ? 


Q-B-F-P 


quod bonum faustum felix (sit) 


P-8T 


posuit 


Q-C-A 


quorum curam .igebat 


PST CONSLTO post consulatum 


Q-C-0-E-M 


quaestor curator civium Eomano- 


p-s-v 


parentibus suis vi-vis 


NEG-MOG- rum Mogontiaci, negotiator Mo- 


PT 


pater 


C-T4 


, gontiacensis, civis Taunensis 


P-T 


posuit testaraento ? 


Q-CONT 


qui eontinet 


P-T-M 


posuit titulum memoriae 


Q-O-P 


quinquennalis censoria potestate 


PTE 


patronus 


Q-C-E 


quel elves Eomani (erunt) 






Q-C-V 


quaestor coloniae Viennae 


1 


Ephem. Ep. III. p. 811. 






2 


Bphem. Sp. II. 884. 


s Brambaoh, 24. * Brambaoh, 756. 



450 



LATIN INSCKIFTIONS 



Q'D quaestor deslgnatuB 

Q'D quondam 

Q'D'A quo, qua or quibus de agitur 

Q'D'E'E'F'P' quid de ea re fieri placeret, de 

D'E'E'I'O ea re ita coneuerunt 
Q"D'R quadere 

Q"D'K*A qua de re agitur 
Q'E qui, quae, quod est 

Q'E'C'F (votum libens anirao posuit) quo- 

ius eum compotem fecit 
Q'E'D quod eo die 

Q"F qui, quae, quod fuit or qui faciunt 

or quod factum or quo facto 
Q'F'P'D'E* quid fieri placeret, de eare Ita cen- 

K'l'O suerunt 

Q'F'IVG- quod facit iugerum 
Q"H'C"I'K quo honore contentus impensam 

remisit 
Q'HH'S'S qui heredes scripti sunt 
Q'H'N'S quod heredem non sequetur 
"Q'l'D'P qui iure dicundo praeerit 

Q'INF'S'S qui (quae) infra scripti (scripta) sunt 
QIQE >■ quinque 

QER Quirina (tribus) 

Q"I*S*S qui (quae) infra scripti (scripta) 

sunt 
Q'K quaestor kandidatus 

Q'L'S'V'T'L (dicite) qui legitis sit vobis terra 

levis 
Q'M qui militavit 

Q*M quo minus 

Q'M'O qui militare coepenint 

Q'MIL qui militavit 

Q'N'S'S'S quorum nomina supra scripta sunt 
Q'P quaestoria potestate 

Q"P quadrati pedes 

Q'P'A quaestor pecuniae alimentariae 

Q'P'A'P quaestor pecuniae alimentorum 

publicorum 
Q'P'F qui primi fuerunt 

Q'P'P quaestor pecuniae publicae 

Q'PR'PE quaestor pro praetore 
Q*Q qnaestores 

Q-Q quicquid 

Q'Q quinquennalis 

Q'Q Quinti duo 

Q-Q'C'F" quinquennalis corporis fabrum na- 

NAV . Valium 

Q'Q'C'P quinquennalis censoria potestate 
Q'Q'P quoquoversus pedes 

Q'Q'PER, Q* quinquennalis perpetuus or quin- 

Q"P"P quennales perpetui 

Q'P'P'C'M quinquennalis perpetuus corporis 

mensorum 
Q'Q'S'S'S quam qui supra scripti sunt 
QQ'TT quaestorea 

* Boissieu, Insc. de I/yon, p. 598, ixv. 



Q*Q"V quoquoversus 

Q'Q'V'L'P quoquoversus locus pedum... 
Q'Q'V'P quoquoversus pedes... 
Q"Q'V"P*Q quoquoversus pedes quadrates... 
Q'R'C'F quando rex comitiavit fas, o?- 
quando rex comitio fugit . (see 
page 367) 
QR Quirina (tribus) 

Q'R'P quaestor rei publicae 

Q'R'P'A quaesturam rei publicae agens ? 
Q-R-8-HF- ? 

H'TT-Va 
QS quiescant ? 

Q"8 qui, quae, quod supra 

Q'SAC'P' quaestor sacrae pecuniae alimenta- 

ALIM riae 

Q'8"F'E quod supra factum est 

Q'S'P'P'8 qui sacris publicis praesto sunt 
Q'S'S'S qui (quae) supra scripti (ftcripta) 

sunt 
Q'ST'D'F quando stercus delatum fes (see 

page 867) 
QT quot 

Q'V quoquoversus 

QV quinque 

QV Quintus 

QV Quirina (tribus) 

Q'V qui vixit 

Q'V qui vocatur 

Q'V'A qui vixit annis or annos 

QVAD quadrans 

QVA DR quadrigae 
QVAE, QVAES quaestor 
QVAE8IT-IVD quaesitor index 
QVA ES -RET quaestum rettulit 
QVAEST'SAC quaestor sacrae pecuniae ali- 

P'ALIM mentariae 

QVAI8T quaestor (archaic) 
QV ANTI E * quanti ea res erit tantam pecuniam 

RETP 
QVAE Quartus (praenomen) 

Q'V'F'S'I'O quod verba facta sunt in ordine 
QVI Quinctllis 

QVI» Quintana? (ara) 

QVI Quirina (tribus) 

QVIB'EX' quibus ex senatus consulto coire 

8"C"C"P permissum (est) 

QVI'I'D'P qui iure dicundo praeest 
QVIN Quinquatria 

QVIN" quinquennalis 

QVINOT Quinctilis 
QVINQ quinquennalis 

QVIWQ quinquies 

* Gruter, 886, 3, explains : Qui retro scripti 
heredesfecer^inf hunc tifulum. Titulo usi. 
— It is probable that the abbreviations have not 
been correctly copied. » Bramb. 1446. 



TABLE OF ABBRP:VIATI0NS 



451 



BEST, EE8TIT restitait, resHtuerunt 



QVIR 


Quii-inalia 


RET 


retiarius 


QVIE 


Quirinalis (flamen) 


EET 


rettulit 


QVIEI, QVIRIN Quirina (tribus) 


EEVOO 


revocatus 


QVIX 


qui, quae vxxit 


EHOD 


Ehodanici (nautae) 


QVOF 


quo facto 


EIN C 


redactus in colonicum ? 


QVOT 


quotannis 


EL 


recte licet, licebit 


QVP 


quoquoversus pedes 


E-M-F 


revercntissimae memoriae femlna ? 


QV-PQ 


quoquoversus pedes quadratos 


E-K 


regnum Noricum 


QVR, VEB 


quaestor urbanus 


EOB 


Eobigalia 


QVE 


Quirina (tribus) 


ROM 


Eomanus 






ROM, EOMIL, EOMVL Eomilia (tribus) 




R 


EOS 


rosalia 




EP 


ratio privata 


E 


Eaetia, Eaetl (ooliors) 


E-P 


res publica, rei publicae^ re publica 


E 


Eapax (legio) 


EPB 


res publica Bovillensium 


E 


ratio 


EPO 


rei publicae constituendae 


E 


recessns 


EPO 


res publica Carsiolorum 


E 


regnum 


E-P-CA 


rei publicae caussa abesse 


E 


restituit 


EPCL 


res publica coloniae Tiambaesitanae 


E 


retiarius 


EP-D 


rei publicae dedit 


E 


retro 


E-PMD 


res publica municipii Dianensium 


E 


Eetus (praenomen) 


R-pisr 


res publica nostra 


E 


revocatus 


RPP 


res publica Philippensium 


K 


Eomanus 


EPPD-D 


res publica Phuensium decreto 


R 


rubrica, rubrum 




decurionum 


E 


Ruftia 


E-PE 


res publica Reatinorum 


n 


ratio, Romanus (eques), rubrica 


EPE 


res publica Eicinensis 


EAP 


Rapax (legio) 


EPE 


res publica restituit 


EA8' 


rarissimo 


E-P-ES-ETAS re pnblica Eomanis restituta 


EAT 


rationalis 


E-P-S-S 


res publica suprascripta 


RAT-CASTE, ratio castrensis 


EE 


rarissimae ? 


EATPEIV 


ratio privata 


EEPEOX 


recto rigore proximo cippo 


EAT-S-R 


rationalis sacrarum remuneratio- 


CIPP 


pedes . . . 




num ?2 


ET 


ripa Thraciae 


EC 


reficiendum curaverunt 


ET, TIB 


ripa Tiberis 


ED-A 


ratio dominica Augusta 


EVt 


rudis prima 


RE 


Regina 


EVS3 


Eussala (faotio) 


REC 


reciperator, reciperatorius 






REOT-PEOV rector provinciae 




s 


RED-IN 


redactus in colonicum ? 




REB'AB AEE redemptor ab aerario 


8 


sacerdos 


REF, EEFE, refeclt, refecerunt, refeotus 


S 


ServiuB 


EEFEC 




8 


servus 


EEFIC-COEE reflcienda coerarunt (archaic) 


8 


sestertium 


liEFIC-D- 


reficiendas de conscriptorum sen- 


8 


Severiana (legio or cohors) 


c-s-c 


tentia curaverunt 


8 


Severus 


EEG 


Regina 


3 


s^xtarius 


REG 


regio 


S 


Sextus 


REIP, REIPVB rei publicae 


a 


si 


REP 


rei publicae 


s 


SicHia 


REP 


reparari 


s 


sacerdos, sacrnin 


EEPLET 


repletio 


s 


saeculum 


RES 


restituit 


s 


saltus 


EES P-C- 


res publica coloniae Lambaesitanae 


s 


salve or salutem 


LT 


fecit 


s 


Saturnus 


> C. I. L. VIIE. 4087. 2 OreUi, 1090. 




3 0. I. L. VIII. 10293. 



m 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



S scriba, ecripsit, Bcriptus 

S ae, sibi 

S secundae 

S secutor 

3 semis 

S sententia 

S sepultura 

S signavit, signator 

S singuli 

S Silvan as 

S singuli, sisgularis 

3 sitas or sepultus 

3 sol? 

S solvit 

S soror ? 

3 Spurius 

3 stipendia 

S studiosuB * 

S sunt 

3 suus, sui 

3 suppurationes 

3 quinarius 

S jservus, Sextus,^ scriba ? ^ 

SA sacerdos 

8"A (procurator) saltuum Apulorum ? 

3 A salve or- salutera- 

SA Salvias 

S"A 3aluB Augusta ? 

8"A Severiana Alexandriana (legio co- 

hors) 

S'A Silvanus Augustus 

S'A Bomnus aeternalis 
SAB, SABATI, 3ABATIN Sabatina (tribus) 

SAC sacer, sacrum, sacerdos, sacerdo- 

talis, sacravit 

3 AGO sacerdotes 

S'AC'D sub ascia dedicavit 

SACER sacerdos 
3A0EED-CER sacerdos Cereris 

S'M'D'XV sacerdos inatris Deum quindecim- 

V . viralis 

SAC'P sacerdos publicus 

3AC"P"A'A sacerdos provinciae Africae anni... 
SAC'PHRTG" sacerdos Phi-ygius maximus 

MAX 

SACK sacrum 

SACR'FAC sacris faciundis 

SAC'SVP sacerdos superior? 

SAC'VRB sacerdos urbis 

S'A'DjB'D sub ascia dedicavit 

1 a I. L. III. 4876. 

^The explanation "5ecw/or" suggested by 
Hubner {^Exmrypl. script, epigr. p. Ixxiii), for 
qob 2441 and 2547 of the VI volume of the 
Corpus appears to Cagnat very doubtfUl. We 
can in these two cases interpret as, Sexlus. 

3 Bull. :^pigr. 1889, p. 94. 



S'A'F Saturnus Augustus Frugifer 

SAG saglttarii (cohors) 

SAL Salius 

SAL Salvius 

SAL salve or saluteih 

S'AL Severiana Alexandriana (legio or 

cohors) 
SALA salararius 

SALARrSOC salarius sociorum 
SAM Samnis 

SAR Sarmaticus 

SAR Sardinia 

S'ARK servus arcarius 

SARM, SARMAT Sai-maticus 



S-A-3 



Saturno or Silvano Augnsto sa- 
crum 



SA-SAT 


sacerdos Saturni 


S-A8-D 


sub ascia dedicavit 


SAT-AVG 


Saturnus Augustus 


SATVE 


Saturnus 


8BP-QS 


sibi posterisque suis 


8BD 


sub die 


SO* 


sacerdotium 


s-c 


sacra cognuscens 


sc 


scaenicus 


8-C 


senatum coDSuluemnt 


S-C 


senatus consulto 


80 


(plebi) scitum 


S-0 


singularis cunsulai-is 


S-C 


scribendum (cui-averunt) 


8-C 


sub cura 


8-c-r-c 


senatus cousulto faciendum cura- 




vit 


SCA 


scabillarii 


SO-ADF 


scribendo adfuerunt 


SCAP, SCAPT Scaptia (tribus) 


8CAPTINS 


Scaptiensis (of the tribus Scaptia) 


SCAT 


Scaptia (tribus) 


8C-C 


senatus consulto curavit, curave- 




runt 


8-C-D-D 


socii eultores doraus divinae 


S-C-D-D- 


s... creaius decreto decurionum 


SC-D-M 


sciensdolo malo 


8-0-D-T 


senatus consulto de tbesauro 


S-C-E 


servo conserva eius ? 


8CEN 


scaenicus 


S-CT-C 


senatus consulto faciuudum cu- 




raverunt 


SC-HE 


secundus her£S 


S-G-F 


sacerdos Cererum publica 


S-CP-R 


senatus consultum popull Romani 


8-C-Q-ANN 


sui cuiusque anni 


SCR 


scriba, scripsit 


SCE-ADF 


scribendo adfuerunt 


SC-R-C 


senatus consulto restituendum en- 




raverunt 



4 0. 1. L. VI. 786. 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



453 



SOEI scriba, scripsit 

SCKIB'ADF Bcribundo adfuerunt 

8CKIB'LIBR"Q scriba librarius ctuaestorius 

SUJiIB*Q"VI Pli scriba quaestorius sexprimus 

SCRIB'li'P scriba rei publicae 

S'ORl'VLL sine crimine ullo 

8CRP scripuU 

SCE'CEK scriptus cerarii 

80RVT scrutarius 

8CS eaeerdos 

8CVE scurra 

SCVT Scutata (cohors) 

8CYT, SCTTH 8cythica (legio) 

S'D sancta dea 

8*D 8erapis? deus 

8'D Silvanus deus 

8'D sinistra decumanum 

S-D 8ol deus 

8'D-L'8"D sacerdos del Liberi, sacerdos deae 

8'D*M sacrum Diis Manibus 

8"D"M sine dolo malo 

S'D'N (pro) salute domini nostri 

S'DO'M sine dolo raalo 

S'D'S Saturno dec or domino sacrum 

S'D'S Silvano domestico sacrum 

8'D'S'D 8ilvano dec sancto domestico? 

SE secutor 

8E secunda 

8E sestertius 

8'E situs est 

8EB 8ebasteDi (ala) 

8EBAG sebaciaria 

SEC secundae 

8EC secutor 

SEC'H secundus heres 

SEC'TR secutor tribuni, trierarcM 

8EI V*E sei videatur eis 

8EIVG seiuge 

8 EM semel 

SEM, SEMEN, SEMENS semestrls 

SEN senatus 

SEN senior 

SEN'SEN senatus sententia 

SEP September 

SEP Septimius 

SEP sepultura 

SEPT September 

SEPT Septimius 

SEQ Sequana (dea) 

SEQ secutor 

SER Sergia (tribus) 

8ER Servius 

SER servus, serva 

SER'AEQ'MONET servus aequator monetae 

SERG Sergia (tribus) 

SERT Sertor 

SER*7SC servus contrascriptor 

SER'VIL servus vilicus 



SER-VLIBER-V servus vovit, liber solvit 

S'E'S'F sibi et suis fecit 

SE8Q, 8ESQVIPL sesquiplicarius 

SE'TR secutor tribuni 

8-ET 8 sibi et suis 

8-ET SX'L'P-Q'E, sibi et suis libertis, liberta- 

or LIB'LIB'POST' bus posterisque eorum 

Q-EOR 

SEVAVG sevir Augustalis 

SEX sexmestris (tribunus) 

SEX sextilis 

SEX Sextus 

SEXM sexmestris (tribunus) 

SEXTIL Sextilis (mensis) 

8"F sacris faciundis 

S'F'S sine firaude sua 

Si"H . secundus heres ? 

8"H semihora 

8'H signum Herculis ? 

8-H sitahic? 

S'H summa honoraria 

S'H'F'C secundus heres faciendum curavit 

S'l stlitibus iudicandis 

S'I'D Sol invictus deus 

SI'E situs est 

SIF sifonarins 

SIG signifer 

8IGF signifer 

SIGN signator, signavit 

SIGN signum, signifer 

SIGNF signifer 

SIL-SILV SUvano silvestri 

S'I'M Sol invictus Mithras 

SING singularis, singuli 

SING'COS singularis consularis 

8INGVL singularis 

B'I*N"M Sol invictus n . . . Mithras 

S'lT sanctissimus iuvenis ? 

SL'IVDIK stlitibus iudicandis 

8'L'L'M solvit laetus libens merito 

S'L'M solvit libens merito 

S'L'P sibi libertis posterisque 

S'L'R (votum) susceptum libens reddidit 
B'L'R'I'C'Q* siremps lex res ins caussaque omni- 

0"0"R"E bus omnium rerum esto 

8"L*V'8"P suo loco vlvus sua pecunia ? 

8*M sanctae memoriae 

S'M secundum mancipium 

S'M Sol Mithras 

S'M solvit merito 

S'M submedicus 

S'M'D sacrum matri Deum 

S'M'V sacra moneta Urbis 

S'N sestertii nummi 

S'N'P sinonparet 

SOC socius, socii 

800*8 sociorum servus 

SOD sodalis 



454 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



SOD-AVG, AVGVST sodalis Augustalis 

SOL solvit 

80L"L"M solvit libens merito 

S'O'P'P sunt omnis pedaturae pedes . . . 

SP semper 

8*P , servus publicus or serva publica 

8P spectavlt 

SP Spuiius 

S*P Btolata puella ? 

S'P sua pecunia or suo peculio or 

sumptu proprio or sumptu pu- 
blico 

8"P sub praefectus 

SPAER sphaerista 

S'P'B singulares pedites Britannici? 

8'P"C"P*8 sua pecunia posuerunt 

S'P'D'D sua pecunia dono dedit 

S'P'D'D'D sua pecunia dono dedit dedlcavit 
-SPE spectavit 

SPEC, SPEGVL* speculator, -speculariarius 
8PECLAK 

8PECTAT NVMi spectatornumerator 

SP'P spectabilis femina 

SP-F Spurii filius 

8'P'F sua pecunia fecit 

S'P'P'O sua pecunia faciendum curavlt 

S-P-FB soror pia fecit ? 

S'P'F'E'8' sua pecunia fecit et slbi vivus 
V-P posuit ? 

8PHABE sphaerista 

S"P'L senatus populusque Lavininus 

8 PL splendidus, splendidlssimus 

SPL'EQ'R splendidus eques Eomanus 

S'PL'R sacra publica Romana 

8"P'M"A senatus populusque municipii Aii- 
tinatium 

8PP spectabiles 

S"P"P sua pecunia posuit 

S"P'P*C sua pecunia ponendum curavit 

8"P'P'L'D' sua pecunia posuit, loco dato de- 
D"D creto decurionum 

8'P'P'8 - sacris publicis praesto sunt 

8"P"P*8*F solo publico (or private ?) pecunia 
sua fecit 

8"P"Q senatus populusque 

8"P'Q'A senatus populusque Albensis 

S"P'Q*0 senatus populusque Corsiolanus 

8'P"Q'L senatus populusque Lavininus 

S'P'Q'E senatus populusque Eomanus 

S'P'Q'8 sibi posterisque suis 

S'P'Q'T senatus populusque Tiburs 

8"PE sine pretio 

S'P'E sua pecunia refitituerunt 

SPE subpraefectus 

g.p.g.p gj-jjj posterisque suis fecit 

g.p.g.p gj^j posterisque suis posuit 

1 G. I. L. XII. 5695. (See page 260.) 



S'Q'H'A'P" si quis banc arcam post excessum 

E'S'S'A* suprascriptorum aperire volu- 

V'D-F erit, dabitfisco 

S'QVE'ME'F suisque merentibus fecit 
SE Sergia (tribus) 

S'R, Eat summae rationes 
SE'D'S'F'C soror de suo faciendum curavit 
S'EBS"LEX"IVS' siremps res, lex, ius cauBsa^ 

CAV8SAQVE* que omnibus omnium re- 

0-0'E-BSTO rum esto 

S'E'P'F" Bumptibus rei publicae fecit et 

ET D dedicavlt 

SS sanctissimae ? 

8 "8 (Silvano) sancto sacrum 

S"S scripti or scripta sunt 

8*8 semper scriptus 

S'S senatus sententia 

SS sestertius 

8*8 siti sunt 

• 88 solverunt (ambo) 

8"8 subscriptus 

8"S sumptu suo 

S'S supra scriptus, scripta 

8"S susceptum solvit 

SS sestertii, sextarii 

SS'DD'NN salvis dominis nostria (duobns) 
8'S'P sibi suisque fecit 

8 'SI supra scripti 

S'8*L*L"M (votum) susceptum solvit Jlbens 

laetus merito 
S"S'P"Q'EOE sibi suis posterisque eorum 
S'S'Q'P'P sibi suisque posterisque posuerunt 
S'S"S sicut supra scripti, scripta 

8*8'8 summa supra scripta 

S'S'B supra scripti, scripta sunt 

8'T secutor tribuni 

ST Btatera 

8T Statins ^ 

ST Stellatina (tribns) 

ST stipendia 

STA stamen 

STA Statins 

STAT static, stationarius 

STAT statua 

STAT-HEE static hereditatium 
STAT'Q* static quadragesimae civitatis Me- 

C*M diomatricorum 

STB, STEL, STELL, SteUatina (tribus) 

STELLA, STELLAT 
STI, 8TIP stipendia 
ST-F Btolata femina 

8T-HER static hereditatium 
STIP stipendia 

STL SteUatina (tribus) 

S"T"L sit terra levis 

STL. STLIT IVDIC stlitibus iudicandls 
8*TE secutor tribuni 

8TE strator 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



455 



STEIG 


strlganus ? 


T 


Tripolitana 


STP 


stipendiorum 


T 


Tromentina (tribus) 


8TKA 


strator 


T 


tumulus 


S-T-T-L 


sit tlbi terra levls 


T 


turma 


STTL-D 


sit tlbi teij-a leyia die 


Ti 


prima 


STVP 


stupiduB 


TA 


taunis auratus 


s-v 


senatus Vocontiorum 


TAB 


tabularius 


s-v 


se vivo 


TAB 


taberna 


S-T 


spectavit victor 


TAB 


tabula, tabularius, tabulatlo 


SVB 


subheres 


TABEL, TABELL tabellarius ' 


8VB 


Suburana (tribua) 


TABVL 


tabularius, tabularlum 


SyB A (ASC)-D scib ascia dedicavit 


TAMP 


•Tampiana (ala) 


SVB CTE 


sub curator 


TAVE 


tauroboliuin 


8VBHE 


Bubheredes 


T-BAT 


Transrhenanus Batavus 


SVBfE, SVBPEAE, SVB- subpraefectus 


T-BC 


tubicen ? 


PEAEF 




T-BQ 


tu bene quiescas 


SVBPEOC 


Bubproourator 


T-G 


titulum curavit 


SVBSEQ 


Bubsequens 


T-D-V8 


Tellnri deae votum solvit? 


SVBVIL 


Bubvilicus 


TEG 


tector 


8VBVNG 


subunctor 


TEGVL 


tegularius 


SVC 


Suburana (tribus) 


TEM 


templum 


s-c, CV 


sub cura 


TEE 


Teretina (tribus) 


8-VE C 


senatusve oonanlto 


TEE 


terminus, terminalia 


8-V-P 


sibi vivus fuit 


TEE 


tertius, tertia 


SVP 


sufes 


TEEET, TEEETIN Terctina (tribus) 


SVF 


suifectus 


TEEM-CVE terminandum curaverunt 


SVF 


suffragia 


TEEE 


territorium 


8-VL-A 


solvit votum libens anlmo 


TEEE 


terruncius 


SVLP 


Sulpicia (ala) 


TES 


tessera, tesserarius 


8-V-LM 


solvit votum libens merito 


TESM 


testaraentum 


SVLM 


Sulevae montanac 


TESS, TB9SE, TESSBE tesserarius 


SVM 


Bumma 


TEST -LEG 


testamento legavit 


8VM 


Summanus 


T-P 


testamentura fecit 


8VMP 


sumptuarius 


TT-0 


testamento or titulum faciendum 


SVM-SVM 


summa summarnm 




curavit 


8VPP 


suppositicii (gladiatorea) 


T-F-I 


testamento or titulum fieri iussit 


8-VQ 


sine ulla querela 


T-F-I-S 


testamento fieri iussit sibi 


SV8-V0T 


suscepto voto 


T-F-E 


testamento fieri rogavit 


S-VTL 


sit Tobis terra levis 


THEE 


therraarius 


SX 


Sextus 


T-H-E-8 


tumulo hoc (?) est sepultus 


8TE 


Syriacus, Syriaca (dassls) 


THE 


Thracia, Threx 






TI 


Tiberius 




T 


TIB 


Tiberius 




TIT 


titulum fecit 


T 


tabula, tabnlarius 


TIGN 


tignarius 


T 


Tampiana (ala) 


TIE 


Tirrus 


T 


te 


TIT 


titulus 


T 


tern plum ? 


TIT-DEC- 


•titulum dedicaverunt cum supra 


T 


tergum 


S-8 


Bcriptis 


T 


terra 


TITP 


titulum posuit 


T 


territorlum 


T-K 


tabularium castrense 


T 


tesserarlus 


T-L 


testamento legavit 


T 


testamentnm 


T-L-H-FC 


testamento legavit; heres faciun- 


T 


tiro 




dum curavit 


T 


titulus 


T-M 


Threx murmillo 


T 


Titus 






T 


transvecturarluB 


1 The I sometimes appears on the monuments 


T 


tribunus 


in the form of a T. 



456 



LATIN INSCKIPTIONS 



T-M-P 


titulum memoriae posuit 


TELAT 


tribunus laticlavlus 


T-M-Q-F-E'EEV tene me quia fugi et revoca 


TE-M 


tribunus militum 


T-N-0-U-F-Ci tostamento non eavit ; lieres 


TE-M 


tritici modius 




faciuudum euravit ??? 


TEMIL 


tribunus militum 


TOBQ 


tibi ossa beue quiescant 


TE-MIL-A P tribunus militum a populo 


TOG 


togatus ( = advocatu8) 


TE-MIL-L, LEG tribunus militum legionis 


TON 


tonsor 


TEO 


(legio) Troana (Trajana) 


TOP 


topiarius 


TEC, TEOM, TEOMENT, Tromentina (tribns) 


TORQ 


torques, torquata f ala or cohors) 


TEOMENTIN 


TOEQ-AEMIL- (donatus) torquibus, arinillis, 


TE-P-D-8- 


te rogo praetenens dicas sit tiM 


PHAL 


phaleris 


TT-L 


terra levis 


TOT 


Totates? (iSiars) 


TEPL 


tribunus plebis 


TP 


tanta pecunia 


TK-POT 


tribunicia potestate 


TP 


tertiae partis ? 


T-8 


tatae suo' 


T-P 


testamento or titulum posuit 


T-8-F-I 


testamento suo fieri iussit 


TP 


tribunicia potestate 


T-S-T-L 


terra sit tibi levis 


TP-I 


testamento or titulum poni iussit 


T-T 


tibi terram 


T-PM 


titulum posuit memoriae 


T-T-L-8 


tibi terra levis sit 


TPO-L'L-M titulum posuit libens laetus merito 


T-V 


titulo usus 


TQD 


totiusque domus 


T-T 


ture vino 


TE 


Traianus, Traiana (legio) 


TVB 


tubicen 


TE 


Transpadana 


TVB, TVBIL tubilastrium 


TE 


Trebius 


TVB-SAG- 


tubicen saororum populi Eomani 


TE 


Threx 


I^-EQ 


Quiritium 


TE 


tribunus 


T-VF 


titulum ? vivus fecit 


TE 


trierarcba 


T-T-P 


ture vino fecerunt 


TE 


trieris 


TVL 


Tullus 


TE 


triumphator 


TVM 


tumulus 


TE 


Tromentina (tribus) 


TVN, TVNG Tungri (cohors) 


TEA 


Traianus, Traiana 


TVE 


turma 


TE-A 


trierarcba Augusti 


TVT-AVG 


Tutela Augusta 


TEAI 


Traianus, Traiana 


TVTEL 


tutelarius 


TEAM 


tramare 


T-T 


Teretina tribus 


TEA, TEAN, TEANSPAD Transpadana 


T-T-L-8 


ten-a tibi levis sit 


TR-AVGG 


tricliniarcha Augustorum 


T-T-L-T 


terra tibi levis volof 


TEE 


trecenarius 






TEE 


Treveri (ala) 






TEEB 


Trebius 




V 


TEEO 


trecenarius 


V 


vale 



TE-ET NAT transvectuarius et naviculariuB 

TRET Treveri (ala) 

TEFOE Traiana fortis (legio) 

TEI trierarcba 

TEIB tribunus 

TEIB-ET NOT tribunus et notarius 

TEIB-LAT, LATIC, tribunus laticlaviufl 

LATICL 
TEIB-MIL tribunus militum 
TEIB-MIL-A tribunus militum a populo 

P, A POP 
TEIB-P tribunicia potestate 
TEIB-P tribunus plebis 
TEIB-POT, PT tribunicia potestate 
TEIB-STC tribus Snccusana 
TEIPL Tripolitana 

TEITMF, TEITMP ti-iumphator, triumphatrix 

' Brambaob, 1156. 



V Talentia (dea) 

V Talerius 

T vene = bene 

V veteranus 

V TenuB 

V verna 

V veteranus 

V via 

V Tibius 

V vicit 

V Tictoria 

T viotrix (legio) * 

V villa 
T vir 

V TIrtus (dea) 

V urbs 

V vivus, viva, vlvit, vlxit 

» O. I. L. X. 1949. 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



457 



V 


Voltinia (tribuB) 


VEN 


Tenatio., venator 


V 


votum, vovlt 


VEN 


Veneta (factio) 


V 


utere 


VEN 


Venetia 


V 


uti 


VEPP 


vir egregius primlpilarls 


T 


uxor 


VEE 


(FrlsU) Verlutionenses (cuneos) 


TA 


vale 


VER 


verna 


V-A 


vices agenB 


VERB 


verbex 


T-A 


Tixit annos or annis 


VESTIG 


vestigator 


VAL 


Valerius, Valeria (legio) 


VET 


Votiirla (tribas) 


VAL 


valetudlnarius, valetudlnarium 


VET, VETEE veteranus 



V'AX vices agens legati 

V"AIj"BTZ Valeria Byzacena (provincia) 
VAL-VIOT Valeria victrix (legio) 
V'A"S*L"M votum animo solvit libens merito 
V'A'S'P'P viis aedibus sacris publicis procu- 

randis ? 
VB tJbii (cohors.) 

V'B vir bonus 

V*B'D*E"P vir bonus dignus re publica 
V'B'M'P voto bene merenti posuit 
VB"0"T*F virum bonum oro vos faciatis 
V'B'S vir bonus sanctus 

V*C vir clarissimus 

VO nnctor i- 

VC'A'V'P vir clarissimus agens vices prae- 

sidis 
V'C'CONS" vir clarissimus consularis provin- 

P'N ciae llumidiae 

V"0'D*D vir clarissimus dedit dedicavit 
V'C'ET INL vir clarissimus et iiilustris 
V'C'L'M voti compos libens merito 
V'C'P'P vir clarissimus pater patrum 
V'C'Q'K vir clarissimus quaestor candidatus 
V'O'E voluntarii cives Eomani 

V'l) vir devotus 

V*D"D Veneri? donum dat 

VD'P'R'L'P unde de piano recte legi possit 
VD"P"T* vir devotissimus protector lateris 

L'D dominici* 

V--D-8 Tovit ? de sue 

VB VeUna (tribus) 

VE veteranus 

VE 8 vetns ? 

V*E vir egregius 

V'E'A'V'P vir egregius agens vices praesidis 
VEC vectigal, vectura 

VECT, VECTIi3 vectigal 
VE'D'F* vir egregius decurio factuB 
V'E'EQ'R vir egregius eques Komanua 
VEHIC vehicula 

VEL velarius 

VEL veles 

VEL, VELIN, VELL Velina (tribua) 

> Orelli, 8471. 

* Bullett. Cormmale^ 1873, p. 61. 

» a 7. L. IX. 2585. 

» C. L L. VI. 2010. 



VEX, VEXI, VEXIL, vexillarius, vexillatio 

VEXILL 

V'F verba fecit or fecerant 

V'F Vlennae ifecit 

V'F vivus, viva fecit 

VFEN Oufentina (tribus) 
V'F'ET L'E vivi fecerunt et locum emeront^ 

V"F-I vivae fieri lussit ? 

V"F"S verba facta sunt 

V'F-S vivus fecit sibi 

VF-S-ET S vivus fecit sibi et snis 

V'F-T vivus fecit titulum ? 

V"H vir honestissimus 

V'H'A vlxit honeste ? aanis 

VI Vibius 

VI vineae ? 

V'l vir inlnstris 

VI vixit 

VIAT viijtor, viatorium 

VIAT-TE viator tribuni 
VIAT-TE-PL viator tribuni plebia 

VI' AV Victoria Augusta 

VIB Vibius 

VIO vicit 

VIO victim anus 

VIO victoria 

VIO vicus, vicant 

VIO victoriatus 

VIO victor, victrix (legio) 

VIO-AVG Victoria Augusta 

V.IOE'8'0 vice sacra cognoscens 

VIOIM vicimagister 

VIO'LOP vicus Lopodunensls 

VIO'H victoriati nummi 

VIO'POE Vicani Portuensea 

VIC"S vici scito 

VICT victimarius 

VICT Victorienses (collegium)? 
VICT, VICTK victrix (legio) 

VIG- vigiles 

VIK vicani ? 

VIL vilicus 

VIL-BE vilicus Brundisinomm 

VILO (vigesimae libertatis) vilicuA 

V'ILL vir illustris 

VILLA villatici 

VIL-PVB villa publica 

VIL'E'S vilicus ripae supetloris 



458 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



VIN 


Vinalia 


y.p 


VIND, VINDEL Vindelici (oohors) 


VP 


VlfIL 


vir inlustris 


V'P 


V-INL-COM Tir inlastris comes 


VP 


VIN-VEB'ET OST vinarii urban! et Ostlenses 


VP-A 


vrp-AN 


vixit pia annos, or annis 


VP-A-VP 


VIEB 


Virbialis 




V-I-8 


verba infra scripta 


VPD 


VI -8 


vici scitu 


VP-P 


VL 


(sine fraude) vel laesione f 




VL 


verna libertus ? 


VPL-M 


VL 


veteranus le^onis 


VPM 


VL 


vir laudabilis 


VPPPH 


VLA-8 


votum libens animo solvit 




VL-LIB-M 


veto laetus libens merito 


y.p.p.p. 


VL-L-M-8 


votum libens laetus merito solvit 


HAVE- 


VLM 


votum libens merito 


SITIF 


VL-M-8 


votum libens merito solvit 


y.p.p.p.jf 


VLOCT 


vivus locum fecit 




VLP 


votum libens posuit 


TP-P-PE 


VLP 


Ulpius, Ulpia (legio) 




VL-P-M 


votum libens posuit merito 


VQ 


VL-E 


votum libens reddidit 


V-QP 


VL-S 


votum libens solvit or libentes 


VQVE 




solverunt 


VQE-PE- 


V-L-8-M 


voto libens solvit merito 


VQ-ET-E 


VM-P 


vene { = bene) raerenti fecerunt 


V8-DM 


VM-LP 


votum merito libens posuit 


V-E 


VM-L-8 


votum merito libens solvit 


VE 


VN 


vene = bene 


VE 


VNO, VNOT unctor 


VE 


V-0 


vir optimus ? 


VEB 


vo 


Vopisous 


VEB8 


voc 


Vocontii (ala) 


VEL 


VOL 


Volcanus 


VEL-M 


VOL 


Voltinia (tribus) 


v-s 


VOL 


voluntarii (cohors) 


vs 


VOLC 


Volcanalia 


V-8 


VOL-CE 


voluntarii cives Eomani (cohors) 


V8 


VOLT, VOLTI, VOLTIN Voltinis (tribus) 


V-8-A-L 


VL, VLT 


Voltinia (tribus) 


V-8-G 


VOLVNT 


voluntarii (cobors) 


V8-D-NrP 


VOP 


viro Optimo posuit (ooniux) 


EIM 


VO-P-L-S 


votum pater ? libens solvit 


VSE 


VOE 


Vordenses (ala) 


V-8-P 


VO-S-L-M 


votum 0... solvit libens merito 




VOX 


Voturia (tribus) 


VS-F 


VOTPEL-SVCO f ■ votum felioiter snsceperunt 


V8-I 


LIBEN 


libentes 


V8-L 


VOT-X, XX TOta decennalia, vioennalia 


V8-L-A 


VOT-D 


votum dedit 


VSLA-D 


VOT-FEC, 


votum fecit, solvit libens merito 


VB-L-A-P 


SOL-LM 




V8-L-A-P- 


VOT-M-P 


votum merito fecerunt 


VS-L-A-S 


VOT... M'S-L votum... mertto solvit libens 


V8-L-H 


VOT-EED'L votum reddit libens 


VS-LL 


VOTSLA. 


votum solvit libens animo 


V-S-L-L-B- 


VOT SOL-L-L votum solvit laetus libens 


MEK 



vlr perfectlsBhnua 

vivus posuit 

votum posuit 

uxori pientissima« ? 

vixit pius annis 

vir perfectissimus agens vices 



vir perfectissimus dux 

uxor piissima fecit or uxori piissi* 

mae fecit 
votum posuit libens merito 
votum posuit merito 
vir perfectissimus prases provin- 

ciae Hispaoiae 
vir perfectissimus praeses provin- 

ciae Mauretaniae Sitifensis 

vir perfectissimus praeses provin- 

ciae Numidiae 
vir perfectissimus praeses provin- 

ciae Eaetiae 
viator quaestorius 
valeat qui fecit 
(sine) ulla querella 
I'V uti quod recte factum esse volet 
uti quod recte factum esse volet 

sine dolo malo 
vir religiosus 
votum reddidit 
urbs Konia 
urbicuB 

urban us, urbana (cohors) 
urbis 

vir religiosus 

votum reddidit libens merito 
vici scitu 

votum solvit, voto solnto 
vir spectabilis 
Urbs sacra 

votum solvit animo libens 
vice sacra cognoscens 
votum solverunt Dianae Nemo- 

rensi... 
vini sextarius ? 
vivus or viva sibi fecit, vivi sibl 

fecerunt 
votum solvit feliciter 
vice sacra iudicans 
votum solvit libens 
votum solvit libens animo 
votum solvit libens animo dat? 
votum solvit libens animo feliciter 
**C votum solvit libens animo p... c... 
votum solvit libens animo suo ? 
votum solvit libens H... 
votum solvit libens laetus 
votum solvit laetus libens bene 

merito 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



459 



V'S'L'L'M Totura solvit laetus libens merito 

V'S'L'P votum solvit libens posuit 

V'S'M votum solvit merito 

V'S'M'L votum solvit merito libens 

V'S'M 'L'M'S votum solvit merito libens, Mer- 
cux'io saci'um ? 

V'SP vir spectabilis 

V'S'P vivus sibi posuit . 

y.g.p.g.g votum susceptum pecunia sua sol- 
vit 

V'BS'L'A votum solverunt libentes animo 

V'S'S'LV'M votum susceptum solvit lubens 
merito 

VST ustrina- 

VTEI IN ir utei in hac lege scriptum est 
L-SCEST 

VT-F utere felix 

VT'S'L'M votum solvit libens merito 

V*V Valeria or XJlpia victrix (legio) 

V'V Venus vlctrtx 

VV viri 

VV vivi or vivunt 

V'V vivus vivae 

V'V vir venerabiUs ? 



V'V virgo Vestalla 

V'V uti voverant 

V'V'0'0 viri clarissimi 

VV'E'E viri egregii 

V'V'F vivus vivae fecit 

VVLTIN Voltinia (tribus) 

V'V'P vivuB posuit or vivus vivo posuit 

V'V'M Virgo Vestalis Maxima 

V'V'P'P viri perfectissimi 

V'VS'FEGER vivi sibi fecerunt 

Y'V'S'L'M ut voverat solvit libens merito 

V'V'S'S'F fivis supra scriptis fecit 

V'V'V vale, vale, vale 1 

VX ■ vixit, uxor 

VX'BVL uxor dulciseimft 

VXT vixit 



z> 


centurio 


z 


zeta=diaeta 


Z-T-L 


miiUeris (et) TiH Ubertas f 



1 a. I. L. VIII. 9910. 



fS sestertius 

£ sestertius 

4 dupondius 

f_ as 

■ II duumvir 

IIS, l+S SBBtertius 

II SIL duobus Silanis (consulibus) 

II V, TI VIR duumvir, duumviratus 
IIVIR AB AER duumvir ab aerario 

II VIR'C'P' duumvir censoria potestate quin- 
Q qu en nails 

II'VIR'I'D duumvir lure dicundo 

IIVIR Q, Q'Q, QVINQ duumvir quinquennalis 

III tertlum 
III trieris 

III O'L trium mulierum libertus, llberta 

III PR, PROV tres provinciae (Galliae) 
III VIR triumvir 
III VIR'A' triumvir agris dandis adsiguandis 

DA 
III VIR CAP, triumvir capltalis 

KA, KAP, ■ 

CAPIT, KA- 

PIT 
III VIR MON'= triumvir monetalis = auro ar- 

A'A'A'F'F gento aere flando feriuudo 

IIII quadrieris 

nil quattuorvir 

IIII P'AFR quattuor publica Africae 



IIII VIR quattuorvir, quattuorviratus 
IIII VIR'I'D quattuor vir iure dicundo 
IIII VIR'PR quattuor vir praefectus 
nil' VIR Q, Q'Q, quattuorvir quinquennalis 

QVINQ 
IIII VIR'V' quattuorvir viarum curandaruiti 

CVR 

V penteris' 

V quinarius. 

V VIR'A 'D" quinquevir agris dandis adsignan- 
A dis 

VI hexeris 

Iiiul sevir 

IiiiTI VIR sevir, seviratus 

Iiml VIR AVG sevir Augustalis 

VI VIR EQ'R sevir equitum Romanorum 

VII VIR EPVL septemvir epulonum 
^ denarius 

X decemvir 

XVIR'A'D' decemvir agris dandis adsignandis 

A' I judicandis 

XVIR SACR'FAO decemvir sacris feciundis 

X V(VIR)'S (SL, decemvir stlltibus judican- 
STL, STLIT)- dis 
I(IVD,IVDIC, 

IVDIK) 

XI PR undecim primus 
XV quindecimvir 

XV VIR'8'Fquindeciirvir sacris faciundis 



460 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



XVIIII decennovium (The PompMne 

Marshes) 
XX LIB Tigesima libertatls 
XX HER, HEKE, HERED, vigesima heredita- 

HEREDIT tium 

XX P'R'M vigesiona populi Romani minus 
XXXX, XL G quadiagesima Galliarum 
C centenariuB 

centesima 

O centmnviri 

V centumviri 



O centeBima 

3, >, K 3. >, Z, H, \ eenturio, centurfa 

sextarius 

conTentus 

dacenarius 

duaram mulierum libertus 

trecenariuB 

quadringenarius 

quingentaria (ala or cohors) 

miliaria (ala or cohors) 



INDEX 



A, forms of, 57. 
Abbreviations, 415; table of, 417. 

^cto, 87, 41, 42, 43, 48, 49, 69, 71 ; —Frdl/nmi 
Ar'DalitMn, 374 ; examples of, 894. 

AdlecUo, 167, 173, 179. 

Adopted persons, names of, 98. 

Aedileship, 166. 

AediUs, 167, 184,185. 

Aemilius Paulus, decree of, 29, 859. 

Agnomen, erroneous use of the term, 93 note. 

Alphabet, Phoenician, 17, 19 ; Greek, 17 ; Etrus- 
can, 21; Umbiian, 23; Oscan, 23; Volscian, 
24 ; Faliscan, 24 ; Latin : historical 17, mor- 
phological 31, archaic 31, 33, monumental of 
Eepublic 33, perfected 37, peculiarities of 24, 
modifications of 25. 

Alphabets, Greek, classification of, 20; Italic, 
classificfition of, 21. 

A7ivphorq,e, inscribed, 47, 56, 222. 

AnTiales MaxiTm, 41, 

Apex, 69. 

Appariieres, 182 ; iuscriptionB of, 207. 

Aqueducts, inscriptions of, 812, 

Archaisms, table of, 407. 

Armor and missiles, inscribed, 261. 

Army and navy, subordinate officers of, 182; 
Inscriptions of, 212. 

Attius, double vowels introduced by, 30, 69. 

Augii/r, 168. 

Augusta as imperial title, 121. 

Augusfnles, 184, 185, 187. 

Augustus as imperial title, 116. 

B, forms of, 58. 
SouaProphedon writing, 24. 

Bricks and tiles, inscribed, 269 ; examples of, 337. 
Bronze, use of, for inscriptions, 48. 

b, forms of, 58 ; history of, 25. 
Cadmus, tradition concerning, 17. 
Caesar, as imperial title, 116, 120. 
Ca/rm&rt SaHortmb, 26. 
Oecrops, tradition concerning, 17. 



461 



C&nsor^ as imperial title, 119; as municipal 
magistracy, 185. 

Ceni&narii, 175. 

Ceniit/fio, 173. 

Chalcidian alphabets, 20. 

appi ■miliiareSj inscribed, 55 ; — terTnijialea, 
inscribed, 254; examples of, 319. 

Claudius, letters added by, 28, 66. 

Cognomina, origin and history, 92 ; use of, 93 ; 
position of, 83; used as praenormna, 88; 
honorary, 93 ; of adoption, 93 ; as nicknames, 
93; of women, 94; of emperors, 116. 

Coins, tables of denominations, 80. 

Collegia, civil and religious ofljcers of, 188; 
inscriptions of, 220, 380. 

Colonine and Munidpia, magistrates of, 184; 
religious officials, 187 ; inscriptions of, 377. 

Colii/mbaria, 241. 

Colii/mtia Sostraia, 73, 243. 

Consiiititiones, 354. 

Conml, as imperial title, 119 ; — ordinarius^ 
166 ; — sufeoius, 167. 

OonaulaHs, meaning of the term, 179. 

Coi^ma, 58, 62. 

Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum : plan, 6 ; 
false inscriptions, 8 ; valid inscriptions classi- 
fied, 9 ; Indices and tabulae, 9 ; inscriptions 
admitted, 10; methods of presentation, 12, 

Cosa, coins of, 28, 

Cur8U8honorvfm, history and classification, 164 ; 
senatorial, 165, 191 n., 192 n.; equestrian, 172 ; 
after Constautine, 179 ; of third class, 181. 

Cypriote origin of certain Greek letters (sup- 
posed), 20. 

D, forms of, 58, 

Dacia, wax tablets from, 882. 

Date of inscription, how obtained, 123, 405. 

Deeem-vir siUiibim iudicanMs, 166, 

Deereta imperatorv/rn., 354 ; — magistratttmn, 

358. 
Decurio, 184. 
Descent, indicated in the name, 95. 



462 



INDEX 



B&Botionea, 51 , 885 ; examples of, 396. 

JOictator, 184, 185. 

Diplomata Tnilito/ria^ 355 ; examples of, 392. 

Diptychs, inscribed, 49, 388 ; examples of, 398. 

Division of words, 71. 

Documents, 348 ; imperial, 353 ; public and 
sacred, 361, 371 ; of priestly collegia, 374; of 
the army, 875 ; of municipalities, 377 ; of 
collegia, 380 ; private, 382 ; examples of, 396. 

Dona rpilitaria, 193 n. * 

Double consonants, 29 ; — vowels, 26, SO. 

Dttcenarii, 175. 

Duenos inscription, 16, 25, 27, 28, 83, 62, 64; 
text of, 346. 

Buwm/vir quinquen^alis, 184 ; iiire dicimdo, 
184. 

E, forms of, 58- 
Edicta, 854. 

Emperors, names, 114; titles, 117; chronologi- 
cal list, 123 ; inscriptions of, 148. 

Ennius, his use of V for Greek Y, 28 ; double con- 
sonants introduced by, 29. 

Egues equo publico, 172. 

Equestrian order, inscriptions of, 200, 

Equ/iie6, preliminary civil service of, 174; — in- 
lustres, 178; — raised to senatorial rank, 178. 

F, forms of, 59. 

False inscriptions, determination of, 10, 47 ; their 
place In the Corpus, 8. 

FasU, 47, 54, 861 ; — consula/res, 362 ; — arini 
luUam/i, 365. 

Fetiales, 168. 

Fibula FramesUna, 21, 25, 27, 38, 60, 62, 86, 
265. 

Fistulae phimbeaej inscribed, 57, 263 ; ex- 
amples of, 329. 
,Flamen, 168. 

Fornjello Vase, 18, 22, 28. 

Fractions, 76. 

Frair&s Arvales, 168, 374. 

Freedmen, names of, 100, 101, 102. 

Functions, senatorial, list of, 169. 

G, forms of, 59 ; history of, 25. 
Gladiators, sepulchral inscriptions of, 287. 
Qlandes plwrnbeae, inscribed, 57, 64, 262 ; ex- 
amples, 827. 

Glass vessels, inscribed, 57. 

OraffiM (see Inscriptiones Parietariae). 

H, forms of, 60. 

ffederae disUngu&ntes, 70. 

I, forms of, 60 ; history of, 26. 
Illegitimate children, names of, 97. 
Imperator, &apraenomen^ 89, 115 ; as title, 118. 



Imperial family, titles of, 120 ; inscriptions of, 
148. 

TnscripUones Parietariae, 50, 70; examples 
of, 386, 397. 

Inscriptions, methods of making, 45 ; on silver, 
51, 264; on lead, 51 ; written, 50; stamped in 
relief, 56; painted, 47, 48; cursive, 43, 50 
uncial, 43 ; illustrating form of Komau name, 
103 ; classiii cation and description of, 223 
dedicatory 225, examples 275; sepulchral 280, 
examples 282; honorary, 243 ; on jMiblic build- 
ings and structures 247, examples 308; on 
mile and boundary stones 251, examples 316; 
on movable objects 256, examples 325; from 
quarries and mines, 268; on pigs of metal, 
268 ; on bricks and tiles, 269 ; on vessels of 
clay, 278; of aqueducts, 312; of roads and 
bridges, 314 ; restoration of, 399 ; dating of, 
405. 

Instrwnenta, 348; — imp&ratorvffn, 353. 

Instrwmm.i'wm. domesUcwni, 9, 56, 62, 256. 

J, origin of the form, 26. 
Jewelry, inscribed, 264. 

K, foi-ms of, 61 ; history of, 27. 
Kalendaria, 54. 

L, forms of, 61. 

Laminae, inscribed, 49. 

Lamps, inscribed, 56. 

Laudatio Murdiae, 293. 

Leges, 48, 71 ; order of arrangement, 348 ; list 
of, in inscriptions, 350. 

Legions, table of, 408. 

Letters, documentary form of, 41 ; form influ- 
enced by material, 31, 41 ; form influenced by 
subject matter, 41 ; individual forms discussed, 
57; instruments used in making, 47; cut in 
stone, 47; cut in metal, 48; in clay, 51; 
stamped in relief, 56, 57; painted, 47; made 
with points, 49, 

Lex Acilia Repeiundarum, 47, 75. 92 ; — An- 
toiUa de Termessibus, 889; — Ruhria, 71, 
78. 

Ligatures, 67. 

Litterae inc-rusiaiae or caelatae, 48 ; — rubri- 
catae, 48. 

Long vowels, methods of indicating, 69. 

Litpercus, 168. 

M, forms of, 62. 

Magister, 184. 

Ma^stracies, senatorial, table of, 167; — of 

coloniae and municipia, 184, 185. 
Manius, abbreviation for, 62, 63. 
Measures, of surface, 81 ; of value, 77 ; of weight, 

81. 



INDEX 



463 



M&iwlogia rustica, 368, 

Mosha (Moabite) stone, 19. 

Metal, i)ig'S of, inscribed, 268. 

Methods of presentation of inscriptions In the 
Corpvs, 12. 

Miliaria, 54 ; inscriptions of, 251 ; examples, 
316. 

Militiae eguestres, 173 (with note). 

Mines, inscriptions from, 263. 

MovuTTientum Ancyranwrn, 69, 378. 

MwnicipeN, classes of, 184. 

Municipia, magistrates of, 184; religious offi- 
cials of, 187 ; inscriptions of, 216. 

N, forms bf, 63. 

Name, the Roman, 82; Its history, 82; con- 
stituents of, 83 ; reduphcation of, 94 ; addi- 
tional elements of, 95. 

Names, of women, 94; of illegitimate children, 
97 ; of adopted persons, 98 ; of slaves, 99 ; of 
freedmen, 100; of naturalized citizens, 102 ; of 
emperors, 114; substitutions and erasures of, 
132. 

Nationality or birthplace, expressed in inscrip- 
tions, 97. 

Naturalized citizens, names of, 102. 

Naval officers, inscriptions of, 215. 

Nicknames, 95 ; as cognomina, 98. 

Nbm&n, history and terminations of, 90 ; as 
praenomenj 89 ; formed from cognomen, 91 ; 
of Greek origin, 91 ; how given in inscriptions, 
91 ; of emperors, 115, 

Non -Phoenician letters in Greek, 20. 

Numerals, 72 ; Mommsen's rules governing 
them, 74. 

O, forms of, 63. 

Official titles, 164. 

Oldest Latin inscription (see Fibula Prae- 

neatina). 
Order of letters, how known, 17. 
Ordo decurionitm, 184 ; — Auguata/limn, 185. 

P, forms df, 64. 

Palamedes, tradition concerning, 17. 

Pater Patriae, as imperial title, 119. 

Pisaurian Dedications, 38, 89, 226. 

Plebeian officials, inscriptions of, 207. 

Plebs, in municipia, 184. 

■PonUfex, 168; — Maximus, 168; as imperial 
title, 117. 

Praefecti, of senatorial rank, 170 ; of equestrian 
rank, 172, 176; — p/«e<oWo, inscriptions of, 
200; — Aegypti, Annonae, Vigilv/m, in- 
scriptions of, 201. 

PraefecPus cohortis, 173 ; — alae, 173 ; — cas- 
iroru/ni, 173 ; legionis, 178 ; — iure dicu/ndo, 

m. 



Praeneste, archaic inscriptions of, 88, 90, 94, 
230, 264. 

PraeTwmen, when conferred, 84. 

Praenomina, list of, 85 ; rare and foreign, 87 ; 
of special families, 86; of women, 89. 

Praetor, 166, 167, 184, 185. 

Priesthoods, of senatorial order, 168 ; of eques- 
trian order, 176. 

Primipilua, 173. 

Princeps Tu/oentutds, 121. 

Proconsul., as imperial title, 120. 

Procuratofes, 172, 174; classes of, 175; inscrip- 
tions of, 202. 

Punctuation, 69. 

Pupua as pra&noTnen^ its significance, 84. 

Q, forms of, 64. 

Quaestor, 166, 167, 184, 185. 

Quaesitor itid&e, 191 n. 

Quarries, inscriptions from, 268. 

Quaiiuormr marum- curandaru/m., 166 ; — 

quinquennalis, 184; — iure dicundOy \%^. 
Qmvdecirrwir sacris faciuTuHBt 168. 

E, forms of, 64. 
JtescTipta, 854. 

8, forms of, 65. 

SaUu8, 168. 

San Cesareo, archaic inscriptions from, 84, 94. 

Scipio family, epitaphs of, 26, 35, 48, 71, 238, 

294 ff. 
Scriptura guadrata or lapidaria, 37 ; — 

m^onumentalis, 37 ; — aciuaria, 41, 42 ; — 

vulgaris, 43, 52, 58, 59. 
Secular games, commentariwrn of, 375. 
Semitic sibilants in the Greek alphabet, .19. 
Senate, decrees of the, 352. 
Senatorial order, inscriptions of, 189. 
Se/natu8 Coneulium, de BaccJianalihuSy 26, 27 ; 

— de Nundinis Saltus Beguensia, 891. 
Septem/cir ^ulonv/m, 168. 
Seviri Auguatales, 185, 187. 
S&cagenarii, 176. 
Sicilicus, 80, 69. 
Signa, 95. 

Simonides, tradition concerning, 17. 
Sodalis Augusialis, etc., 168. 
Sortes, 372 ; examples of, 393. 
SpuriuR, indicating illegitimacy of birth, 98. 
Stamps or seals, 266 ; Aculists^ 267. 

T, forms of, 65. 

Tabulae patronatua, 379 ; examples of, 395. 

Teaaerae, 49, 57, 64, 257; —frwni6niaria6, 
257 : — iheaimUfi, 258 ; — hoapitales, 259 ; — 
gladiatoriae, 259, examples of, 32G; — cotv- 
viviiil^Sf 261. 



464 



INDEX 



Tiles, inscribed, 51, 57. 

Titles, official, 164 ; of honor : senatorial, 168 ; 

equestrian, 176. 
TitvMSepulcraUs, 47, 56, 282 ; — saeri, iSSfilS. 
Trecenar'U, 175. 

TrOmnieia Potmtas, 118, 128, 148 n. 
Tribunua leffioms, 178 ; — TniUtwm latiola- 

vius, 166 ; —plebis, 166, 167, 185. 
Trdbiis, 96. 
Triui7im/r capitalist 165 ; — moneiaUa^ 166. 

V, forms of, .66 ; history of, 27. 
Valid inscriptions, determination of, 10, 
Vases, inscribed, 59, 278. 
Yerres as iwrn&n, 91. 



Verrius Flaccus, his attempi to introduce a new 

letter, 28. 
Vigintvviri, 165. 
Virgo VestaHs, 168. 

Wax tablets, 41, 67, 75, 882. 
Weights and measures, inscribed, 267; ex- 
. amples of, 325. 
Writing, early use of, by the Bomans, 81. 

X, forms of, 66; history of, 27. 

T, forms of, 66 ; history of, 27. 

Z, forms of, 66 ; history of, 2S. 



TABLE OF INSCRIPTIONS 



[The first column indicates the number of the inscription in 0. I. L. 


; the second indicates the 


page 




in this book on which it is given.] 






a I. L. I. 


PAGE 


C. I. L. I. 


PAGE 


a I. L. II. 


PAGE 


a I. L. III. 


PAGE 


29 


294 


777 


837 


-1064 


105 


2972 


114 


SO 


294 


784 


837 


1120 


807 


8202 


168 


31 


295 


795 


387 


1169 


156 


3288 


310 


32 


295 


797 


337 


1200 111, 284 


8387 


311 


33 


296 


814 


275 


1423 


892 


3750 


840 


84 


297 


818 


896 


1821 


284 


3756 


841 


38 


296 


1007 


297 


2029 


205 


3757 


841 


41 


276 


1076 


113 


2098 


104 


4500 


109 


43 


275 


1168 


106 


2182 


218 


4659 


840 


49 


275 


1175 


280 


2167 


149 


4660 


340 


50 


275 


1.3151 


111 


2255 


284 


4799 


279 


110 


277 


1438 


393 


2610 


212 


5708 


160 


168 


275 


1489 


893 


2916 


824 


8738 


116 


170 


276 


1440 


393 


3235 


210 


6810 


162 


177 


275 


1442 


894 


3240 


814 


6017 » 


331 


179 


275 


1444 


894 


8414 


806 


6024 


114 


204 


' 390 


1454 


394 


3439 


835 


6070 


114 


258 


275 


1503 


276 


4192 


306 


6077 


210 


530 


276 






4211 


218 


6223 


109 
298 


535 


816 


0. I. L. I.> 




4506 


162 


6625 (Suppl.) 


536 


816 


V 


801 


4609 


195 


6741 (Suppl.) 


153 


538 


805 


X 


301 


4701 


818 


6993 (Suppl.) 


154 


540 


816 


XXIV 


299 


4716 


152 


7009 


334 


641 


277 


XXV 


299 


4721 


155 


7011 


384 


647 


820 


XXVI 


299 


4956 


818 


7025 


834 


548 


820 


XXVII 


800 


49621 


325 


7027 


384 


552 


819 


XXIX 


800 


4962 « 


325 


7123 (Suppl.) 


186 


554 


819 


XXX 


801 


49692 


845 


7160 (Suppl.) 


190 


569 


316 


XXXI 


299 


4969" 


345 


7183 


818 


583 


820 


XXXII 


800 


4969" 


846 


12012 « 


345 


.534 


806 


XXXIII 


300 


4969" 


845 


p. 850 


393 


593 


314 


XL 


300 






p. 853 


393 




620 


148 


p. 25 


105 


a I. L. III. 




Diploma XIII. 


114 


632 


277 
189 


p. 189 
p. 195 


308 
802 


21 
88 


298 
312 






639 


C. I. L. IV. 




641 


189 


p. 202 


802 


848 


210 


26 


387 


642 
685 


827 
828- 






455 

783 


190 
113 


29 
61 


897 
397 


C. I. L. II. 




700 


328 


34 


219 


944 


396 


171 


897 


720 


827 


371 


289 


1741 


191 


597 


897 


786 


827 


879 


289 


2014 


108 


813 


8S8 


774 


327 
I,AT. JNSC 


1038 

RIP. —30 


110 

46 


2883 , 

5 


824 


1180 


898 



466 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



0. I. L. IV. 


PAOE 


0. I. L. VI. 


PAGE 


a I. L. VI 


1185 


887 


368 


278 


1297 


1189 


898 


359 


279 


1299 


1329 


393 


413 


230 


1308 


1892 


898 


456 


278 


1305 


1398 


387 


472 


279 


1809 


1836 


110 


475 


276 


1314 


1891 


388 


604 


280 


1825 


1898 


888 


701 


148 


1383 


1894 


388 


816 


209 


1860 


1895 


887 


386 


151 


1364 


1896 


387 


396 


810 


1865 


1986 


398 


910 


151 


1377 


25S1 


842 


913 


151 


1403 


2568 


342 


916 


152 


1460 


2356 


842 


918 


152 


1599 


2592 


343 


929 


154 


1620 


2176 


343 


931 


154 


1625 ft 




— 


944 


154 


1636 


0. I. L. V. 




960 


155 


1700 


552 


283 


967 


156 


1710 


628 


110 


1016 O 


157 


1717 


86T 


178, 202 


1038 


158 


1739 


873 


305 


1035 


159 


1751 


950 


111 


1088 


161 


1761 


1818 


239 


1096 


161 


1768 


1838 


202 


1104 


161 


1808 


2491 


320 


1106 


162 


1847 


2492 


320 


1180 


168 


1869 


2523 


106 


1189 


168 


1925 


2915 


284 


1177 


812 


1944 


3401 


807 


1191 


312 


2041 


4805 


805 


1282 


821 


2051 


4382 


807 


1238 


321 


2765 


4865 


107 


1284 


.321 


2977 


4919 


895 


1286/ 


822 


3989 


6027 


148 


1236* 


822 


4226 


5262 


194 


1289 a 


322 


4889 


6882 


214 


1244 


812 


4930 


6053 


286 


1245 


312 


4983 


6416 


149 


1246 


812 


5018 


7218 


211 


1249 


323 


5045 


7989 


160 


1261 ffl 


823 


5197 


8002 


817 


1258 9 


828 


5254 


8045 


816 


1266 


813 


7698 


8120 » 


898 


1267 


313 


7778 


8659 


205 


1258 


318 


8211 






1262 


821 


8258 


G. I. L. VI. 




1268 


821 


8266 


68 


277 


1281 


276 


8463 


91 


279 


1234 


294 


8614 


96 


276 


1285 


294 


8950 


143 


278 


1286 


295 


8973 


167 


277 


1287 


295 


9499 


285 


279 


1238 


296 


10049 


284 


276 


1289 


297 


10060 


881 


277 


1295 


296 


10068 


88? 


197 


129? 


296 


10280 



PAGE 

•806 
314 
299 
814 



196 
190 
191 
193 
803 
104 
189 
200 
202 
177 



304 
181 
180 
199 
199 
307 
207 



894 
213 
214 
104 
110 



298 
292 
105 
111 
282 
107 
107 
211 
105 
211 
211 
299 



C. I. L. VI. 

10802 

10662 

10588 

10682 

10957 

11027 

11206 

11484 

11595 

13163 

13661 

15346 

16606 

16614 

22915 

28021 

29385 

29471 



a J. L. VIII. 

50 

79 
110 
217 
251 
980 
1595 
2488 
2661 
2662 
2747 
2765 
2888 
8664 
4406 
4458 
4459 
5682 
7804 
8800 



88.37 
8854 
9128 
9663 
9990 



PAGE 
221 



118 

284 
105 
104 
110 
283 
107 
297 
283 
283 
286 
110 
287 



C. I. L. VII. 




1196 


836 


1198 


336 


1203 


336 


1205 


336 


1208 


386 


1212 


336 


1380" 


345 



157 . 

287 

107 

215 

298 

219 

108 

311 

8i;! 

281 

190 

263 
118 
107 
112 
405 
405 
287 
111 
167 
324 
219 
395 
2S7 
287 
219 



Table os* inscriptions 



467 



O. I. L. VIII. 


PAGE 


a. I. L. X. 


PAGE 


C. I. L. X. 


PAGE 


0. I. L. XII. 


PAGE 


10280 


815 


49 


217 


8047' 


841 


3361 


110 


10242 


318 


292 


310 


8047 " 


341 


4364 


109 


10296 


315 


787 


811 


8048' 


344 


4897 


290 


10327 


819 


791 


103 


8048" 


344 


4967 


284 


10881 


319 


809 


303 


8064 


346 


5255 


284 


10644 


109 


826 


118 


8067 « 


826 


5471 


152 


11451 


392 


858 


108 


8067 » 


826 


5488 


403 


11818 


205 


924 


105 


8067 • 


826 


6682 » 


345 


13188 


109 


1018 


824 


8067" 


825 


6682 «> 


845 


14296 


408 


1276 


298 


8067" 


325 


5682"" 


845 


14588 


336 


1422 


155 


8067" 


826 


5683 2S' 


841 






1614 
1695 


108 
199 


8068 > 
8071 > 


326 
831 


5683™ 
5683 2»« 


841 
341 


a. I. L. IX. 




19 


215 


1727 


806 


8071 " 


381 


56841 


341 


136 


290 


1795 


204 


8071 M 


331 


6687 • 


343 


762 


283 


2426 


112 


8216 


215 


6687" 


343 


1024 


319 


2872 


113 


8249 


397 


6698 « 


331 


1125 


201 
106 


3406 
3494 


216 
216 




- 


5C9818 
5701 M 


331 


1160 




330 


1416 


217 


3732 


198 


C. I. L. XI. 




5701 =« 


330 


1419 


217 


3757 


281 


395 


214 


6842 


200 


1582 


202 
213 


3825 
3861 


823 
319 


596 
826 


405 
162 






1617 






1788 


290 


3884 


107 


1331 


153 


C. I. L. XIV. 




2142 


148 


4134 


110 


1436 


291 


So 


811 


2.384 


103 


4587 


310 


1438 


218 


98 


156 


2443 


151 


4792 


810 


1826 


801 


101 


405 


2467 


170 


4843 


823 


1827 


301 


168 


806 


2568 


148 


5012 


111 


1831 


302 


170 


206 


2710 


107- 


5182 


192 


1836 


201 


172 


206 


2845 


190 


5336 


207 


2104 


306 


309 


220 


2846 


190 


5371 


286 


2779 


276 


378 


216 


2355 


218 


5382 


279 


8083 


816 


409 


220 


2923 


218 


6500 


112 


3365 


171 


848 


288 


3306 


191 


6708 


280 


3612 


211 


1204 


108 


3521 


808 


6807 


309 


3663 


108 


1270 


288 


8910 


112 


5824 


158 


3663 


108 


1509 a 


405 


4180 


314 


6827 


160 


4170 


278 


1636 


287 


4251 


112 


6888 


309 


5210 


192 


1976 


329 


4855 


106 


6889 


309 


5211 


198 


1681 


829 


5279 


288 


6840 


309 




— 


1982 


829 


5439 


208 


5845 


306 


C. I. L. XII. 




1996 


329 


5450 


220 


5917 


208 


191 


112 


2045 


210 


5803 


108 


5947 


107 


257 


216 


2067 


303 


5839 


212 


6006 


195 


522 


405 


2068 


303 


5840 


212 


6087 


189 


587 


106 


2088 


156 


5953 


316 


6616 


286 


729 


286 


2100 


404 


S963 


317 


6687 


203 


1659 


110 


2258 


161 


6075 


317 


6704 


106 


1715 


286 


2264 


189 


60811= 


845 


6824 


155 


1964 


285 


2464 


189 


6031"' 


S46 


6839 


317 


2012 


235 


2535 


288 


6081 i» 


846 


6840 


317 


2018 


285 


2602 


189 


6086 


328 


6841 


317 


2021 


112 


2700 


282 




— 


6395 


317 


2464 


109 


2750 


282 




C. I. L. X. 




7265 


276 


3825 


108 


2368 


275 


11 


108 


7489 


805 


3349 


286 


2892 


276 


« 


167 


7501 


160 


3360 


110 


2972 


217 



468 



LATIN INSCKIPTIOJfl^ 



0. 1. L. XIV. 


PAGE 


a I. L. XIV. 


PAGE 


0. I. L. XIV. 


PAGE 


C. I. L. XV 


8002 


809 


3227 


109 


41242 


326 


512 


3013 


808 


8442 


290 


4242 


195 


660 
643 


3046 


282 


8453 


109 






8068 


103 


8602 


404 


C. I. L. XV. 




647 


3083 


109 


3607 


192 


9 


887 


692 


3115 


108 


3609 


197 


25 


887 


719 


3148 


108 


8614 


198 


47 


887 


811 


3156 


108 


8632 


■287 


364 


888 


847 


3178 


108 


8955 


217 


371 


888 


1068 


3197 


109 


41241 


826 


419 


338 


1097 



889 



340 
840 



From Other Sources 







PAGE 




PAGE 


Annali, 1870 ; Bruzza, 1 




384 


Ephem. Ep., V. 1174 


160 


6 




886 


" VI. p. 69 


828 


" 147 




834 


" VII. 858 


159 


" 268 




835 


" VII. 895 


198 


Bolssiea, Inacr. de I/yon, p. 469 


291 


" VII.. 767 


159 


Brambach, Iivnyr. Hhenf^Ql 




840 


" VIII. 870 


209 


" 1981 




818 


Laociani, Commi. di FronH/no, 106, 


134, 


JSuU. Com., 1888, p. 228 




148 


824, 402, 505, 563 


380 


1889, p. 165 




822 


Mitthellungen, 1890, p. 297 


276 


£uU. del 1st., 1884, p. 27 




160 


Mowat, Inacr. de Paris, p. 69 


844 


Bull. Epigraph. IV. (1884), p. 


66 


340 


Mua^e de Lyon, I. p. 162 


204 


Dessau, Tnser. Lat., 1298, 1299 


1301 


898 


NoUsie degM Scam, 1885, p. 475 


820 


2081 




212 


'• 1886, p. 420 


207 


Ephem. Bp., II. 522 




158 


" " " 1887, p. 536 


200 


" III. p. 203 




326 


" 1889, p. 9 


207 


" V. 640 




160 


WUmanns, Exempla, 2811, 2812 


828 


" V. 989 




216 


2818 


880 


" " V. 1048 




815 


" " 2888 


344 



SUPPLEMENT 

This supplement has been prepared with the twofold purpose 
of making the book more complete by adding material which is the 
fruit of recent study and investigation, and of correcting errors 
without extensive alteration of the plates. It is hoped that these 
pages, necessarily few in number, may be of some added service 
to those entering, upon the study of Eoman Epigraphy. 

J. C. E. 

Add to pages 1-6 : 

The works of Orelli-Henzen and Wilmanns are now out of date, 
but are still useful as books of reference. 

The most convenient collection of inscriptions for class-room use 
is the Inscriptiones Sdectae of Hermann Dessau, vol. I. .1892 ; vol. II. 
part I. Berlin, 1902. 

The Cours d'JEpigraphie Latine of Kene Cagnat is by far the best 
introductory work on this subject. It is now published in a third 
edition, Paris, 1898. A useful supplement appeared in 1904. 

Consult also the same author's article Inscriptiones in Dictionnaire 
des AntiquiUs Grecques et Romaines, Daremberg et Saglio. 

A small introductory work in Italian is well spoken of : Epigrafia 
Latina. S. Kicci. Milan, 1898. 

For the study of early Latin the Handbook of Latin Inscriptions, 
illustrating the history of the language, by W. M. Lindsay, Boston, 
1897, will be found very serviceable. 

Collections of Chkistian Insckiptions. 

Inscriptiones Hispaniae Christianae. E. Hiibner. Berlin, 1871. 

(Supplement 1900.) 
Inscriptiones Britanniae Christianae. E. Hiibner. Berlin, 1876. 
Inscriptions ChrMiennes de la Gaule. Le Blant. Paris, 1856- 

1865. 
Inscriptiones Christianae Urbis Momae. De Eossi. Vol. I. 

1857 ; vol. II. (part I.) 1888. 
Die Altchristlichen Inschriflen der Bheinlande. P. X. Krans. 

1890. 

Supplement to Egbert's Latin Inscriptions. Copyright, 1906, by James C, 
Egbert, Jr. 



470 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Nouveau Becueil des Inscriptions Chritiennes de la Oaule. lie 

Blant. 1892. 
Die Christlichen Inschrifien der Schweiz vom IV -IX. Jahrhun- 

deH. Em. Egli. 1895. 

The Language of Inscriptions. 

Thesaurus Linguae Latinae Epigraphicae. I. fase. 6. G. N, 

Olcott. Eome, 1904. 
This work aims to be a complete epigraphic lexicon, and 

though a stupendous undertaking, promises to be of great 

value in Latin lexicography. 
■ Le Latin d'Espagne d'apr^s les Inscriptions. A. Carnoy. 

Louvain, 1903. 
Zur Spracfie der Lateinisclie Gh-abeninschriften. J. E. Church, Jr. 

Munich, 1901. 
La Langue des Inscriptions Latines de la Gaule. J. Pirson. 

Brussels, 1901. 
VerzeicJmis der auf Aussprache u. Rechtschreibung Bezilglichen 

EigenthUmlichkeiten in den Inschrifien aus Gallia Narbon. 

Prog. Pola. F. Neumann. Trieste, 1897-1898. 
Die Lot. Sprache auf Afrik. Inschriften. B. Kiibler in Archiv 

fur Lateinische Lexicographie und Gramniatik, VIII. pp. 

161-202. In the same work is found Etru.iMschrLateinische 

Oder Etruskisierende Worter und Wortforinen der Lateinischen 

Inschriften. Lattes. 
De m Finali Epigraphica. Diehl. Leipzig. 1899. 
Studies in the Wordrformation of the Latin Inscriptions. G. N. 

Olcott. Leipzig. 1898. 

Add to page 4 : 

In 1898 the Archdologischrepigraphische Mitteilungen aus Oester- 
reichrUngarn was replaced by the Jahreshefte des Oester- 
reichischen Archdologischen Instituts. 

The Dizionario Epigraflco di Antichitd, Romane of de Kuggiero 
has up to the present time appeared in 82 fasciculi. 

The following changes should be made in the summary of the 
volumes of the Corpus Liscriptionum Latinarum : 



SUPPLEMENT 471 

VOLUMEtf III. 

Pars Posterior : Inscriptions of lUyricum, parts VI.-VII. ; also 

Monumentum Ancyranum, Edict of Diocletian de Pretiis 

Rerum, Diplomata Militaria, Wax Tablets of Dacia. 1873. 
SuppLEMENTi Fasciculus Prior: Inscriptions of Egypt, Asia, 

and of the Greek Provinces of Europe. 1889. 
SuppLEMENTi Fasciculus Secundus: Inscriptions of Illyricum, 

parts I.-III. 1892. 
SuppLEMENTi Fasciculus Teiiius: Inscriptions of Illyricum, 

parts IV.-VII. Edict of Diocletian. Constitutions of the 

Emperors (Diplomata Militaria). 1893. 
SuppLEMENTi Pars Posterior : Egypt and Asia, Greek Provinces 

of Europe, Illyricum. 1902. 

VOLUMEN IV. 

SuppLEMENTUM Pars Prior : Tabulae Ceratae. 1898. 
Volumes VI. Inscriptions of the City of Eome. 

Pars Prima 1876, Pars Secunda 1882, Pars Tertia 1886, Pars 
Quarta (Pars Prior 1894, Pars Posterior 1902), Pai's Quinta, 
containing inscriptiones falsae, 1885, Pars Sexta, Indices 
(in preparation). 

VoiiUMEN VIII. Inscriptions of Africa. 

Pars Prior : Proconsular Africa, Numidia. 1881. 
Pars Posterior : Mauretania. 1881. 
SuppLEMENTi Pars Prima. 1891. 
SUPPLEMENTI Pars Secunda. 1894. 
SUPPLEMENTI Pars Tertia. 1904. 

VOLUMBN XI. 

Pars Posterior, Fasciculus Prior: Umbria. 1901. 

VoLUMEN XIII. Inscriptions of the three provinces of Gaul and 
of the two of Germany. 

Pars Prima, Fasciculus Prior : AquitaniaandLugdunensis. 1899. 
Pars Tertia, Fasciculus Prior : Instrumentum Domesticum. 1901. 

VOLUMBN XV. 

Pars Posterior, Fasciculus Prior: Amphorae, Vasa Arretina, 
Lucernae, etc. 1899. 



472 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

Page 28. Add to note 1. Transactions American Philological 
Association, XXX., p. 182. 

Page'30. Note 2. Inscriptioa of 49 b.c. has Vaarus. Hermes, 
XXX., p. 456. 

Page 53. Bead instead of "dating about time of Sulla," "be- 
longing to the later days of the Republic," as date of inscription 
is 43 B.C. 

Page 73. Note 2. Add C. I. L. IV. Suppl. 

Page 95. Signa. See Hermes, XXXVII. 1902, p. 443. 

Page 99. Names of Slaves. See Bhein. Museum, LIX. 1904, 
p. 108. 

Page 102. Add to Bibliography, Zur GescMchte LateiniscJier 
Eigennamen. W. Schultze. Berlin, 1904. 

Page 110. Inscription No. 51, see also G. I. L. VI. 34044. 

Chkonological List of the Roman Emperoes 

Within the past few years much attention has been given to the 
study of the imperial salutations of certain emperors. The follow- 
ing books and articles' should be consulted on this subject: 

Real-Encyclopadie der Olassischen AUertumswissensohaft. Pauly- 
Wissowa. See articles, Claudius, M. Aurelius, L, Vents, 
Commodus. 

In Revue ArcMologique. 1901, II., p. 167; EechercJies sur la 
Date des Salutations Imp&riales de I'Empereur Niron. 
Maynial ; and 1904, I., p. 263 ; La Clironologie des Saluta- 
tions TmpSriales de N&ron. H. Stuart Jones. 

De Magistratihus Flaviorwm. Chambalu. 

Essai sur le R&gne de Trajan. C. De la Berge. Paris, 1877. 

See also Supplement, Cours d'Epigraphie Latine. E. Cagnat. 
pp. 477-482. 

Page 169. Titles of Honor. A recent article by O. Hirschfeld on 
this subject should be consulted. It is entitled Die Rangtitel der 
Romischen Kaiserzeit, in Sitzungsbericht der Akad. zu Berlin. 1901, 
p. 679. 

The title vir clarissimus is found, not abbreviated, in the first 
century, abbreviated in the second, and becomes common only in the 
third century. 



SUPPLEMENT 473 

Page 176. Titles of Honor. Tlie titles vir eminentissimus, per- 
fectissimus, egregius, go back as far as the reign of Marcus Aureliiis. 
Tlie abbreviated form dates in tliB time of Septimius Severus. 
These titles gradually lose their value and in the latter half of the 
fourth century the title perfectissimus is applied to all grades of 
uiflcials. 

Pages 173-178. The student should consult Die kais^liclien 
Ve'rwaltungsbeamten bis auf Diocletian. 0. Hirschfeld. Berlin, 
1905. 

Page 230. Sepulchral Inscriptions. See M. R. Weynand on Form 
and Decoration des Rom. Orabsteine der Bheinlande im IJahrhundert. 
in Bonner Jahrbiicher, 1902, p. 186 fE. 

Page 267. Tesserae. Consult : * 

Catalogue des Plombs de VAniiquiti. Eostovtsew and Prou. 
Paris, 1900. 

Roman Lead Tesserae. Eostovtsew. St. Petersburg, 1903. 

Tesserarum Urbis Eomae et Suburbi Plumbearum Sylloge. Eos- 
tovtsew. St. Petersburg, 1903. 

Page 258. Eeeent articles by Hiilsen and Eostovtsew have gone 
far to prove that many of the tesserae shown by Blanchet in 
itevue ArcMologique, 3d series, XIII., p. 225 ff., are tesserae Imoriae, 
used in games of chance as played on the tabulae lusoriae, the dia- 
grams for games found e.g. on the floor of,the Basilica lulia and at the 
entrance of the Ara Pacis. Hiilsen, Eullett. deW 1st., 1896, p. 227, 
and Eostovtsew, Bull, de la Commission Arch, de Petersbourg, 1904. 

Page 269. For specimens of tesserae hospitales of hospitium pri- 
vatum see Eitschl, P. L. M. E. II a., p. 3 ; Cagnat, Cours d'Epi- 
graphie, 3d ed., p. 339 ; Rliein. Mus., 51, 1896, p. 473 ; Notizie degli 
Scavi, 1896, p. 85. 

Page 274. Eco C. Antonios is now given C. I. L. XV, 2, 6122. 
For other inscriptions on clay vessels see C. I. L. XV, 2. 

Page 291. Inscription 49 should not be classed as sepulchral but 
rather as honorarj'^. 

Page 296. See for Scipio inscriptions article by Birt, Eev. de 
Phil. XIV. 1890, pp. 113 ff. 

Page 323. Inscriptions 64-68 should not be classed as belonging 
to aqueducts, but as " Other Boundary Stones." 



474 . LATIK IxXSCRlPTlONS 

Page 329. Substitute for Wilmanns, 2811, 2812, C. I. L. a) XV. 
7738, XIV. 1996 ; l>) XIV. 1976 ; c) XV. 7746 ; d) XV. 7747. 

Page 330. Inscriptions given under 3 may now be found in O. I. L. 
XV. 7290, 7880, .7628, 7750, 7616. Those under 6 in C. I. L. III. 
3217, IX. 343, V. 8171. • 

Page 336. In 4. Haverfield reads Deceangicum, and in 6. M ET- 
LUT may be met(allum) Jjut(udense).' 

Page 347. Hempl in Transactions of American Philological Asso- 
ciation', 1902, p. 160, reads : 

lo. Vei. Sat. deivos qoi med mitat net ted endo cosmis virco sied. 
Ast [t']ed noisi opetoi Te^n^siai pakari vois. Duenes med feked en 
manom, [mjeinom duenoi ne med , malo[^m'] statod ; and inteyprets as 
foll(fws : 

May the gods love, Veiove and Saturn (grant to him) who is going 
to send me, that the maid- (Proserpine) be not gracious to you ; un- 
less indeed you are willing to become reconciled to the excellent 
Tensia. A good man made me against the spirit of a dead man, the 
less may any evil persist through me to the disadvantage of the good 
man. 

For recent literature on the Duenos ,bowl see Bursian, Jahres- 
berioht, 1900, vol. 104-107, part I., pp. 40 ff. 

Page 367. Inscription is given C. I. L. III., p. 862. 

Page 360. Inscxiption is given. G. I. L. XIII., p. 500. 

Page 375. Gbmmentarium'of Secular Games. Ephem. Ep. VIII. 

Page 382. For wax tablets of Pompeii see O. I. L. IV. Su]^. 

Archaic InsCeiption of the Fokum 

QVOI HOI I SAKROS ES | ED SOR | 

lA . . IAS- I RECEI .'L ■ • ■ • | EVAM | 

QVOS • R |,M • KALATO I REM • HAP | 

• • • lOD lOVXMEN I TA '■ KAPIA ■ DOT AV • • • j 

M ITE . Rl ■ :.,• • I M . QVOI HA | VELOD • 

NEQV I •'• . . OD . lOV ESTOD [ • • OIVOV lOD 

This inscription is on the cippus of tufa found under the pave- 
ment of black marble in the Roman Forum in May, 1899. The 
cippus is a pyramidal-shaped block of four sides, the apex of which 




The Fuku-m I^-bCiiiPxioi;, 
(Vasari, Rome.)- 
476 



476 LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 

is broken off, seriously mutilating the inscription, wMcli is engraved 
on lines vertical to the base, although the letters are horizontal. 
The inscription, therefore, is not Kiovrfiov, i.e. with both lines and 
letters vertical to the base. The order of the letters is boustrophe- 
don, the first line being written from below upward, the second from 
above downward. There are three lines on the first face and four in 
the remaining three, with one line on the edge between the first and 
fourth faces. The first two lines of the fourth face show the letters 
inverted in comparison with the other letters of the inscription. The 
letters face in accord with the direction of the line, with the excep- 
tion of ^ and IS in Hue 6. The letters are archaic, C for G, B for H, 
P for E, 9 for Q, ^ for S, Y for. V. 

The inscription may possibly be the oldest Latin inscription in 
existence, and can be compared only with the Fibula Praenestina 
(p. 265) and the Duenos bowl (pp. 16 and 346). It certainly is the 
oldest known Latin inscription on stone. As so much has disap- 
peared, it is impossible to make any satisfactory explanation of the 
entire inscription, although a number of words may be recognized. 
Thus,QVOI = quoi ; HOI may be honce ; SACROSESED = sacej- sit 
(Festus, p. 318) ; RECEI —regi; EVAM may be [dfleoam for deivam, 
though Comparetti prefers reading in the other direction, mave[led]. 
For KALATORES see Htilsen, liom. Mitth. 1899, p. 262. lOVX- 
MENTA may be iumenta (Otto, ArcJiiv f. lot. Lexikographie, Xl., 
1900, p. 436). Comparetti reads DlOV EST OD = diu {i.e. inter- 
diu) estod. Gamurrini prefers OD lOVESTOD, i.e. iusto. 

Attention should be called to the three-point and two-point form 
of word separation. See Fibula Praenestina for this use. 

There is a great mass of literature on this inscription. This is 
summarized in Bivista di Storia Antica, IV. (1899), pp. 469-509; 
V. (1900), pp. 101-136, 351-359 ; VI. (1901), pp. 157-184. See also 
Notizie degli Scavi, 1899, pp. 158, 166 ; Comparetti, Iscrizione arcaica 
delforo Romano, 1900; Hlilsen, Das Forum Bomanum, 1904, p. 92; 
Ancient Legends of Boman History, Ettore Pais, New York, 1905. 

The references in ancient literature to the site of this tomb of 
Eomulus are found in Festus, p. 177: Ifiger lapis in comitio locum 
funestum significat ut ali, Bomvli morti destinatum, sed non usu 
obvenit, ut ibi sepeliretur, sed Fhustulum nutricium eius ibi sepultum 
fuisse et Qiiinctilium avum. ... 



SUPPLEMENT 



477 



and in Dionysius, I. 87 ; III. 1. From the latter writer we learn that 
Hostus Hostilius, grandfather of King Tullus Hostilius, had died 
at this place, and had been buried here by Romulus and Tatius; 
also that a lion marked the same spot where Paustidus was buried. 

From Varro, who is quoted in Schol. Gruq. to Horace, Epodes, 
XVI. 13, we have nam et Varro pro rostris sepulcrum Romuli dixit, 
uhi etiam in huius rei memoriam duos leones erectos fuisse constat, 
unde factum est ut pro rostris mortid laudarentur. Cf. Porphyr. on 
the same passage in Horace. The words of Horace are quaeque 
carent ventis et solibus ossa Quirini, nefas videre, dissipabit insolens. 
This refers certainly to the general belief that the tomb of Romu- 
lus was behind the rostra. 

All these passages go back to Varro, dating 116-27 b.c. The 
work of Festus is based on Verrius Flaccus, a contemporary of 
Augustus, and Dionysius of Halicarnassus wrote under the same 
Emperor. 



TABLE OF INSCRIPTIONS 

[The following inscriptions ar6 either repeated with improved text or with additional comment in 
volumes of the O, I. L. recently pubhshed.] 



Pages 148-168. 


Page 207. 


Pages 308-823— «m*i««6d. 


No 


6 in VI. 30974 


No. 1 in VI. 82279 


No. 26 in VI. 81594 




llinVI. aU98 






' 60 in VI. 81537 




12 in VI. 31192 


Page 246. 




' 51 in VI. 81638 




18 in VI. 81202 


No. 1 in VI, 81591 




' 62 in VI. 31689 




20 in III. 8T02 


Pages 276-296. 




' 55 in VI. 31540 




21 in VI. 31205 


No. 8 in VI. 80V67O 




' 66 in VI. 81541 




29 in VI. 31216 




' 105 in VI. 80774 




' 57 in VI. 31642 




37 in VI. 31227 




' 13 in VI. 80707 




' 58 in VI. 81543 




40 in VI. 81230 




' 18 in VI. 30770 




' 59 in VI. 31549 




41 in VI. 81232 
42in VIII. 17329 
43 in VIII. 17870 




' 24 in VI. 30722 
' 51 in XIII. 1997 
' 580 in VI. 81687 




' 60 in VI. 31566 
' 61 in VI. 81561 
' 62 in ri. 31662 




44 in VIII. IISOI- 




' 585 in VI. 31588 






60 in VI. 31289 




' 63 in VI. 81589 


Pages .329-380. 




52 in VI. 31240 




No. 2 a = XV. 7788, XIV. 




57 in VI. 31242 


Page 803. 


1996; 5 = XIV. 1976; c= 




53 in VI. 81245 


No. 14 in VI. 31595 


XV. 7746; d=XV. 7747. 


Page 1T7. 


" 16 in VI. 31640 


No. 8= XV. 7290, 7880, 7628, 


No 


1 in VI. 81834 


Pages 308-323. 


7750, 7615. 


Page 196. 


No. 2inVI. 3159T 


No. 6=111. 3217, IX 848, 


No 


19 in VI. 81683 


" 11 in VI. 31196 


V. 8171. 


Pages 300-204. 


" 16 in VI. 81252 




No. 


2 in VI. 31828 


" 17 in VI. 31258 


Page 394. 


61 


8 in VI. 81856 


" 24 in VI. 31590 


No. 2 = VI. 82359 


«( 


18 in XIII. 1680 











TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 
[From Cowra d'jSlpigrajiMe Lalmie, E. Oagnat, with the permission of the author.] 





A 


CONS 


consecravit 




CONT 


contubernalis 


A 


Adiiitrix 


C-O-VF-B 


coniugi opturaae vivus fecit sibl 


A 


aera (stipendia) 


CP 


callis pubhcus 


A 


agitur 


CP 


cohors prima 


A 


Alexandriana 


OP-P 


coniugi praepoBuit 


A 


avUB 


CEO, OEOC 


croeodes 


A-A-P-E 


annona Augusta populi Eomani 


c-so 


genas scabras (on occulist stamp) 


A-AVE 


alter ambove 


0-s-s 


cum supra scriptis 


A-CV 


a oubioulo, or a custodiis 


CVAE 


custos armorum 


AE 


aerum 






AEQ 


eques 




D 


ALG 


a legione 






AM 8 


amplissimus splendidiBslmus 


D 


Domitlana (ala) 


AN 


annualis' 


D-B-B-M 


deo bono bene merenti 


A-N-F-F 


annum novum faustum felicem 


DD 


deus Dolichenus 


A-P 


adiutor procuratoris 


DD 


di deae 


AE 


armorum (custos) 


D-U-C 


deus Dolichenus Commagenns 


ASOE 


a scriniis 


DD-M-SS 


Diis Manibus sacris 


ASEV 


Alexandriana Severiana Gegio) 


DD-P-ET- 


donum dat pecunia et sumptu 






S-8 


suo 




B 


D-DQ 


di deaeque 


B 


bene 


DOS 


dilB deabus sacrum 


B 


bucinator 


D-E-S 


Deo Enduellloo sacrum 


BE-SE 


benellciarius sexmes'tris 


D-F 


donum fecit 


BF-PE 


beneHciarias praefecti,procuratoris 


D-I-M-S 


dens inviotus Mithras Sol 


BF-V-0'OOS benellciarius Tiri clarisBimi consu- 


DISP-AEC'VIC dispensatoris arcae vicarius 




laris 


D-M-M 


deum mater magna 


BM-HTP 


bene merenti heredes testamento 


D-M-N 


domlnicus ^ 




posuerunt 


DM-Q-S 


dis manibus Q(uinti) sacrum 


BNE-PN 


bono rei publicae natus 




C.I.L. II. 8382 


BOTEET 


botum (votum) rettulit 


DO 


domesticus 


BPA 


benellciarius procuratoris August! 


DOLI 1 
DOLIA f 


doliare (opus) 




c 


DP 


de praediis 


C 


cerarius 


DQNQ 


de quo (qua) nihil questus(a) 


C 


cul tores 


D-EO-Q-TEA die, rogo qui transis 


C 


custos 


DEP 


die, rogo praeteriens 


00 


feminae duae 


DE-P 


de re pubUca 


C-A-E 


Colonia Augusta Eraerlta 


D-8 


dea Salus 


CBB'V 


cum bonis bene vixit 


D-8 


dei sacerdos 


cc 


civitas convenarum 


D-8 


deus Sol 


occ-vvv 


clarissimi viri tres 


D-8-L-LD 


de suo laetus libens dedlt' 


CO-P-I 


coloni coloniae Pacis luliae 


D-S-O-M 


deus sanctuB optimus maximus 


C-OE 


coloni coloniae Eomulae 


D-S-S 


deus Sanctus Saturnus SUvanus 


C-E 


coniux eius 


D-T-M-L 


de tabularlo marmorum Lunen- 


C-E-0 


coloni eius coloniae 




sium 


CI-F-0 


cohors I Flavia Canathenorum 


D-TOE-AE 


donatuS torquibus armillls 


CIEC-N 


circiter numeri 


D-V 


decreto vicanorum 


C-I-V-T 


Colonia lulia Victrix Triumphalis 


DYSC-EQ 


duplicarius singularis oonsularis 


00 


colonus 


SING 


equitum singularium 


OOL-F-0 


coUegae feciundum curaverunt 


D-V-S 


dedit veto soluto 



478 



SUPPLEMENT 



479 



E-E 


■exemplum epistolae 


EMB 


emblema 


EMP 


empticius 


EQ-8EN 


equiter eenlores 


E-S-L 


exemplum sacrarum litterarum 


EXCT 


excuBatus 


EXPL 


exploratio exploratores 


EXPK 


ex praecepto 


FAB-SAG 


F 
fabrica sagittaria 


F-CETSP 


iiliae coniugi et sibi posuit 


rc-N 


figlina Caesaris nostri 


FE-V-F 


feliciter veto fecit 


F-ET-F-V-F 


fllii et flliae vivi feoerunt 


F-ET-M'F'C-E funeris et memoriae faciendae 




curam egit 


FSX. 


flglinae 


FI 


flglinae 


FLV NEG 


fluviatili negotiatione ? 


FOD 


fodinae 


F-PSFO 


filii patri suo faciendum curave- 




runt 


F-S-S 


jit Bumma Bummarum 



6-C 
GD-A-8 



G'MER 

GR 



H 

H-A-8 

HAST 

HEL 

HELV 

H-F 

HP 

HS-F-C 

H'S-H-NL 

HVE 
HV-F-F 



genius castrorum 

Giddabae. deo Augusto sacrum 

iC.I.L.YlU, 6267)? 
genius Mercurii 
Graecus 

H 

hereditates 

Herculi Augusto Bacrum 

hastiliarius 

Helvetius 

Helvetius 

hoDorifica femina 

hostes publici 

heres sepulcrum faciendum curavit 

hoc sepulcrum heredi non liceat 

(vender©), C.I.L. II. 5891 
heresve 
heres utriusque filius fecit 



I 

I'D inferiis diis 

I'D iuveni defunctae 

I'D'F iussu del fecit 

I'H'C imaginem honoris causa 

I*0"PAR luppiter Optimus Partinus 

IP'S'? ipse sibi posuit ' 

rS luno Siina 

I'S'P'P in sua possessione posuit 



K 


carus, a 


KL 


calendae 




L 


LA 


locuB adsignatuB 


L-A-8 


Libero A ugusto sacrum 


LDDO 


locus datuB decreto ordiniB 


LEG-S-S 


legio supra scripta 


LIBB 


Libyae duae 


L-M-IN-F-P 


locus monumenti in fronte pedes 


L-M-Q-P 


locus monumenti quadratus pedes 


LM-QVP 


locus monumenti quoquoversus 




pedes 


LP 


lares publici 


LPQQV 


locus pedum quoquoversum 


L-P-S 


libens pecunia sua 




M 


M 


Mithras 


M 


Mystae 


M-A 


monumentum aedificavlt 


MANB 


manibus {C.I.L. VII. 575, 1336) 


MAE 


Marsus 


M-O-D-D 


muuicipii cultoribus dono dedit 


MDM 


monumentum diis manibus 


ME 


mensis 


M'E'M'D'D'E municipibus eiiismunicipiidare 




damnas esto 


M-FS 


mater filiis suis 


M-H-H-N-S 


monumentum hoc heredem non 




sequetur 


M-I 


Mithras invictus 


Miir 


ministrator 


MN 


Marcus noster 


M-N 


marmora nova or Numidica 


M-PL 


minus plus 


M-PE 


magister primus 


M-S 


Mithras Sol 


M-VVS 


monitus visu votura solvit 




N 


N-G-V-8 


numini gratus votum solvit 


N-M-S-8 


numerus militum Syrorum Eagit- 




tariorum 


NPAL 


numerus Palmyrenorum 


K-E 


nihilum rogatur 


N-SING 


numerus singularium 


N-S-S 


numerus supra Bcriptas 


NT 


noster, -ri 


N-VOO 


numerus Vocontiorum 




O 


0-E 


olla empta 


OF 


officinator, officiales 


OFG 


opus figlinum 


OM 


omnibus 



480 



LATIN INSCRIPTIONS 



OSP 

0"V optimus vir 



P'B'B'M'T'I patri bono bene merenti testa- 

mento iussus 

P'COS pro consul 

P'ET'S'S pecunia et eumpto suo 

P*FC"0 pia fidelis constans commoda 

(limesblatt, 1S9T, p. 467) (Le- 

gio VlII Aug.) 

P'l princeps iuventutis 

P'L pecunia legata 

P-L'V'S posuit libens voto soluto 

P'M pecunia multaticia 

PN pronepos 

POP populus 

POPIN Popinia (tribus) 

POR-COR poi-tus Cornelii? 

POS posuerunt 

POSV posuerunt 

P*P pagani pagi 

P"P ponderatus pondo 

P*P"A publicum portorii Asiae 

PP-FF pii felices 

P'P-S pro pietate sua 

PP'SS pueri supra scripti 

PRD, PEE pi-aedium 

PR'P primus pilus 

PR'PR princeps prior 

PR'S pro reditu salvo 

P'S procurator suus 

PS'C pedites singulares consiilaris 

P'SIG'COS pedites singulares consularis 



QA 
QE 



P 

R-E-T 



QE'KFE 



Q-F' 
Q-F 
Q-L 
Q-P' 

QR 

Q-R' 

Q-S 



E 

HP 
AAR 
P-CM 

F-E-V 
TPD- 



RN 

R-P-C 
K-S 
RSP 
Il-S-P 



Q 

qui aerario praesunt 
P quanti ea res erit tantam pecu- 

niara 
D quod eius recta factum esse dice- 
tur 
quod factum est 
Quintus lilius heres posuit 
qui locum acceperunt a re publica 
quinquennalis perpetuus corporis 

mensorum 
quod recte factum esse videbitur 
S'T'T'L qui rogat te praeteriens 
dicas, sit tibi terra levis. 
quadrivis sacrum 



Eupe natus 

roi publicae causa 

ripa superior 

ratio sacri patrimonii 

res summa privata 



S 

S 

8 

S 

8-A 

S-A 

SAC-SAT 

SAL 

S-B-A-S 

s-c 
s-c-c-0 

S-C'C-E 

SCR-OER 

S-D 

S-D-M'T-T-L 

S-E-S 

S-FE-S-C'(F)- 

SI-P-G 
SP 
SPO 
S-Q-S-SEQ- 

NISE 
S-R 
8-R-F 
8-E-P 

s-s 

SS'E-L-FC 

S-S-8 
8-S-SIS 
ST IP 
8TR, STEA 

S'V 



TIE-LEG 

T-M 

TP-C 



sextarius 

signifer 

statio 

semis 

sodalis Augustfllis 

Saturn us Augustus 

sacerdos Saturni 

salinae 

Saturno Balcaranensi Augusto 
sacrum 

strator consularis 

senatus coire convocari cogi 

sub cuius cura egi 

scriptus cerarii 

Saturnus dominus 

sit dis manibus tuis terra levis 

sibi et suis 

L sine fraude sua capere (facere) 
liceto 

suis impensis ponendum curavit 

splendidissima puella 

statio patrimonii Caesaris 

si quid sacri sancti est quod non 
iure sit rogatum 

summa res 

summa ratio fisci 

servus rei publicae 

Saluti or Saturno or Silvano sa- 
crum 

sibi suis et libertis faciendum 
curavit 

Silvarto Sancto (silvestri) sacrum 

salve Balvus sis 

stipendiorum 

strator 

soluto voto 

T 

tironls legendi 

terra mater 

tertiae partis conductor 



T'A'P vices agens praesidis 

VERED Teredarii 
VET'CO vetustate corrupta 
V"F utere felix 

VIK vicarius 

VIL'E'S villous ripae superioris 
VL Voltinia (tribus) 

VLT Voltinia (tribus) 

V'SS'LL'MM votum solveruntlibentes merito 
VT-F utere felix 

V "V'S vir venerabilis sacerdos 

W'SS'LL'MM volentes solverunt libentes 
merito 



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Aristophanes. Clouds. L. L. Forman, Cornell University. 

Demosthenes. On the Crown, M. W. Humphreys, University of 
Virginia. 

Euripides. Iphigenia in Tauris, W. N. Bates, University of Penn- 
sylvania. ^x.25. 

Euripides. Medea. M. L. Earle, Columbia University. $1.2.5. 

Herodotus. Books' Vn.-VIII. C. F. Smith and A. G. Laird, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. $1.75. 

Homer. Iliad. J. R. S. Sterrett, Cornell University. 

Books L— III. and Selections. j^i.6o. Books I.— III. $i.zo. 

Lysias. C. D, Adams, Dartmouth College, j^i.50. 

Plato. Apology and Crito. Isaac Flagg, University of California. 

Plato. Euthyphro. W. A. Heidel, Wesleyan University, j^i.oo. 

Theocritus. H. R. Fairclough and A. T. Murray, Leland Stanford, 
Jr., University. 

Thucydides. Books II.-IH. W. A. Lamberton, University of Penn- 
sylvania. $1.75. 

Xenophon. Anabasis. Books I.-IV. M. W. Mather, formerly of Har- 
vard University, and J. W. Hewitt, Wesleyan University. $1.50. 

Xenophon. Hellenica (Selections). C. L. Brownson, College of the 
City of New York. $1.65. 

Greek Archaeology. H. N. Fowler, Western Reserve University, and 
J. R. Wheeler, Columbia University. ;jiz.oo. 

Greek Literature. W. C. Wright, Bryn Mawr College. $1.50. 

Greek Religion. Arthur Fairbanks, Director of the Boston Museum of 
Fine Arts. $1.50, 

Greek Sculpture. R. B. Richardson, late Director of the American 
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Others in preparation. 



AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY 



A HANDBOOK OF GREEK 
ARCHAEOLOGY 

By HAROLD NORTH FOWLER, Professor of Greek, 
Western Reserve University, and JAMES RIGNALL 
WHEELER, Professor of Greek Archaeology and Art, 
Columbia University. 

|2.00 



THIS handbook is intended primarily as a text-book for 
students who are beginning the study of Greek archae- 
ology. It will also be of service as a reference book to 
all students .of Greek literature ; to the general reader, who 
desires only a general knowledge of Greek art ; and especially 
to persons interested in Greek art who visit museums in this 
country or in Europe. It gives a good conspectus of the 
whole field, with a short but authoritative treatment of each 
of the individual departments. 

^ The work aims to present briefly the essential facts, avoid- 
ing so far as possible things which are uncertain or which are 
matters of controversy. It traces in outline the progress which 
has been made in the knowledge of Greek archaeology through 
several centuries until the present day. In the discussions of 
prehistoric art, architecture, sculpture, terracottas, bronzes 
and work in gold and silver, coins, gems, vases, painting 
-and mosaic, the progress of art is sketched with reference to 
its historical development, beginning in each case with its 
manifestation in archaic forms and following out the gradual 
advance of skill and the subsequent decline. 
^ The illustrations, 41 2 in all, have been carefully selected 
with the view of showing clearly the historical development. 
They have been taken from the most authoritative sources, 
and are in large part reproductions of the actual objects. The 
latest phases of archaeology are treated. A bibhography of 
the most helpful works fqr the study of each department, and 
an exhaustive index complete the volume. 



AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY 



^. ^YNA^cu^jf^W^ }JiMlMa (M 6^««-*<»»v ^vA.«in M^^^ ^